+ Lets peek inside the black box +

+ Lets peek inside the black box +

+ Lets peek inside the black box + Curiosity and Rigor Three thinking abilities with one process + The QFT, on one slide 1) 2) Question Focus

Produce Your Questions Follow the rules Number your questions 3) Improve Your Questions 1. Ask as many questions as you can 2. Do not stop to discuss, judge or answer 3. Record exactly as stated 4. Change statements into questions

Categorize questions as Closed or Open-ended Change questions from one type to another 4) 5) 6) Prioritize Your Questions Share & Discuss Next Steps Reflect Closed-Ended: Answered with yes, no or one word

Open-Ended: Require longer explanation + Thinking in many different directions DIVERGENT THINKING + Narrowing Down, Focusing CONVERGENT

THINKING + From Divergent to Convergent "Questions are the engines of intellect, the cerebral machines which convert energy to motion, and curiosity to controlled inquiry." David Hackett Fischer Historians' fallacies: Toward a logic of historical thought, 1971 + From Divergent to Convergent

[The QFT] helps me by getting me to think about questions on my ownit gets my mind in motion to think about the questions other people make." 8th grade student in James Brewsters U.S. history class Gus Garcia Young Mens Leadership Academy, Austin, TX, 2015 + Thinking about Thinking METACOGNITIVE THINKING +

Student Reflection The way it made me feel was smart because I was asking good questions and giving good answers. -Boston 9th grade remedial summer school student Drag picture to placeholder or click icon to add + Exploring Classroom Examples + Educators use the QFT for many purposes, including:

Engagement Knowledge Formative Acquisition Assessment Summative And Assessment more Making Questions Flow by Rothstein, Santana, & Minigan, 2015 http://rightquestion.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/2015-Making-Questions-Flow.pdf

+ The Question FOCUS (QFocus) The QFocus is what students are asking questions about related to the content you are teaching. The QFocus can be: A statement or phrase A picture A simple math problem or equation +Question Focus Design Basics Just one requirement for the QFocus: It should NOT be a *Key Tip forquestion

Designing an Effective QFocus: The simpler, the better. + Classroom Example: Kindergarten Teacher: Jennifer Shaffer, Walkersville, MD Topic: Non-fiction literacy Purpose: To engage students prior to reading a nonfiction text about alligators +

Question Focus + Student Questions 1. Is the alligator camouflaged? 2. Why do the babies have stripes? 3.

Are those baby crocodiles? 4. Is it a mom or dad crocodile? 5. What is the green stuff? 6. Why are they in the

7. Where are they going? 8. Why are the baby alligators eyes white and the moms black? 9. Why are baby alligators on top of the momma alligator?

10. Why does momma or daddy have bumps on them? + Classroom Example: 4th Grade Teacher: Deirdre Brotherson, Hooksett, NH Topic: Math unit on variables Purpose: To engage students at the start of a unit on variables

+ Question Focus 24 = + + + Student Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Why is the 24 first? What do the smiley faces mean? Why are there 3 smiley faces? Does it mean 24 is a really happy number? 11. Can we replace each smiley face with an 8? How am I suppose to figure this 12. Do any other numbers out? work? Is the answer 12?

13. Can we do this for any Can I put any number for a number? smiley face? 14.Does it always have Do three faces mean to be smiley faces? something? 15.Do we always have Do the numbers have to be to use three things? the same because the smiley faces are the same? 10. +

Classroom Example: High School Teacher: Daniel Fouts, Des Plaines, IL Topic: 12th Grade Government unit on the American presidency at moments of crisis Purpose: To engage students at the start of the unit and to help students select a topic for an independent project + Question Focus Nearly all men can handle adversity; but if you really want to test a mans character, give him power.

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96522529/ + Student Questions 1. How does power challenge ones morality? 1. 2. Should everyone have

some type of power? Does power make people corrupt? What if the person who is qualified for power doesnt attain it? How is a mans power tested? What is considered power? What defines good character? 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 3. 4. 5. 6. How can we ensure that the good men get the power? What kind of man can handle adversity? What can power tell us

about a mans character? How can power be obtained by adversity? Why are some people affected by power differently? If adversity supposedly makes you stronger, does that mean that power makes you weaker? + Next Steps: In groups, students prioritized by choosing their

consensus favorite question to add to the class list Each student selected l question from the class list to work to answer as the class moved through the unit Students answered their question using research and knowledge from the unit in a two-page reflection paper Students shared their reflections in a class

discussion on the final day of the unit + Classroom Example: College Biology Professor: Emily Westover, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Brandeis University Topic: Lecture Course (~140 students) Purpose: Assess student content knowledge and conceptual understanding Encourage

deeper learning + QFocus Students performed poorly on Exam question X Ask as many questions as you can about Exam question X + Classroom Example: College Biology Students were thinking more deeply

about the exam question Professor Westover was able to gather insight into why they may have had difficulty with the exam question + Classroom Example: College Biology Professor: Rachel Woodruff, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology, Brandeis University Topic: Molecular Biology Purpose: To build students research skills and

prepare them to develop their own research proposal later in the semester + Question Focus Students are assigned a molecular biology article Ask as many questions as you can about the reading + Classroom Example: College Biology Students

generate questions on their own as a part of their homework and submit them before class During class, students form groups to categorize and improve their questions Students discuss the key attributes of a good biological research question and compare it to other types of questions +

Classroom Example: Professor: Sun Ezzell Topic: Grades Purpose: Students use their questions to spark discussion on the article & write a response to article. Students consider whether they should switch from letter grade to pass/ no pass. +Question Focus: the case against grades (for students who read the article)

or grades (for students who did not read) 1. Why are students intimidated against grades? 7. Why do students think school is challenging? 8. Why do students focus more on grading than learning?

2. Is the grading process needed? 3. How does the grading system affect students? 9. Does the grading system help students in life? 4.

Why do we have a grading system? 10. What are your thoughts on our grading system? 5. Does the grading system need improvement? 11. Do students focus more

on grading than learning? 6. Why is it challenging to get good grades? +Next steps After the activity, some students decided to switch from letter grades to pass/no pass Led to discussion about feedback

and how they can use/ share feedback for learning. Sun gained insight into student thinking + What do Students Say? + Student Reflections Just when you think you know all you need to know, you ask another question and discover how much

more there is to learn. ~ Sixth-grade student, Palo Alto, CA When you ask the question, you feel like its your job to get the answer. ~ High School student, Boston, MA + Student Reflection The way it made me feel was smart because I was asking good questions and giving good answers. +

Students New Understanding of Question Asking The QFT helped me think more critically and deeply about the topics presented to us and about how to utilize different ideas to think about each one. The QFT really teaches a way of thinking so students can be thinking critically every time they read, trying to connect the concepts and deciding whether to take facts and information at face value or to dig a little deeper. ~ Students at Brandeis University +

Students New Understanding of Question Asking I discovered that by asking questions about the article it was easier to understand the article and the meaning behind it. I learned that by doing the question exploration it can help you not be stuck when you do not understand the material. The [QFT] was an amazing group activity... I loved that no one was excluded... I learned I can come up with questions very quickly which is good because it means thinking and creativity is improving and growing. When we come up with our own questions, we think

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