Memory Revision Eye Witness Testimony Forgetting Models of

Memory Revision Eye Witness Testimony Forgetting Models of

Memory Revision Eye Witness Testimony Forgetting Models of Memory Specification sections The Multi-Store Model of Memory: sensory register, short term memory and long term memory The Multi-Store Model of Memory: features of each store - encoding, capacity and duration and research The Working Memory Model: central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer with research The Working Memory Model: features of each store coding and capacity Types of long term memory: episodic, semantic and procedural Explanations for forgetting: proactive and retroactive interference Explanations for forgetting: retrieval failure due to absence of cues (Godden and Baddeley study) Factors affecting the accuracy of eye witness testimony: misleading information (leading questions and post event discussion) key study of Loftus and Palmer Factors affecting the accuracy of eye witness testimony: anxiety and research Improving the accuracy of eye witness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview you should all have a PP and an evaluation APPROACH: Cognitive Psychology The cognitive approach to help us to understand how mental processes shape our behaviour Cognition means knowing: how we come to know the world around us The human mind is compared with a computer we are information processors Cognitive processors actively organise and manipulate information that we receive humans do not merely passively respond to their environment Key areas: perception; memory; language and thought; attention Psychologists use the term memory to refer to these three processes. There are 3 Different types of retrieval Encoding Storage This information can then Encoding be stored in your This refers to how we memory for use at a encode sensory later date information so that we

can make sense of the information. For example sound waves enter your ears and these are converted by your brain into words that have meaning. Retrieval Retrieval refers to the ability to recover information from storage. Recall This is when you retrieve information that is stored. Like writing down the number of words you can recall from a word list. Recognition is when you know something is familiar Reintegration this is when you reconstruct a memory using cues. Models of Memory: MSM & WMM Atkinson & Shiffrin proposed one model of memory - multi-store model (1968) Sensory memory (Iconic & Echoic) can pass on info to the S-term store. Through displacement or lack of rehearsal, info can be lost in about 15-20 seconds. Elaborative rehearsal can help new info to be related to patterns of knowledge stored in the LTS. Sensory register Short-term memory Long-term memory Coding Modal specific Echoic, iconic, etc.

Mainly acoustic Semantic Baddeley Capacity High capacity Sperling (1960) 7 2 items Miller (1955) Unlimited Bahrick Duration Less than half a Second Sperling (1960) Less than 30 seconds unless rehearsed Peterson & Peterson Unlimited Bahrick Long term memory A: Early but influential model of memory that many S: Lots of supporting research, e.g. Bahrick et al (1975) is psychologists still find useful today. It has allowed psychologists to construct testable models of memory and provided foundations for later important work. S: There is considerable research evidence for the distinction between several types of memory store; sensory, short-term and long-term. Several case studies exist that further support the distinction between types of memory store. Miller (1996) reported the case of HM, an individual who appeared to have an

intact STM but defective LTM, as he was unable to recall or retain new information over long periods S: Tulving (1985) proposed that there are 3 LTM stores. Case studies such as Clive Wearing, support this idea as HOWEVER, case studies are very specific and hard to generalise as only looking at one person L: The MSM is too simple and fails to reflect the complexity of human memory. It assumes that there is a single STM and single LTM store. However Baddeley (1973) showed participants could combine several STM tasks provided they use different sensory modalities. evidence for the durability of LTM S: Peterson & Peterson (1959) found that if rehearsal is prevented, information disappears / decay very rapidly from STM. This is supporting the idea that rehearsal is an important element for memories to be transferred to LTM L: Rehearsal is not always needed for information to be stored and some items cant be rehearsed e.g. smells. E: Much of the evidence for the multi-store model comes from artificial laboratory studies, which might not reflect how memory works in everyday life. These studies lack ecological validity Working Memory model, Baddeley & Hitch (1974) Key component in model Functions: Direct attention to tasks decides what working memory pays attention to. Limited Capacity Data arrives from the senses but it cant hold it for long. Determines how resources (slave systems) are allocated 1st Slave System Limited Capacity ~ Deals with auditory information and preserves word order Inner Ear Baddeley (1986) further subdivided it into Phonological store (holds words heard) Articulatory process (holds words heard/seen and silently repeated (looped) like an inner voice. This is a kind of maintenance rehearsal.

2nd Slave System Visual and/or spatial information stored here Inner Eye Visual = what things look like Spatial = relationships between things Limited capacity Logie (1995) suggested subdivision: Visuo-cache (store) Inner scribe for spatial relations. 3rd Slave System Baddeley (2000) added episodic buffer as he realised model needed a more general store. Central executive has no storage capacity ~ extra storage system but with limited capacity. Integrates information from all other areas. Strengths: - The WMM provides an explanation for parallel processing (i.e. where processes involved in a cognitive task occur at once), unlike Atkinson and Shiffrins MSM. - A Shallice and Warrington (1974) case study reported that brain-damaged patient KF could recall verbal but not visual information immediately after its presentation, which supports the WMMs claim that separate short-term stores manage short-term phonological and visual memories. - The model was developed based on evidence from laboratory experiments, so confounding variables could be carefully controlled to produce reliable results (that can be replicated). Weaknesses: - Despite providing more detail of STM than the multi-store model, the WMM has been criticized for being too simplistic and vague, e.g. it is unclear

what the central executive is, or its exact role in attention. - Results from laboratory experiments researching the WMM will often have low ecological validity (i.e. may not relate to real life), as tasks such as repeating the the the are arguably not representative of our everyday activities. Explanations of forgetting might result in forgetting or distorting one or the other or both. This Forgetting: interference is more likely to happen if the memories are similar. Interference: one memory disturbs the ability to recall another. This Proactive interference: Previously learnt information interferes with the new information you are trying to store. For example: you have difficulties learning the names of the students in your psychology class instead you keep remembering the names of the students in your maths group last year. Old memory New memory Proactive interference Pro=forward Retroactive interference: A new memory interferes with older ones. For example: you have difficulties remembering the names of the students in your maths group last year because you learnt the names of your psychology class this year. Old memory New memory Retroactive interference Retro=backward

Research evidence Underwood & Postman(1960) Aim: to find out if new learning interferes with previous learning. Procedure: Participants were divided into two groups. Group A were asked to learn a list of word pairs i.e. cat-tree, they were then asked to learn a second list of word pairs where the second paired word was different i.e. cat glass. Group B were asked to learn the first list of word pairs only. Both groups were asked to recall the first list of word pairs. Results: Group B recall of the first list was more accurate than the recall of group A. Conclusion: This suggests that learning items in the second list interfered with participants ability to recall the list. This is an example of retroactive interference. Baddeley & Hitch (1977) They They asked asked rugby rugby players players to to recall recall the the names names of of teams teams recently recently played. played. For For various various reasons reasons including including injuries injuries and and suspensions suspensions most most players players they they interviewed interviewed had

had missed missed some some games, games, so so for for one one player player the the last last game game might might have have been been last last week, week, while while for for another another itit was was two two months months ago. ago. Baddeley Baddeley and and Hitch Hitch found found that that recall recall for for the the last last game game was was equally equally good whether whether that that game game was was played played some some time time ago ago or

or last last week. week. This This shows shows that that incorrect incorrect recall recall was was not due to decay (the (the passage passage of of time) time) but but was was related related to to the the number number of of intervening intervening games. games. This This demonstrates demonstrates that that interference is a reason for for forgetting forgetting in in our our everyday everyday life. life. Most of the evidence supporting this theory comes from Evaluation lab studies i.e. Underwood and Postman. This is a strength as the extraneous variables can be controlled and these experiments can be replicated so reliability can be tested. However they use artificial material (i.e. word lists) which are meaningless to the participants so they do not represent every day situations when we have to remember things which have meaning to us i.e. a shopping list, so they lack.. However there is support

for the influence of interference in every day life (Baddeley & Hitch). Lacks Validity (external) - The participants do not have the same motivation to remember the stimuli used in an experiment than they have to remember things which are important to their lives i.e. remembering studies for an exam, so the recall of the participants might be less accurate and make the effects of interference appear stronger than they really are. Baddeley (1990) states that the tasks given to participants are too close to each other and, in real life, these kinds of events are more spaced out so the effect might be different. The research does not investigate whether the information has disappeared or can be recovered later. Ceraso (1967) showed that if tested again after 24 hours there is significant recovery so the effect of interference might be temporary. This could be seen as conflicting evidence Forgetting: retrieval failure due to absence of cues This theory explains forgetting in the LTM as a retrieval failure: the information is stored in the LTM but cannot be accessed. Forgetting according to this theory is due to lack of cues. Two types of cues: 1. Cues which are linked meaningfully to the information to be remembered. 2. Cues which are not linked meaningfully to the information to be remembered. This theory proposes that when we learn the information we also encode the which we learn the information and the mental recall. context (external cues) in state we are in (internal cues). These can act as cues to Context-dependent forgetting can occur when the environment during recall is different from the environment you were in when you were learning. Context-dependent forgetting Aim: Godden and Baddeley (1975) investigated the effect of environment on recall. This study took place in Scotland. Procedure: 18 divers from a diving club were asked to learn lists of 36 unrelated words of two or three syllables 4 conditions : a. Learn on beach recall on beach

b. Learn on beach recall under water c. Learn under water recall on beach d. Learn under water recall under water Results Conclusion: the results show that the context acted as a cue to recall as the participants recalled more words when they learnt and recalled the words in the same environment than when they learnt and recalled the words in different environments. Evaluation This study has good ecological validity because the environment was familiar to the divers but the task was artificial as we are not usually asked to learn a list of meaningless words in our everyday life, meaning that it cant not be fully Generalised sample also lacks population validity as all divers. However it was a controlled experiment so it can be replicated so reliability can be tested. Another weakness is that the groups who learnt and recalled in different environments were disrupted (they had to change environment) whereas the groups who learnt and recalled in the same environment were not disrupted. This could have influenced their recall. Therefore effecting the validity State-dependent forgetting Goodwin et al. (1969). Forty-eight male medical students State-dependent forgetting occurs when your mood or physiological state during recall is different from the mood you were in when you were learning. participated on day 1 in a training session and on day 2 in a testing. This study lacks mundane realism They were randomly assigned to four groups. because the tasks performed by the Group1: (SS) was sober on both days. participants were artificial therefore Group 2: (AA) was intoxicated both days. Group 3: (AS) was intoxicated on day 1 and sober on day 2. their performance might not reflect the Group 4: (SA) was sober on day 1 and intoxicated on day 2. way they would perform on tasks in The intoxicated groups had 111 mg/100 ml alcohol in their every day life.

blood .They all showed signs of intoxication. The participants know that they were The Participants had to perform 4 tests: an avoidance task, a verbal taking part in a study so they might have rote-learning task, a word-association test, and a picture recognition changed their behaviour (demand task. characteristics) to fit in with the aims of Results: the study, limiting validity More errors were made on day 2 in the AS and SA condition than in However it was a controlled experiment the AA or SS conditions, however this was not the case for the picture recognition test. The SS participants performed best in all so it can be replicated so reliability can tasks. be tested. Conclusion: this supports the state-dependent memory theory as the performance was best in the participants who were sober or intoxicated on both days. This theory is difficult to disprove as if recall does not occur is it because the information is not stored or because you are not providing the right cue? (circular argument) There is further support for the influence of contextual cues. Abernathy (1940) found that students performed better in tests if the tests took place in the same room as the learning of the material had taken place, and were administered by the same instructor who had taught the information. The studies carried out do not take into account the meaning of the material and the level of motivation of the person when learning the information, meaning there are limitations Real life applications: This is used as a strategy to improve recall in eye-witness memory when the witnesses are asked to describe the context in which the incident they have witnessed took place during cognitive interviewsas well as when they are asked to describe their mood/ emotional state The idea is testable. Cues can be given in experiments to see if they aid recall. Cues are tangible and measurable. memory trace is not measurable in the same way, neither is interference or displacement Factors affecting the accuracy of eye witness testimony: misleading information - leading questions Schemas: Knowledge packages built up through our experience of the world. They also help us to interpret new experiences. For example-knowing that there will be tables and chairs in a restaurant. This would be your restaurant schema. They help to fill in gaps in knowledge we have. However they can lead to distortions when new information doesnt fit properly into our existing knowledge. Cultural experiences and stereotypes affect memory. These distortions are particularly

interesting when we look at EWT. Research findings on the role of schemas Brewer and Treyens (1981) looked at the effects of schemas on visual memory. They asked 30 ps, one at a time, to wait in a room that had been set up to look like an office for 35 seconds. In the room there were objects such as a desk, chair, calendar and typewriter These objects were compatible with an office schema EWT Stages: 1. The witness encodes info into LTM (the event and the person involved) may be partial as the event occurs quickly, at night and accompanied by rapid, violent, complex action 2. Witness retains info for a time. Memories may be lost or modified during retention, other activities may interfere with the memory itself 3. Witness retrieves memory from storage. What happens next is there may be a presence or absence of info that may affect the accuracy of the memory. Key Study:Loftus and Palmer (1974) conducted a classic experiment to investigate the effect of leading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. P: Their sample consisted of 45 American students, divided into five groups of nine. All of the - Lacks ecological validity. On the one hand, questioning participants watched a video of a car crash and then asked a specific question about the speed of the cars. Loftus and Palmer manipulated the verb used in the question, for example: How fast were they cards going when they smashed / collided / bumped / hit / contacted with each other? R: estimated speed was affected by the verb used. For example, participants who were given the verb smashed reported an average speed of 40.5 mph, where participants who were given the word contacted reported an average speed of 31.8 mph, an overall difference of 8.7 mph.

C: Accuracy of eyewitness testimony is affected by leading questions - a single word in a question can significantly affect the accuracy of our judgements. P: In a second experiment, different sample of 150 American students, who were divided into three even groups. All the students watch a one-minute video depicting a car accident and were then given a questionnaire to complete. One group was asked: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? Another group was asked: How fast were the cards going when they hit each other? The final group (control) was not asked about the speed of the vehicles. One week later the participants returned and were asked a series of questions about the accident. The critical question was: Did you see any broken glass? R: 32% of the participants who were previously questioned using the verb smashed, reported seeing broken glass; 14% of the participants who were previously questioned using the verb hit, reported seeing broken glass; and 12% of the control group reported seeing broken glass. There was no broken glass in the video clip and the participants who were questioned previously using the verb smashed, were significantly more likely to report seeing the broken glass, as a result of the earlier leading question. The verb smashed has connotation of faster speeds and broken glass and this question led the participants to report seeing something that was not actually present. Their memory for the original event was distorted by the question used one week earlier, demonstrating the power of leading questions. participants about everyday events like a car crash appears to be a genuine measure of eyewitness testimony. However, the participants in their research watched a video of a car crash and witnessed the events unfold from start to finish. In everyday reports of car accidents, witnesses rarely see the whole event; they are either involved in the event directly, or see a small part of the event happen in their peripheral vision. Therefore, their results to do reflect everyday car accidents and we are unable to conclude if participants involved in real accidents, who would have a stronger emotional connection to the event, would also be susceptible to leading questions in the same way. - Lacks population validity. Two experiments consisted of 45 and 150 American students. It is reasonable to argue that the students in their experiment were less experienced drivers, who may be less accurate at estimating speeds. Consequently, we are unable to generalise the results to other populations, for example, older and more experience drivers, who may be more accurate in their judgement of speeds and therefore not as susceptible to leading questions. However, Loftus and Palmers research took place in a laboratory of Washington University and was therefore highly controlled. This high degree of control reduces the chance of extraneous variable, increasing the validity of the results. Furthermore, it is easy for psychologists to replicate their research, to see if the

same results are achieved with a different population. Factors affecting the accuracy of eye witness testimony: misleading information post event discussion Misleading information in the real world can come from other sources, for example other witnesses (co-witnesses), when they discuss the details of a crime of accident, following an incident. This is known as post-event discussion. Gabbert Gabbert et et al. al. (2003) (2003) investigated investigated the the effect effect of of post-event post-event discussion discussion on on the the accuracy accuracy of of eyewitness eyewitness testimony. testimony. P: P: Her Her sample sample consisted consisted of of 60 60 students students from from the the University University of of Aberdeen Aberdeen and and 60 60 older older adults adults recruited recruited from from aa local local community.

community. Participants Participants watched watched aa video video of of aa girl girl stealing stealing money money from from aa wallet. wallet. The The participants participants were were either either tested tested individually individually (control (control group) group) or or in in pairs pairs (co-witness (co-witness group). group). The The participants participants in in the the co-witness co-witness group group were were told told that that they they had had watched watched the the same same video, video, however however they they had had in in fact

fact seen seen different different perspectives perspectives of of the the same same crime crime and and only only one one person person had had actually actually witnessed witnessed the the girl girl stealing. stealing. Participants Participants in in the the co-witness co-witness group group discussed discussed the the crime crime together. together. All All of of the the participants participants then then completed completed aa questionnaire, questionnaire, testing testing their their memory memory of of the the event. event. R: R: Gabbert

Gabbert et et al. al. found found that that 71% 71% of of the the witnesses witnesses in in the the co-witness co-witness group group recalled recalled information information they they had had not not actually actually seen seen and and 60% 60% said said that that the the girl girl was was guilty, guilty, despite despite the the fact fact they they had had not not seen seen her her commit commit aa crime. crime. These These results results highlight highlight the the issue issue of

of post-even post-even discussion discussion and and the the powerful powerful effect effect this this can can have have on on the the accuracy accuracy of of eyewitness eyewitness testimony testimony Evaluation: - ecological validity. The participants in the co-witness condition witnessed different perspectives of the same crime, as would typically be the case in real life crimes. However, like Loftus and Palmer, these witnesses knew they were taking part in an experiment and were more likely to have paid close attention to the details of the video clip. Therefore, these results do not reflect everyday examples of crime, where witnesses may be exposed to less information. + good population validity and allow us to conclude that post-even discussion affects younger and older adults in a similar way - Although Gabberts results provide an insight into the effect of post-event discussion on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, we are unable to conclude why the distortion occurs. The distortion could be the result of poor memory, where people assimilate new information into their own accounts of the event and are unable to distinguish between what they have seen and what they have heard. On the other hand, it could be that the distortion occurs due to conformity and the social pressure from the co-witness. Further research is required answer this question. Factors affecting the accuracy of eye witness testimony: anxiety and A real crime or violence, usually imparts a feeling of anxiety research

or stress on the witnesses. The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908) suggests that up to a point, stress improves performance but after that point, it has a bad effect on performance. Deffenbacher (1983) proposed that the effect of stress on EWT followed that law Optimum recall, past this point, recall declines. Recall 4 studies you need to be aware of. Anxiety levels Improving the accuracy of eye witness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview A cognitive interview is a technique to improve the accuracy of EWT. Its used to enhance retrieval of the original memory by providing extra cues for more central detail. There are 4 components to a cognitive interview: Context Reinstatement (CR) Mentally reinstate the context of the event. Recall the scene, the weather, thoughts and feelings at the same time. Report Everything (RE) Report every detail possible even if it seems trivial or irrelevant. Recall From a Changed Perspective (CP) Try to describe the episode as it would have been seen from different points of view. Recall in Reverse Order (RO) Change the order of recall so that the event is reported in different orders, moving backwards and forwards in time. How is one conducted? The interviewer should: Minimise distractions Actively listen to the witness Ask open-ended questions Pause after each response

Avoid interruptions Encourage of use of imagery Adapt their language to fit in with the witness Avoid any judgemental comments Research evidence: GEISELMAN ET AL. (1985) Investigated the effectiveness of the cognitive interview by comparing it to other means used to acquire EWT. 89 ppts were shown police training films of simulated violent crimes. 48 hrs later, they were interviewed by either a cognitive interview, a standard police interview, or an interview using hypnosis. The interviews were recorded and assessed for wrong and right answers. Geiselman et al. found that the cognitive interview had the most accurate recall, followed by hypnosis and then the standard interview. This is especially true for crime scene film scenarios. The similarity between the cognitive interview and hypnosis was thought to be due to the two techniques having similar components: report everything (RE) and changed perspective (CP). The standard interview did worse because of its repeated focus on encouraging recall of key information without aids to memory retrieval. Results for the Statements Made by Witnesses Under Three Different Interview Conditions 50 40 30 20 10 0 Cognitive Interview Hypnosis Standard Interview Number of Correct Responses For Fisher et al. (1990) Trained US detectives to use the cognitive interview and found that its use significantly increased the amount of information

recalled. Milne and Bull (2002) Tested all the cognitive interview procedures either one-by-one or all at once. Single techniques acquired more recall. There was more recall with context reinstatement (CR) and report everything (RE). Against Kebbell et al. (1999) UK police officers expressed concern about the amount of incorrect recall and the amount of time it took with carrying out cognitive interviews. Geiselman (1999) Reported that children under the age of 6 dont give accurate recall to cognitive interviews. This may be because children find the instructions difficult to understand. Psychological Theories the CI is based on 1. Cue Dependant Theory of Forgetting (Tulving 1975) Cognitive interviews are based upon cues to enhance retrieval. This theory says that difficulties in recall are due to the absence of the correct retrieval cues. The encoding specificity principle = forgetting something is more likely when the context during encoding is different to the context during retrieval. Even though the encoding specificity principle is correct in terms of enhanced retrieval, it cant be applied to cognitive interviews as much as state cues. State-dependant cues are more likely to be used during cognitive interviews. This is because cognitive interviews are based around the 5 senses, as well as emotion. What did you see/hear/smell/? How did you feel? These cues are more likely to help with retrieval because theyre an easier state to enter, rather than context. Context cues would be difficult to carry out, unless the interview took place there straight after the event. 2. Leading Questions, Loftus & Palmer (1974): The CI used this evidence to realise that for an accurate EWT they needed an absence of leading questions. Due to this, CI tends to try getting the witnesses to focus more on context and state rather than asking leading questions. E.g. witnesses may be asked what the weather was like instead of a question that could cause their schema to fill in the blanks and give a fake account. Conflicting Evidence Kebbell et al. (1999) carried out a survey of police officers in the UK. Even though there was quite a wide spread use of the cognitive interview, they expressed concern about the number of incorrect recall and the time it took to carry out. This is conflicting evidence for cognitive interviews. Application

Cognitive interviews have a huge application in the police field. This is a strength because it means that they will get accurate recall out witnesses compared to the standard police interview. This will stop the amount of wrongly convicted people that go to prison or worse. Supporting Evidence Fisher et al. (1990) wanted to show the effectiveness of cognitive interviews in real police settings in the USA. When US officers carried out these interviews to real life crim witnesses, they found that recall significantly increased. This is supporting evidence for cognitive interviews. Testability The cognitive interview can be easily tested. It shows the 4 different types of questions that can be asked and how to ask them. It can also be carried out in real life settings, instead of controlled settings, as some psychologists have already explored. Limitations The cognitive interview is good for state-dependant cues, but it doesnt explain anything about contextdependant cues. This is a limitation because the technique would be strongly supported if it explained how context-dependant cues can enhance recall, if any. Evidence Geiselman et al. (1985) developed the technique on how to carry out cognitive interviews. He did this to improve the accuracy of EWT by giving the witness extra cues to jog their memory for more central details. Fisher et al. (1987) also added in several details about how the interviewer should behave which lead to a version called the enhanced cognitive interview. Social Sensitivity The cognitive interview isnt likely to be socially sensitive. This is because its trying to get as much accurate information as it can out of the witness, and this will make the witness feel like theyre of help. Memory: Key terms Active processing: Is where the person transforms or manipulates the material that is to be remembered Anxiety: State of emotional arousal where there is a feeling or experience of apprehension and uncertainty Articulatory process: Part of the phonological loop that repeats sounds or words to keep them in working memory until they are needed Capacity: The amount of information that can be held in memory

Central executive: Part of working memory that coordinates other components Chunking: Method of increasing short-term memory by grouping information into larger units Coding: Changing the format of information for use in memory Cognitive interview: Interview technique devised to improve the accuracy of witness recall Context-dependent failure: Forgetting which occurs because the external cues at recall are different to those at the time of learning Cue-dependent forgetting: Failure to recall information due to an absence of cuesor 'tiggers' Duration: The length of time information remains in memory Episodic buffer: Part of working memory which is a temporary store integrating information from the other components Episodic memory: Type of long-term memory for information about specific experiences and events in our lives Eyewitness testimony: An account given by people of an event they have witnessed Forgetting: Failure to retrieve memories Inner scribe: Stores information about the physical relationship of items (part of the visuo-spatial sketchpad) Interference theory: Memory can be disrupted not only by previous learning but also by what is learned in the future Leading question: Question phrased in such a way that it prompts a particular kind of answer Long-term memory: Permanent store holding unlimited amounts of information for long periods Misleading information: Incorrect information given the an eyewitness after an event Mnemonics: Techniques used to improve memory Multi-store model: Explanation of memory that sees information flowing through a series of storage systems Phonological loop: Part of working memory that deals with auditory information Post-event discussion: A potential source of misleading information where witnesses discuss what they saw afterwards

Primary acoustic store: Part of the phonological loop which stores words heard Proactive interference: A cause of forgetting by which previously stored information prevents learning and remembering new information Procedural memory: Long-term memory for "knowing how Repression: Unpleasant material is pushed into the unconscious mind Retrieval: The recall of stored memories Retrieval failure: Difficulties in recall that are due to the absence of the correct retrieval cues Retroactive interference: Occurs when newly learned information interferes with and impedes the recall of previously learned information Schema: A cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information Semantic memory: Type of long-term memory for information about the world that is not linked to particular contexts or events Sensory register: Store of sensory information that lasts no more than a few seconds Short-term memory: Temporary memory store that holds limited amount of information for a short period of time State-dependent failure: Forgetting which occurs because the emotional or physical state at recall is different to that at the time of learning Visual cache: Part of the visuo-spatial sketchpad that stores information about form and colour Visuo-spatial sketchpad: Part of working memory that deals with visual information Working memory model: Model that suggests short-term memory is composed of three, limited capacity stores

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