Chapter 1 C++ Templates (Sections 1.6, 1.7) Templates
Chapter 1 C++ Templates (Sections 1.6, 1.7) Templates Type-independent patterns that can work with multiple data types. Function Templates These define logic behind the algorithms that work for multiple data types. Class Templates
These define generic class patterns into which specific data types can be plugged in to produce new classes. Function Templates example Generic function to find a maximum value in a given vector If argument is a vector type, then compiler generates a corresponding function which Comparable is replaced by vector type. Similarly for vector,
vector etc. Assumption in this example: Operator< is defined in the Comparable. Hence assumptions made by the template much be clearly stated. Function Templates Usage Each call to findMax(Comparable a) on a different data type forces the compiler to generate a
different function using the template. Compiler will complain about findMax(v4) because IntCell class does not define operator< Class Template Example MemoryCell template can be used for any type Object. Assumptions
Object has a zero parameter constructor Object has a copy constructor Copy-assignment operator Convention Class templates declaration and implementation usually combined in a single file. It is not easy to separate them in independent files due to complex C++ syntax.
This is different from the convention of separating class interface and implementation in different files. Class Template Usage Example MemoryCell can be used to store both primitive and class types. Remember MemoryCell is not a class. Its a class template.
MemoryCell, MemoryCell are classes. Another example Operator Overloading Defines the meaning of operator< for Employee class. Output operator<< Define a public member
function print(ostream &out) Define a global nonclass function operator<< that calls print() Function Objects Objects whose primary purpose is to define a function Here findMax() accepts a Comparator parameter as a function object. Comparator assumed to
define the isLessThan(Comparator) function. There is a more formal way to define function objects in C++ (next slide). Function objects in C++ style Define operator() for CaseInsensitiveCompare class. Case-sensitive comparison can also be performed using STL function object less
Matrices C++ library does not provide a matrix class Constructor Creates rows number of zero-sized vectors Resizes each vector to col elements Two types of  operators
One for LHS that returns by reference Another for RHS that returns by constant reference So we have two very identical functions What makes their signatures different? Reading Assignment for next week 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4.1, 2.4.2, 2.4.3
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