Unit IV - Reproduction and Development I can

Unit IV - Reproduction and Development I can

Unit IV - Reproduction and Development I can by the end of the Topic: -Describe the processes of mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization. -Recognize the role of mitosis, meiosis and fertilization in reproductive cycles. -Compare the processes of asexual and sexual reproduction in terms of methods and results. -Contrast the adaptations for sexual reproduction and development in both plants and animals . -Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they

relate to species survival. -Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. -Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female. I CAN Describe the processes of mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization. I Asexual Reproduction *A. Mitotic Cell Division Asexual reproduction is the production of new organisms without the fusion of nuclei. The new organisms develop from a cell

or cells of the parent. Hydra budding A. Mitotic Cell Division All cells arise from other cells by cell division . This process involves both nuclear duplication and cytoplasmic cell division. Mitosis -- an orderly series of complex changes in the nucleus, normally involving an exact duplication of the complete set of chromosomes and the separation of

these chromosomes into two identical sets Cytoplasmic Division -- the division of cytoplasm which occurs either during or after mitosis resulting in the formation of two daughter cells each containing an identical set of chromosomes I CAN Describe the processes of mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization. I CAN Describe the processes of mitosis, The process of mitosis involves:

meiosis, and fertilization. Replication of each single-stranded chromosome during the non-dividing period, resulting in double-stranded chromosomes. Individual strands of a double-stranded chromosome are known as chromatids and are joined by a centromere. Disintegration of the nuclear membrane during the early stages of division Synthesis of a spindle apparatus Attachment of double-stranded chromosomes to the spindle apparatus at the centromere region of the chromosomes

Replication of each centromere which results in the formation of two singlestranded chromosomes, which are moved along the spindle apparatus to opposite ends of the cell Nuclear membrane formation around each set of chromosomes, forming two nuclei I CAN Describe the processes of mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization. The major result of mitosis is the formation of two daughter nuclei which are identical to each other and

to the original nucleus, in the number and types of chromosomes. Division of the cytoplasm usually, but not always, accompanies mitosis. The methods of cytoplasmic division differ in plant and animal cells. Comparison Between Plant and Animal Mitotic Cell Division

I CAN Compare the processes of asexual and sexual reproduction in terms of methods and results. Mitosis is similar in plant and animal cells. However, in animal cells, centrioles aid in the formation and orientation of the spindle apparatus. Cytoplasmic division is accomplished in animal cells by a pinching in" of the cell membrane, thus separating the two nuclei, while in plant cells, a cell plate is synthesized. Uncontrolled Cell Division Cancer is a group of diseases often characterized by uncontrolled cell division

of certain abnormal cells. I CAN Contrast the adaptations for sexual reproduction and development in both plants and animals . I CAN Contrast the adaptations for sexual reproduction and development in both plants and animals . 1.Binary Fission Binary fission involves the equal division of the nuclear materials and cytoplasm of an organism resulting in

two new organisms . Budding I CAN Contrast the adaptations for sexual reproduction and development in both plants and animals . In unicellular organisms such as yeast, budding is similar to fission except that the cytoplasmic division is unequal. The new cells may detach from each other or may remain together and form a

colony. In multicellular organisms such as hydra, budding refers to the production of a multicellular outgrowth from the parent organism. The bud and the parent may detach from each other or may remain together and form a colony. I CAN Contrast the adaptations for sexual reproduction and development in both plants and animals . Sporulation

In many organisms, spores, which are single specialized cells, are released from the parent and can develop into new individuals . (Example : bread mold.) Regeneration I CAN Contrast the adaptations for sexual reproduction and development in both plants and animals . Regeneration is the development of an entire new organism from a part of the

original organism. An example is the starfish which may develop from a single ray and part of the central disc. Regeneration also refers to the replacement of lost structures . A lobster may regenerate a lost claw. Generally. invertebrate animals possess more undifferentiated cells than do vertebrate animals . As a result, invertebrates exhibit a higher degree of regenerative ability than most vertebrates. Vegetative Propagation

Some multicellular plants reproduce asexually by vegetative propagation. In this process new plants develop from roots, stems, or leaves of the parent plant Some examples of vegetative propagation include: Examples: cuttings bulbs tubers runners grafting

Organisms: coleus oni on potato strawberry seedless orange I CAN Contrast the adaptations for sexual reproduction and development in both plants and animals . II. Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction

involves the production of specialized sex cells (gametes) and the fusion of their nuclei (fertilization) producing a fertilized egg. cell (zygote). I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. A. Reproduction and Development in Animals

I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. Gametogenesis Each body cell of an organism contains the diploid (2n)number of chromosomes characteristic of that species. These chromosomes are present in homologous pairs. Homologous chromosomes contain genes for the same traits. Gametogenesis is the process in which gametes are produced. It

involves meiotic cell division and cell maturation. This process occurs in specialized organs called gonads. Some organisms have only male or female gonads while others have both and are called hermaphrodites. Meiosis Meiosis is a process which involves reduction division. During this process, the chromosome number is reduced by one-half and

monoploid nuclei which contain one chromosome of each homologous pair are formed . I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. Meiosis Process The process of meiosis involves two divisions. First Meiotic Division The first meiotic division is the reduction

division and involves: Replication of each single-stranded chromosome during the non-dividing period, resulting in double stranded chromosomes Synapsis -- the intimate pairing of homologous chromosomes, resulting in the formation of tetrads Alignment of homologous pairs in the middle of the spindle apparatus Disjunction of the homologous pairs and their subsequent movement along the spindle apparatus toward opposite ends of the cell

Cytoplasmic division. I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. Second Meiotic Division I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. The second meiotic division involves:

Alignment of double-stranded chromosomes in the middle of the spindle apparatus Replication of centromeres Migration of single-stranded chromosomes along the spindle apparatus toward opposite ends of the cell Cytoplasmic division. As a result of meiosis, diploid (2n) primary sex cells divide and form monoploid(n) cells which mature into specialized reproductive cells. The distribution of the homologous chromosomes between the resultant nuclei

is random, resulting in variation. Comparison With Mitotic Cell Division I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. Mitosis is associated with Click on the image below to compare growth and asexual repro Mitosis with Meiosis duction; meiosis, with sexual

reproduction. As a result of mitotic cell division, the daughter cells are identical to the original cell. As a result of meiotic cell division, daughter cells have one-half the number of chromosomes of the original cell. Spermatogenesis The male gonads, testes, produce male gametes,

sperm. The primary sex cell undergoes meiosis and produces four monoploid cells. Each of these cells usually matures into a motile sperm cell. I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. Oogenesis

I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. The female gonad is the ovary and the gamete is the ovum (egg). The ovum is larger than the sperm and contains stored nutrients in the form of yolk. Only one monoploid egg cell is usually formed from each primary sex cell that undergoes meiosis and maturation. The other cells produced are

polar bodies. These result from unequal cytoplasmic divisions and degenerate . Comparison Fertilization Fertilization is the union of a monoploid sperm nucleus (n) with a monoploid egg nucleus (n). In the resulting diploid zygote, the species number of homologous

chromosomes (2n) is restored . I CAN Explain the relationships among numbers of eggs, methods of fertilization, and sites of embryonic development, as they relate to species survival. Click on diagram to view animation External Fertilization I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos.

Reproduction in many aquatic vertebrate animals such as fish and amphibians is characterized by external fertilization. The gametes fuse outside the body of the female.Usually, large numbers of eggs are required to insure species survival. Internal Fertilization Reproduction in most terrestrial vertebrate animals is characterized

by internal fertilization . The gametes fuse in the moist reproductive tract of the female. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. Embryonic Development Process The zygote, or fertilized egg, undergoes a series of mitotic cell divisions called cleavage. Once cleavage begins, the zygote becomes a developing embryo.

1)Cleavage Cleavage is a series of mitotic cell divisions that leads to the formation of the blastula, a single layer of cells which is a hollow ball-type structure. During cleavage, there is no increase in individual cell size 2 ) Gastrulation In certain animals, one side of the blastula becomes indented (gastrulation) forming the gastrula, which has an inner layer, the endoderm, and an outer layer, the ectoderm. A third layer, the mesoderm, forms between the ectoderm and the endoderm . 3) Differentiation I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos.

These three embryonic layers differentiate and give rise to the various tissues, organs, and systems of the multicellular animal. The nervous system and the skin originate from the ectoderm layer. The muscles, circulatory system, skeleton, excretory system, and gonads originate from the mesoderm layer. The lining of the digestive and respiratory tracts, and portions of the liver and pancreas, originate from the endoderm. Growth is an increase in cell number as well as in cell size. Early development consists chiefly of the differentiation and growth of cells and tissues. External Development I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos.

External development occurs outside of the females body In Water The eggs of many fish and amphibians are fertilized externally and develop externally in an aquatic environment . The developing embryo's source of food is the yolk stored in the egg. On Land Eggs of birds, many reptiles, and a few mammals develop externally on a land environment after internal

fertilization The developing embryo 's source of food is the yolk. Some adaptations for animals which develop externally on land are a shell which provides protection and membranes which help provide a favorable environment for embryonic development . These embryonic membranes include: The amnion which contains the amniotic fluid. This fluid provides a watery environment, protects the embryo from shock, and prevents adhesion of

embryonic tissues to the shell. The yolk sac which surrounds the yolk. Blood vessels which penetrate the yolk sac transport food to the developing embryo. The allantois which functions as a respiratory membrane and a storage site for the nitrogenous waste, uric acid The chorion which is an outer membrane surrounding the other embryonic membranes - I CAN Illustrate the development of plant

and animal embryos. Internal Development Internal development involves the growth of the embryo within the body of the parent. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. Placental Mammals Mammals have internal fertilization. The

embryo(s) develops internally within a structure called the uterus. The eggs of mammals have relatively little yolk and therefore are very small, Within the uterus, a specialized organ, the placenta, is formed from embryonic and maternal tissues. It is through this structure that the exchange of nutrients, wastes, and respiratory gases between the mother and the embryo occurs. There is no direct connection between maternal and embryonic bloodstreams . Transport is accomplished by diffusion and active transport .

An umbilical cord, containing blood vessels, attaches the embryo to the placenta. Humans are placental mammals . In a few mammals, such as the marsupials, there is no placenta . I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. Marsupials In marsupials, internal fertilization and internal embryonic development occur without direct

nourishment from the parent. The source of food is the yolk stored in the egg. The embryo is born at a relatively premature stage compared to placental mammals, and completes its development externally in a pouch which contains mammary glands. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos.

Reproduction and Development in Humans Gametogenesis Male Reproductive System The male reproductive system performs two major functions: the production of sperm cells the deposition of these cells within the female reproductive tact. I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female.

Sperm production occurs in the testes. The testes are located in the scrotum where the temperature is 1-2 degrees Celsius cooler than normal body temperature. This provides an optimum temperature for sperm production and storage. From the testes, sperm move through several tubes including the urethra. The urethra is a tube contained within the penis. The penis is a structural adaptation for internal fertilization. Glands secrete a liquid into these tubes. The liquid serves as a transport

medium for the sperm - an adaptation for life on land. This liquid and the sperm cells constitute semen. I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female. I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female. In addition to producing sperm, the testes also produce the male sex hormone, testosterone. This regulates the maturation of

sperm and the development of secondary sex characteristics, such as beard development and voice pitch. Female Reproductive System Ovaries are paired structures located within the lower portion of the body cavity. Ovaries produce eggs in tiny cavities called follicles. Following ovulation, the egg cell is transported through an oviduct (Fallopian tube) to the uterus .

At the lower end of the uterus known as the cervix is a muscular tube, the vagina. At birth, all of the potential eggs that a female will ovulate are present in immature form. Usually only one egg is released at the time of each ovulation I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female. In addition to eggs, the ovaries also produce the female sex

hormones estrogen and progesterone. These regulate the development of secondary sex characteristics such as the development of the mammary glands and the broadening of the pelvis. The hormones also have a coordinating role in the menstrual cycle. I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female.

Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle begins at puberty and ceases at menopause . Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle. The duration of this cycle is approximately 28 days but may vary considerably and may be interrupted by pregnancy, illness, and other factors.

I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female. I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human The menstrual cycle consists of male and female. four stages: Follicle stage -- this stage involves the maturation of an egg within the follicle and the secretion of the hormone estrogen. Estrogen initiates vascularization of the uterine lining.

Ovulation -- the release of an egg from the follicle Corpus luteum stage -- the corpus luteum forms from the follicle following ovulation. It secretes progesterone which enhances the vascularization of the uterine lining. Menstruation -- the periodic shedding of the thickened uterine lining. It occurs when fertilization does not take place. Role of Hormones

The reproductive cycle of the human female involves the interaction of the hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries. During the menstrual cycle, under the influence of the hormones from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases hormones (FSH and LH) which influence the functioning of the ovaries. The ovaries, in turn, secrete hormones (estrogen and progesterone) which produce changes in the uterus

In addition, the hormones from the ovaries regulate the secretion of hormones by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. This is an example of a negative feedback mechanism . I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female. Fertilization Fertilization usually occurs in the upper portion of the oviduct. If the egg is not fertilized within approximately 24 hours after ovulation,

it deteriorates Cleavage of the fertilized egg begins in the oviduct, and six to 10 days layer, the resulting embryo may become implanted in the uterine lining If more than one egg is released and fertilized, multiple births may result. Identical twins develop from one zygote which separates during cleavage. Fraternal twins develop from two eggs, each fertilized by separate sperm cells. The technique of in vitro fertilization and subsequent implantation that has been perfected in animals has now been

applied to humans with some degree of success. I CAN Describe hormonal interactions in the human male and female. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Egg Retrieval Egg Retrieval IVF Fertilization

2 nuclei 1 day after egg retrieval Embryo Transfer Embryo Transfer How Many Embryos are Transferred? Related to age and embryo quality

<35 = 2 35-37 = 2-3 38-40 = 3-4 >40 = up to 5 For patients with 2 or more failed IVF cycles, or a poor prognosis, can add more based on clinical judgement What Happens to the Other Embryos?

Freeze Embryos Donate For Research/Stem Cells Embryo Adoption Discard IVF Statistics - 2005 65.1% singletons 32.9% twins 4.4% triplets or more Singleton Pregnancy

Twin Pregnancy Triplet Pregnancy Development Prenatal development includes the following processes: I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. Cleavage occurs in the oviduct. Gastrulation usually occurs after the embryo is implanted in the uterus

Differentiation and growth result in the formation of specialized tissues and organs from the embryonic layers of the gastrula. The processes involved in prenatal development are dependent upon the supplying of a proper balance of nutrients to the developing embryo. Some structures associated with prenatal development are: the placenta, amnion, and umbilical cord. Birth and Postnatal Development

Birth usually occurs after a gestation period of approximately nine months Development continues with various parts of the body growing at different rates. Although the development of the organism is often assumed to conclude with the mature adult, it actually continues throughout the life of the organism and terminates with death . The term aging is applied to the complex developmental changes that occur naturally with the passage of time. The cause or causes of the aging process

are still not fully understood. It appears that the aging process results from the interplay of hereditary and environmental factors. One recent definition of death is the irreversible cessation of all brain functions I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. First Month By the end of the first month, the embryo is about

1/10 of an inch long. The heart, which is no larger than a seed, has begun beating. First Month Two Months The embryo is about 1 inch long and has distinct, slightly webbed fingers. Veins are clearly

visible. The heart has divided into right and left chambers. Two Months Thursday, January 21, 10:55:51 AM Three Months By now the fetus is 2 1/2 to 3 inches long and is fully formed. He or she has begun swallowing

and kicking. All organs and muscles have formed and are beginning to function. Four Months The fetus is now covered with a layer of thick, downy hair. The heartbeat can be heard clearly. This is when you may feel the first kick.

Thursday, January 21, 10:55:51 AM 4 months Five Months A protective coating begins to form on the skin. By the end of this month the fetus will be nearly 8 inches long and weigh almost a pound. Six Months

Eyebrows and eyelids are visible. The lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, and he or she has started breathing motions. If you talk or sing, they can hear you. 6 Months Thursday, January 21, 10:55:51 AM

Seven Months By the end of the seventh month, the fetus weighs about 3 1/2 pounds and is about 12 inches long. His or her body is well-formed. Fingernails cover his fingertips 7 Months

Thursday, January 21, 10:55:51 AM Eight Months The fetus is gaining about half a pound per week, and layers of fat are piling on. He or she has probably turned head-down in preparation for birth and weighs between 4 and 6 pounds.

8 months Nine Months The fetus is a hefty 6 to 9 pounds and measures between 19 and 22 inches. As he or she becomes more crowded, you may feel less movement. Reproduction and Development in Flowering Plants

The processes of meiosis and fertilization occur in the flower, a plant structure specialized for reproduction. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. Flower Structure The flower may contain both the male reproductive organ, the stamen, and the female reproductive organ, the pistil.

In some species, certain flowers contain only stamens, while others contain only pistils. Petals and sepals may also be present in flowers. The stamen is composed of an anther and filament. As a result of meiosis, the diploid cells of the anther produce pollen grains which contain monoploid nuclei. The pistil is composed of the stigma, style, and the ovary. As a result of meiosis, ovule(s) developing within the ovary contain the monoploid egg nucleus

I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. Pollination In flowering plants, the problem of reproduction in a dry, external environment is partially solved by the presence of the thick wall of the pollen grain . This prevents dehydration of its contents during its transfer to the female reproductive organ. Following pollination the pollen

grain germinates on the stigma and forms a pollen tube which extends into the ovule. Sperm nuclei are formed at this time in the pollen tube from the monoploid nucleus in the pollen grain. The pollen tube is an adaptation for internal fertilization. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. Plant Fertilization and

Embryo Development The union of male and female nuclei in the ovule results in a zygote. The zygote undergoes development resulting in the formation of the embryo . The ripened ovule develops into the seed. A seed consists of a seed coat which develops from the outer coverings of the ovule and an embryo. The ripened ovary develops into the fruit. The plant embryo consists of the hypocotyl epicotyl and the cotyledon(s). The hypocotyl develops

into the root and, in some species, the lower portion of the stem; the epicotyl develops into the leaves and upper portions of the stem; and the cotyledon (s).which contain stored food provide the nutrients for the germinating plant. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos. Germination In flowering plants, seeds develop inside a fruit. Fruits are specialized structures

which aid in seed dispersal. Under suitable environmental conditions .seeds germinate. For most seeds these conditions include: sufficient moisture, proper temperature, and sufficient oxygen. The development of a seed into a mature plant capable of reproduction involves cell division, differentiation, and growth. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and

animal embryos. Growth Growth in higher plants is restricted largely to specific region known as meristems. Apical meristems are found in the tips of roots and stems and are responsible for growth in length. Some plants also contain an active lateral meristem region, the cambium, located between the xylem and phloem . This is

responsible for the growth in diameter of roots and stems. The growth regions contain undifferentiated cells which undergo active mitotic cell division and elongation. As a result of differentiation, the various tissues and organs are developed. I CAN Illustrate the development of plant and animal embryos.

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