Environment of the San Francisco Bay Amber Dalke

Environment of the San Francisco Bay Amber Dalke

Environment of the San Francisco Bay Amber Dalke Carrie Joseph Logan Schiller Dayna Tang Jessica Thompson Tyler Tomplkins Julie Tran Objectives Environment

Wetland loss Freshwater Flow Native and Introduced Species Song Sparrows Asian Clam Spartina Hybridization Contamination

in the Bay Fish Toxicity Selenium in the North Bay Meet San Francisco! Human settlements found from early as 3000BC City of San Francisco founded 1776 by the Spanish 2010 City of SF

Population: 805,235 people Area: 46.9 sq. miles Pop. Density: 17,179 people/sq. mile (2nd highest in US) 2010 Bay Area Population: 7.15 million people Area: 8,818 sq. miles

Pop Density: 846 people/sq. mile SF and the Bay wikipedia.com Natural Wetland Habitat SF Bay is point where San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers meet the Pacific Ocean Flows west from Sierra Nevada Mountains Endpoint of watershed, drains ~40% of CA

Historic size of riparian and tidal areas (pre- 1850) 145 sq. miles of freshwater wetlands Moist 200 grasslands, vernal pools, and riparian forest sq. miles of tidal marsh

23 miles of sand beaches Wetlands and Urban Land usgs.gov usgs.gov Whats Left? Freshwater 145 sq. miles reduced by up to 95% Tidal

Wetlands Marsh 200 sq. miles reduced to 63 sq. miles Only 25 sq. miles of remaining wetlands are historic Freshwater Flow Highly Variable

Altered by Dams and Diversions Altered by Climate Change wikipedia.com Diversions Federal and State water export facilities Moves water from north to south during the dry season Most precipitation falls north of Delta

Most demand is south of Delta usgs.gov Problems The Delta is home to many species of concern Habitats being altered, un-natural patterns affecting species Many conflicts over water use/rights CALFED program usgs.gov Why it Matters?

Influence the physical, chemical, and biological components of estuaries The availability depends on the variable Precipitation patterns Water development projects Central Valley Project (CVP) State Water Project (SWP) usgs.gov

usgs.gov Reservoirs Effects on Flow Purposes Flood control during winter Release water throughout the year Effects of Large Reservoirs

on Natural Seasonal Flows Spring flow has decreased Constant demand puts pressure on programs Affecting the species dependent on flows Salinity and Song Sparrows Alameda Song Sparrow Marin Song Sparrow Is

the Alameda Song Sparrow better adapted to live in saltmarsh habitats than Marin Song Sparrow? pbase.com colintacroft.com Method Drinking solutions: tap water or seawater (25%, 50%, 60%) NaCl was increased and

maintained 0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% Water consumption and weight loss and/or gain recorded Basham 1987 Results Tolerances

of Seawater 50%: Both species 60%: Only 2 Alameda Song Sparrow 70%: Neither species Conclusion: Alameda Song Sparrow is more tolerant of

seawater Alameda Song Sparrow is better adapted to live in salt-water habitats Invasion of the Asian Clam Potamocorbula amurensis Asian Clam Spotted in 1986 Found in Grizzly and

Suisun Bay areas Increased in numbers between 1986 and 1988 geopubs.wr.usgs.gov The Arrival of Asian Clams Release of seawater ballast from cargo vessels Ballast water contains large numbers of species Found in mud, peat, hard

clay, coarse sand, and mixed mud sand bottoms Tolerate wide range of salinity and sediment types Idscaro.net Idscaro.net Impacts of Asian Clam Elevated the level of salinity Brackish Water in Winter Competes with other species (mainly bivalves)

Behavior and movement disturbed surface sediment layers Changes in benthic community energy flow sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com Studies of Asian Clams Unclear why colonization was so successful Long term consequences are unknown Estuary vulnerable to exploitation

oar.noaa.gov Spartina spp. Native Spartina Non-native Spartina Hybridization Spartina foliosa (California cordgrass) Spartina alterniflora (smooth Calphotos.berkeley.edu cordgrass) Hybrid Spartina Characteristics

Produce larger plants Greater pollen count Faster growth rates Greater tidal ranges Self-pollination Spartina.org Spartina.org Non-Native and Hybrid Impacts Conversion of Tidal

Mudflats to Meadow Loss of Critical Habitat Loss of Shorebird Foraging Habitat Local Extinction of Native Cordgrass Endangered Species Calphotos.berkeley.edu Spartina.org State of Invasion At Risk Areas

Possible Controls Spartina.or g Spartina.or g Fish Contamination museumca.org The Problem Toxins:

PCBs, mercury, DDT, dieldrin, chlordane, and dioxins/furans. Biomagnification makes fish unsafe for human consumption Effects: cause cancer, birth defects, and damage to the immune, nervous, and reproductive systems. fundraw.com liveliketime.co m

Consumption Safety Two meals caught in the bay/month maximum Most Unsafe No striped bass over 27 inches No large shark over 24 inches Safe

Salmon Anchovies Herring Smelt onlinecancerguide.com Extent of the Problem Exceeding Maximum Allowed Levels

50% fish exceeded levels of PCBs & mercury 37% samples exceeded in levels of DDT & chlordane SF Bay seafood no longer for sale on retail market Aquatic organisms can bioconcentrate contaminants up to 100,000 times that detected in the water column yellowbot.com Fish Contamination 1997

Fairey et al. 1997 Selenium Contamination 1,600 sq. miles Drinking Water: 70% of CA Irrigation Water: 4.5 million acres 5 segmentsswrcb.ca.gov What is Selenium? Naturally Occurring in Sediment

Anthropogenic Sources USGS 2004 Internal and External Sources USGS 2004 Point Source Discharges Effluent discharge directly or indirectly by industrial & municipal facilities 22 POTWs 6 minor

industrial plants 5 refineries swrcb.ca.gov Next Steps ECoS3 Estuary Model Biological productivity, total suspended material, salinity, nutrients, and trace metal behavior

Forecasts small changes in particulate selenium Se characterization study by petroleum refineries. Wetland restoration phyto studies swrcb.ca.gov Environment of the SF Bay Environment

Wetland loss Freshwater Flow Native and Introduced Species Song Sparrows Asian Clam Spartina Hybridization Contamination

in the Bay Fish Toxicity Selenium in the North Bay

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