Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in

Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in

Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC By Gerard Willering, TE-MSC On behalf of the MP3-CCC team Acknowledgements TE-MSC, MP3, BE-OP, TE-MPE, TE-EPC, EN-ICE Commissioning the magnet circuits in the LHC is only the final stage before operation. The results shown in this presentation reflect the accomplishment of many teams and persons involved. LMC, 08-04-2015 Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 2 Contents Introduction HWC 2015 Powering history Magnet training single magnets HWC campaign main dipoles in the LHC Statistics for LHC, per sector and per firm Comparison with 2008. Comparison with production and acceptance tests. Outlook Quenches during 6.5 TeV operation run 2 Predictability of reaching 7 TeV Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 3 Contents Introduction HWC 2015

Powering history Magnet training single magnets HWC campaign main dipoles in the LHC Statistics for LHC, per sector and per firm Comparison with 2008. Comparison with production and acceptance tests. Outlook Quenches during 6.5 TeV operation run 2 Predictability of reaching 7 TeV Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 4 Introduction - Powering history of the main dipole magnets in the LHC 1232 magnets + spares produced by 3 firms 62 % tested to 12.85 kA 38 % between 12 and 12.85 kA HWC 2008: up to 9.3 kA About 10 % had a thermal cycle S56: 11.2 kA including training S45: 10.3 kA 2002 2005 2008 Run 1 Operation up to 6.7 kA LS1 HWC Run 2 All 2015 magnets Training Operation warmed up to up to up 11.08 kA 10.98 kA 2011 2014 Since reception tests only 1 sector was trained to above 10.3 kA until the recent HWC campaign. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 5

Introduction - Magnet training of single magnets in the SM18 test facility Example of the training of a magnet 12300 11300 10800 ry mo e M 10300 Training: The magnet quenches at a higher current then before. Detraining: The magnet quenches at a lower current then before. Thermal cycle 11800 Tr ain ing Quench current (A) Detraining 12800 Memory: After a thermal cycle less training quenches are needed to reach the same current. 9800 0 5 Quench number 10 15 120 out of 1232 magnets in the LHC had a thermal cycle with training as part of the reception tests.. Fraction of magnets with minimum one quench below 11.08 kA Virgin run SM18 Second cooldown in SM18 In the LHC in HWC 2015 All 0.30 0.07 See slide 11 Firm 1

0.12 0.00 See slide 11 Firm 2 0.39 0.04 See slide 11 Firm 3 0.37 0.21 See slide 11 MB magnets have shown memory effect after thermal cycle. Firm 3 magnets are known to have less memory than firm 1 and 2 magnets. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 6 Introduction - Dipole circuit HWC campaign 2015 Powering procedures EDMS 874713 12000 1 minute - 11080 A 2 hours - 10980 A Flattop cycle Flattop cycle Training cy cle 10000 Current (A) 2 hours - 11080 A 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Time (h)

5 6 7 8 8 RB circuits with 154 magnets powered in series. Nominal current 6.5 TeV: 10980 A. Magnet training current: 11080 A (equals 6.55 TeV) Training quenches: most quenches occur during the training cycle Flattop quenches: some quenches occur during the flattop cycles. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 7 Introduction - Quench event during HWC in the LHC Example of a quench event in S81 in the magnet in position C30 Current (A) Q28 A30 88 s 56 s B30 C30 12000 12 10000 10 8000 8 6000 6 4000 4 2000 V_rampup 2 0 0 Q29 Magnet voltage

65 s -2000 -2 -4000 -4 -6000 -6 -8000 -8 -10000 -10 -12000 -12 -300 -100 100 Time (s) 300 500 82 s A31 B31 154 magnets in series Quench in a magnet triggers energy extraction opening. Current in the circuit decays exponentially with = 100 s. Negative inductive voltage across each superconducting magnet. Positive voltage across quenched magnet when current goes through bypass diode. Typically a training quench is followed by secondary quenches through heat propagation. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 8 Introduction - Secondary quenches 65 s A30 Q28 88 s

56 s B30 C30 Quench causes # Average current (kA) Training and flattop quenches 179 10.6 Thermal propation quench 531 4.1 ElectroMagnetic coupling iQPS Electromagnetic coupling nQPS 17 11 10.8 Others 25 A31 B31 Focus in this presentation on training and flattop quenches. Topic was discussed in LMC, S. Le Naour, 17-12-2014. Improved by increase of nQPS threshold from 400 to 500 mV (EDMS 1468701) At 400 mV: 5 trips in 25 quenches At 500 mV: 6 trips in 154 quenches Each quench will give some electrical, thermal and mechanical stress. Strategy is to limit the number of quenches and Quench Heater firing as much as possible. 60% 50% Occurrence Q29 82 s 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 3

4 5 Number of secondary thermal propagation quenches per event Total # of Quench Heater firings while powering the magnets > 750 magnets. 2015: 2 quench heater circuit failures 4 dipoles were replaced in LS1 due to quench heater failure. 1 short circuit occurred in the cold mass during quench tests. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 9 Contents Introduction HWC 2015 Powering history Magnet training single magnets HWC campaign main dipoles in the LHC Quench statistics for LHC, per sector and per firm Comparison with production and acceptance tests. Comparison with 2008. Outlook Quenches during 6.5 TeV operation run 2 Predictability of reaching 7 TeV Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 10 HWC 2015 Quench overview Quench current (A) During the whole campaign 179 MB quenches recorded 11100 10900 10700 10500 10300 10100 9900 9700 9500

9300 9100 1064 magnets did not quench, 168 did quench. Manufacturer # magnets that quenched once Firm 1 Firm 2 Firm 3 all magnets 0 50 100 Quench number 150 # magnets that quenched twice # magnets that quenched 3 times Total # quenches Firm 1 (400) 5 0 0 5 Firm 2 (420) 27 0 0 27 Firm 3 (412) 126 9 1 147 All 158 9

1 179 (1232) 200 Now we can complete the table from slide 6 Fraction of magnets with minimum one quench below 11.08 kA during training cycle. Manufact urer Virgin run SM18 (no thermal cycle) Second cooldown SM18 In the LHC in 2015 Firm 1 0.12 0.00 0.01 (5/400) Firm 2 0.39 0.04 0.06 (24/420) Firm 3 0.37 0.21 0.32 (131/412) All 0.30 0.07 0.13 Slightly worse than second cooldown Slightly worse than second cooldown Significantly worse than second cooldown. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 11 HWC 2015 Quenches per sector Training

Flattop 11200 11200 6.5 TeV 10800 S12 10600 S23 10400 S34 10200 6.5 TeV 11000 S45 6.0 TeV 10000 S56 9800 S67 9600 9400 5.5 TeV 9200 Quench current (A) Quench current (A) 11000 10800 S12 10600 S23 10400 S34 10200 S45 6.0 TeV 10000

S56 9800 S67 S78 9600 S78 S81 9400 S81 5.5 TeV 9200 0 Sector S12 S23 S34 S45 S56 S67 S78 S81 Total 10 20 # Training quench 7 17 15 51 18 22 19 29 171 30 Quench number Flattop quenches 0 0 1 0 3 1 3 0 8 40 50 60

0 10 Quench number 20 Large variation in number of training quenches per sector, between 7 and 51 quenches! All flattop quenches occured within a small margin from the training current. In the following part of the presentation they are included in the quench statistics. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 12 HWC 2015 All 2015 quenches in one figure. 11500 Firm 3 11000 Firm 2 Quench current (A) 10500 Firm 1 10000 9500 Naming example: MB 2029 Firm 2, series number 29. 9000 8500 Note: for magnets numbered higher than 500 the original number is put for clarity. 8000 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Series number of the magnet per firm 350 400 450 More details per firm in the next 3 slides Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015,

by Gerard Willering 13 1.4 Batch size of 10 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 Average number of quenches per magnet HWC 2015 Quenches in Firm 1 magnets Series number of the magnet Circuit RB.A12 RB.A23 RB.A34 RB.A45 RB.A56 RB.A67 RB.A78 RB.A81 #Magnets installed 50 56 44 48 28 57 53 64 # Quench 2 0 1

0 0 0 2 0 Average number of quenches per magnet 0.04 0 0.02 0 0 0 0.04 0 Only 5 quenches Spread over the whole series. Spread over the sectors Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 14 1.4 Batch size of 10 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 Average number of quenches per magnet HWC 2015 Quenches in Firm 2 magnets Series number of the magnet Circuit

RB.A12 RB.A23 RB.A34 RB.A45 RB.A56 RB.A67 RB.A78 RB.A81 #Magnets installed 95 58 81 44 42 36 40 24 # Quench 1 2 7 3 0 1 10 3 Average number of quenches per magnet 0.01 0.03 0.09 0.07 0.00 0.03 0.25 0.13 27 quenches Higher probability in earlier part of the series Higher number of quenches in S78. First batch of magnets installed in S78. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 15 1.4 3rd quench Batch size of 10 1.2 2nd quench 1st quench 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 Average number of quenches per magnet HWC 2015 Quenches in Firm 3 magnets Series number of the magnets. Circuit RB.A12 RB.A23 RB.A34 RB.A45 RB.A56 RB.A67 RB.A78 RB.A81 #Magnets installed 9 40 29 62 84 61 61 66 # Quench 4 15 8 48 18 21 7 26 Average number of quenches per magnet 0.44 0.38 0.28 0.77

0.21 0.31 0.11 0.38 147 quenches Not evenly distributed over the serial number of the magnets. Much higher number of firm 3 quenches in S45. Much lower number of firm 3 quenches in S78. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 16 HWC 2015 Firm 3 magnet distribution and quench probability Firm 3 magnets distibution in each sector S81 (66) S78 (61) S67 (61) S56 (84) S45 (62) S34 (29) S23 (40) S12 (9) 1.4 50 100 150 200 250 Magnet number 300 350 400 3rd quench Batch size of 10 1.2 2nd quench 1st quench 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 450 Note: We are not certain that differences in production are the cause of the higher quench probability.

More investigation is needed to exclude differences in transport, installation, storage, etc. for the different sectors. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 Average number of quenches per magnet 0 Series number of the magnets. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 17 HWC 2015 Comparison with quenches up to 11.08 kA during reception tests 450 420 390 360 330 300 270 240 210 180 150 90 60 Only first quench from reception test

considered. No direct correlation between 2015 and reception tests. For certain batches the number of quenched magnets is higher in 2015 than during the first reception tests. 450 420 390 360 330 300 270 240 Magnet series number 30 Magnet series number SM18 first powering LHC 2014-15 210 180 150 90 60 30 0 Percentage of magnets quenched below 11.08 kA 120 FIRM 3 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% SM18 first powering LHC 2014-15 120 Magnet series number

FIRM 2 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 450 420 390 360 330 300 270 240 210 180 150 120 90 60 30 LHC 2014-15 0 Percentage of magnets quenched below 11.08 kA SM18 first powering Percentage of magnets quenched below 11.08 kA FIRM 1 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

0% Deeper investigation needed for clear conclusions. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 18 HWC 2015 Correlation to thermal cycles during reception test Example of the training of a magnet 10 % of the magnets had a thermal cycle. 12300 11800 The slowest training magnets were selected for the thermal cycle, hence the magnets with the thermal cycle had the most quenches. Thermal cycle Quench current (A) 12800 11300 10800 10300 9800 0 5 Quench number 10 15 # Magnets in the LHC # Magnets quenched in 2015 Fraction of quenched magnets in LHC Average number of quenches in acceptance tests Magnets single training >12 kA 1112 156 0.14 2.8 Magnets with thermal cycle and second training to > 12 kA

120 2 0.01 8.5 Total 1232 158 0.13 The significance and mechanism of a correlation is under investigation. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 19 HWC 2015 - Comparison training in 2008 with 2015. S45 11000 11000 10800 10800 10600 10400 10200 10000 9800 10600 10400 10200 10000 9800 9600 9600 9400 9400 9200 9200 0 10 20 Quench number S56

11200 Quench current (A) Quench current (A) 11200 30 3 quenches up to 10.27 kA in 2008 11 detraining quenches Maximum detraining 430 A Longer training to the same current 0 10 20 Quench number 30 30 quenches up to 11.17 kA in 2008 15 detraining quenches (training cycle) Maximum detraining 670 A Shorter training to the same current. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 20 Contents Introduction HWC 2015 Powering history Magnet training single magnets HWC campaign main dipoles in the LHC Statistics for LHC, per sector and per firm Comparison with 2008. Comparison with production and acceptance tests. Outlook Quenches during 6.5 TeV operation run 2 Predictability of reaching 7 TeV

Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 21 Outlook - Flattop quenches during Run 2 From the 8 quenches after the completion of the training cycle: 6 flattop quenches at training current level. 2 quenches at flattop cycle within the first minutes at nominal current. One LHC year accounts for about 15000 hours in the 8 circuits combined. The 2 quenches at nominal current occured in the first minutes. Mechanism and probability of detraining unknown: No prediction possible. 100000 8 circuits, 160 days of 12 hours: 15000 hours 10000 Total time at I_nominal (h) So far the 8 sectors combined have spent 577 hours at nominal current and 27 hours at training current. Time spent at I_nominal until 07 -April: 577 hours 1000 100 10 Flattop quenches at I_NOM 07-Apr-15 1 year times 8 circuits 1 0.1 0.01 0 2 4 6 8 Quench number after training cycle Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 10 22 Outlook - Expectations training to 7 TeV Predictions are only as good as the assumptions, which in turn relies on available knowledge. Earlier predictions were done in Chamonix 2009, based on HWC 2008. The reality in 2015 is that the number of quenches is higher than expected. Chamonix 2009 E. Todesco

Chamonix 2009 A. Verweij LHC 2015 6 TeV 12 10 21 6.5 TeV 84 80 142 7 TeV - 900 12000 11500 Further investigation and a training to 7 TeV of at least one sector is needed to make a good prediction. 11000 Quench current (A) Mechanisms for (de-)training, long term effects, thermal cycles, etc. need to be better understood, also with respect to the various batches of magnets. 10500 10000 9500 All magnets in LHC First cooldown in SM18 SM18 after thermal cycle - normalized LHC quenches 9000 8500 8000 0 500 1000 1500 Quench number Note that the 10 % of magnets that had a thermal cycle were slowest training magnet, with the highest number of quenches. Good prediction needs more time. Note that the LHC curve is dominated by a batch of the

magnets, while the SM18 data is more homogeneous quench data for all magnets. Different phenomena may apply, slope of the curve may change. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 23 Summary slide The 8 main dipole circuits have been trained up to 6.55 TeV equivalent current. 1064 magnets did not quench! A total of 179 quenches has been recorded in 168 magnets. The detraining as observed in S56 in 2008 is confirmed in other sectors. Significant differences in the training behavior in different sectors and different batches of magnets have been observed. What do we still need to understand? The mechanism of the detraining over time. Probability and mechanism of flattop quenches during operation. Training beyond 6.55 TeV. Followup End of HWC marks a restart for investigation on magnet training behavior Investigations of the mechanisms of detraining over time, after thermal cycles and semi-continuous powering. Investigation if changes in magnet production, storage, treatment, transport, installation, testing, etc. can be correlated to training quench behavior. This may be important for future magnet development and production. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 24 For a good understanding on main dipole quenches and predictions I recommend to read: C. Lorin, A. Siemko, E. Todesco, and A. Verweij. "Predicting the quench behavior of the LHC dipoles during commissioning." Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on 20, no. 3 (2010): 135-139. cds record 1282397 Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 25 Extra Slides Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 27 When were the magnets powered in SM18? 4000 Powering in all the magnets in SM18 3500 Firm 3 Magnet number 3000

2500 Firm 2 2000 1500 Firm 1 1000 04/04/2000 03/04/2004 02/04/2008 01/04/2012 Axis Title Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 28 Firm 3 magnets trained to < 12750 A 117 out of 412 (28 %) Part of quenched magnets in 2014-15 that trained to <12750 A. 50 out of 132 (38 %) No direct correlation visible, deeper investigation needed. 13400 13200 13000 12800 12600 12400 12200 12000 11800 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 Magnet number Max training current of Firm 3 magnets that quenched in 2014-15 Max training current SM18 (A) Not all magnets were trained up to 12850 A during SM18 reception tests. Max training current SM18 (A) Max training current of all Firm 3 magnets

13000 12800 12600 12400 12200 12000 11800 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 Magnet number Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 29 Magnet MB 1061 MB 1083 MB 1132 MB 1231 MB 1242 MB 2040 MB 2171 MB 2334 MB 2420 MB 2431 MB 2445 MB 2868 MB 3103 MB 3128 MB 3636 15 magnets were installed in the LHC during LS1 No training quenches were recorded in these magnets during HWC 2015 The number of Firm 3 magnets in this batch is very small. Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 30 Circuit Magnet RB.A34 RB.A56 RB.A56 RB.A56 RB.A67 RB.A78 RB.A78 RB.A78 Current (A)

2067 3358 3334 3355 3300 2014 2017 3264 11080 11080 11080 11080 11038 10980 10980 11077 Total time at nominal + delta (hours) 0.6 0.4 0.4 1.6 2.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total time at nominal (hours) 5.2 19.3 95.3 0.2 0.8 16.2 RB.A81 RB.A78 RB.A67 RB.A56 RB.A45 RB.A34 RB.A23 RB.A12 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 Time (hours) 80.0 100.0 120.0 Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets LMC 08-04-2015, 60.0 in the LHC, 80.0 100.0 Time (hours)by Gerard Willering 31 120.0

Time spent at training current (11.08 kA) RB.A81 RB.A78 RB.A67 RB.A56 RB.A45 RB.A34 RB.A23 RB.A12 Circuit Quenches after completion of training cycle. Circuit Time spent at and above nominal current (10.98 kA) 0.0 20.0 40.0 12000 11500 Linear scale Quench current (A) 11000 10500 10000 9500 All magnets in LHC First cooldown in SM18 SM18 after thermal cycle - normalized LHC quenches 9000 For a correct interpretation see: 8500 C. Lorin, A. Siemko, E. Todesco, and A. Verweij. "Predicting the quench behavior of the LHC dipoles during commissioning." Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on 20, no. 3 (2010): 135-139. cds record 1282397 8000 0 500 1000 1500 Quench number 12000 11500

Logarithmic scale Note that the 10 % of magnets that had a thermal cycle were slowest training magnet, with the highest number of quenches. Note that the LHC curve is dominated by a batch of the magnets, while the SM18 data is more homogeneous quench data for all magnets. Different phenomena may apply, slope of the curve may change. Quench current (A) 11000 10500 10000 9500 All magnets in LHC 9000 First cooldown in SM18 Series2 LHC quenches 8500 8000 1 10 100 Quench number Quench behavior of the main dipole magnets in the LHC, LMC 08-04-2015, by Gerard Willering 1000 32

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