Therapeutic Products Bill-consultation phase Cells & Tissues Session Auckland 19 March 2019 1 Therapeutic Products Bill: Cells & tissues Session Agenda for today: 1. Purpose & design of the Bill 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. Scope & Definitions Impacts for the sector Tissue-engineered products Transition Regulator powers & enforcement 2 Todays team
Sheila Swan Chief Advisor, Regulatory Policy, MoH Hannah Adams Senior Analyst, Regulatory Policy, MoH Susan Martindale Principal Policy Analyst, MoH Chris James General Manager, Medsafe, MoH Pamela Randell Project Coordinator, MoH 3 Purpose & Design Purpose: The purpose of this Act is to protect personal and community health by: (a) ensuring acceptable safety, quality, and efficacy or performance of therapeutic products across their lifecycle; and (b) regulating the manufacture, import, promotion, supply, and administration or use of therapeutic products.
Design Principles-based framework with three subordinate tiers. 4 Guiding principles The Regulator and any other person exercising a power under this Act must be guided by the purpose of this Act and the following principles: (a) the likely benefits of therapeutic products should outweigh the likely risks associated with them: (b) regulation of therapeutic products should(i) be proportionate to the risks posed by the products; and (ii) support the timely availability of therapeutic products: (c) the administration of this Act should be carried on in an open and transparent manner:
(d) there should be co-operation with overseas regulators, compliance with international obligations, and, if appropriate, alignment with international standards and practice. 5 There will be less detail in legislation and more in the regulations and regulatormade instruments Instrument Content Process Therapeutic Products Act Primary legislation sets out: the purpose of the Act provides a set of principles and criteria to set the parameters of the regulatory regime
sets boundaries for the scope and development of subordinate legislative instruments contains the primary elements of the regulatory regime provides enforcement powers sets out accountability arrangements Legislative instrument, made by Parliament Regulations Regulations will contain further detail on: matters not appropriately dealt with in regulator-made instruments (such as fee setting) matters to do with accountability key elements of the regulatory regime that will remain relatively stable and which are significant to the design of the regulatory requirements
Schedule 3 lists the matters that can be specified in regulations Legislative instrument, made by the Governor-General by Order and Council Rules Contain the detail of the regulatory requirements Schedule 3 lists the matters that can be specified in rules Legislative instrument, made by the regulator. Subject to review by the Regulations Review Committee. Notices Contain administrative detail of the scheme Schedule 3 lists the matters that can be specified in notices
Non-legislative instrument, made by the regulator. The regulator must not issue a notice unless satisfied that doing so if necessary or desirable to promote the purposes of the Act; and it is no broader than is reasonable necessary to address matter that gave rise to it Regulations will be subject to review by the Regulations Review Committee 6 What is a therapeutic product? A product is a therapeutic product if(a) it is intended for use in, on, or in relation to humans for a therapeutic purpose; or (b) it is specified in the regulations to be a TP; or (c) it is intended for use as an active ingredient of a
medicine. A naturally occurring thing . may become a TP if it is changed from its naturally occurring state.. BUTa product that would otherwise be a therapeutic product under (a) is not a therapeutic product if it is a natural health product. [Section 16 (paraphrased)]. 7 What is a therapeutic purpose? (1) The following are therapeutic purposes: (a) preventing, diagnosing, monitoring, alleviating, treating, curing, or compensating for a disease, ailment, defect, or injury (b) influencing, inhibiting, or modifying a human physiological process (c) testing the susceptibility of humans to a disease or an ailment
(d) influencing, controlling, or preventing human conception (e) testing for human pregnancy (f) investigating, replacing, modifying, or supporting part of a humans anatomy (g) supporting or sustaining human life (h) disinfecting medical devices (i) a purpose connected with a purpose referred to in paragraphs (a) to (h). 8 What is a therapeutic purpose (contd) Something is intended for use for a therapeutic purpose if it is, or is in a class of things that are(a) ordinarily used for that purpose; or (b) intended by the responsible manufacturer to be used for
that purpose; or (c) represented as being for use for that purpose; or (d) likely (because of the way in which it is presented or for any other reason) to be used for that purpose. 9 There are 4 types of therapeutic product Medicines includes cell & tissue products Active ingredients of medicines (AMIs) Medical devices Type-4 products. 10 What is a medicine?
The distinguishing feature of a medicine is that it: achieves, or is likely to achieve, its principal intended action(A) by pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic means; or (B) by means of the action of something that comprises, contains, or is derived from human or animal cells or tissues. Regulators notices can also be used to declare something to be a medicine, AMI, medical device or type-4 product. 11 Medicines- a diverse group of products The term medicine covers a wide range of products, including: Cell and tissue products Blood & blood products New chemical entities
Biosimilars Generics Non-prescription medicines Blood products Radiopharmaceuticals Gene therapies. 12 Impacts for tissue establishments Cells and tissues that are not substantially manipulated or engineered would not require a product approval. Tissue establishments (eg tissue banks, places where processing, preservation, storage & distribution occur) would need a licence: that is because those activities are considered to be steps in the manufacture of the product that is to be
transplanted and manufacturing is a controlled activity requiring an authorisation. There would be some exceptions, for example: The handling of tissues and cells used as an autologous graft where the retrieval and use occur within the same surgical procedure the handling of organs for transplantation that does not involve processing which changes the organ from its naturally occurring state. There are likely to be other use settings that should be 13 subject to an exemption. We will consult further on this when Impacts for those supplying engineered cells & tissues Tissues & Cells are considered to be Engineered if: They have been subjected to substantial manipulation; or Their function in the recipient is not the same as it was in
the donor. The following manipulations are not considered to be substantial in Europe: o Cutting, grinding, shaping, centrifugation, soaking in antibiotic or antimicrobial solutions, sterilisation, irradiation, cell separation, concentration or purification, filtering, lyophilisation, freezing, cryopreservation, vitrification. A tissue-engineered product may contain cells or tissues of human or animal origin, or both (as well as other substances) The cells or tissues may be viable or non-viable. 14 Impacts for those supplying engineered cells & tissues (contd)
Products that have only non-viable cells and / or tissues and dont act principally by pharmacological, metabolic or immunological action are regulated as medical devices A product approval is required to import or supply a tissue-engineered product. 15 Controls on tissue-engineered products They must not be imported or supplied unless the product is: approved approval-exempt; or the person who is importing or supplying is authorised (via the legislation, a licence or permit) to do so The importer must:
be the sponsor for the product; or have the written consent of the sponsor; or be authorised to import without the sponsors consent. 16 Who can be a sponsor? A sponsor: Is the person to whom a product approval is granted (or later transferred); or For an approval-exempt product, is the person named (individually or as a class of person) in the Regulators Notice declaring the product (or class of product) to be approval-exempt. 17
Criteria for being the sponsor of an approved product (A) - Individual normally resident in NZ, or - Body corporate incorporated in NZ; or - The Crown (B) The person imports/arranges the import of the product, or manufactures it in NZ or arranges for its manufacture in NZ They: (C) Are, or have a contractual relationship with, the responsible manufacturer (D) Agree to be the sponsor (E) Are a fit and proper person
(F) Are, or will be able to, comply with the set of sponsor obligations. 18 Sponsors have obligations The sponsor of an approved product is obligated to: Comply with the approval Ensure the product complies with its approval & any specified product standards Ensure another person complies with any must do / must not do requirements placed on that person by the approval Comply with any requirements in the regulations in relation to: o Product quality, safety, and efficacy or performance (includes ongoing monitoring) o Prescribing and consumer information, packaging & labelling
o Release for supply o Market actions (eg Tracing and recall), record keeping, auditing o Giving information to the regulator (eg adverse event reporting). 19 Product Approvals The Regulator must evaluate the application having regard to: the criteria for product approval whether the product, if approved, will comply with the specified product standards whether the person named in the application as the proposed sponsor meets the criteria for a sponsor After evaluating the application, the Regulator must grant approval or refuse to grant approval. 20
Criteria for approvals The criteria for product approval are all of the following: the quality, safety, and efficacy or performance of the product for the purpose for which it is to be used are satisfactorily established the likely benefits of the product outweigh the likely risks associated with it any other criteria for approval that are specified in the rules. Product standards may relate to the product, its manufacture, its packaging and labelling, its product or consumer information. 21 Approvals Approvals can be:
Subject to conditions - which can be specified in the Rules or imposed by the Regulator at the time of approval or later. Conditions can be added, varied or removed by the Regulator Granted with or without an end date Cancelled for grounds see section 108. 22 Changes to tissue-engineered products Major changes: Major changes will be listed in the Rules Approved product + major change = different product & new approval Minor changes: There are 2 types: o those that must be notified to the Regulator. These will
be listed in the Rules o any other minor changes. These do not need to be notified or approved The original approval covers all the minor changes 23 Getting ready for the new scheme Before the scheme can commence all of the following events must have occurred: The Bill must have received Royal Assent Regulations must be developed (following consultation), signed by the Governor-General, published and in force Rules and Notices must be developed (following consultation), published and in force. The new Act, regulations, rules and notices would all come into force on the same date (the commencement date for
the scheme). There is likely to be a gap of around two years between Royal Assent and commencement. During this time, organisations can start to get prepared for commencement so they are ready to begin transitioning into the scheme. The transition period begins on commencement date - so perhaps around late 2022 or early 2023. 24 Managing the transition for existing tissue-engineered products Existing approvals under the Medicines Act become new scheme approvals that can be dealt with as if they had been granted under the new scheme. As well: o Approvals may be subject to new requirements in Rules relating to labelling & product information o The Medicines Act applicant becomes the sponsor & is
subject to new scheme conditions & obligations Pending applications can be processed by the new regulator with powers to: o Lapse applications if applicant is not responsive o Collect transitional fees for applications lodged between Royal Assent & commencement. 25 What needs to happen after commencement for existing suppliers? The Bill gives a temporary licence to those lawfully supplying a cell & tissue product before commencement. Tissue establishments lawfully operating before commencement are automatically covered by that temporary transition licence. It allows them to continue to supply and carry out their processing etc.
activities during the transition period. However: within 12 months of commencement they must apply for their own licence to manufacture as soon as they have applied for their licence, their temporary licence continues on until the regulator determines their application. 26 Do we need an additional transition provision? Perhaps, if there are tissue engineered products being lawfully supplied before commencement that are not considered medicines under the Medicines Act? If that scenario is real, we would need to provide a transition measure that gave temporary cover while
an application for product approval was being assessed. Views?? 27 What needs to happen after commencement for new players? Anyone wishing to start a tissue establishment after commencement would need to first obtain a new scheme licence (or other authorisation) Those wishing to introduce new tissue-engineered products to the NZ market must first obtain a product approval (or other authorisation) - unless the product is approval-exempt
Those wishing to start supplying by wholesale would need to obtain a new scheme licence (as the product would typically be a prescription medicine) a person supplying it by wholesale would need a licence (or other authorisation) Those wishing to start a clinical trial must first obtain a licence (or other authorisation). 28 The Regulator Must ensure it has a system to continuously monitor the safety of lawfully supplied products May make public safety announcements (akin to current privileged statements under the Medicines Act) May issue the following regulatory orders: Recall orders Premises restriction order
Advertising remediation order Directions order Product prohibition order Medicines access limitation order. 2-tier Merits review mechanism is available. 29 Investigation powers The Bill: Links to the Search & Surveillance Act 2012 Has some additional powers tailored for this scheme (eg the power to test samples) Enables the Regulator to conduct routine compliance checks and enforcement activities Enables imported consignments to be detained, tested, destroyed or removed from NZ.
30 Enforcement matters The Bill has a modern hierarchy of enforcement tools: Tiered criminal offences with higher penalties Enforceable undertakings Infringement notices. Officials are considering whether to add civil pecuniary penalties as another regulatory option. 31 What next Sector forums in March Submissions due by 18 April
Analysis of submissions & report back to Cabinet Draft Bill amended, as required Draft Bill introduced to Parliament Select Committee process (which usually includes a public submission process) Development of regulations, rules and notices will involve consultation on detail of the scheme. 32
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