Peruvian Andes: Geology & Mineral Potential Ministry of

Peruvian Andes: Geology & Mineral Potential Ministry of

Peruvian Andes: Geology & Mineral Potential Ministry of Energy and Mines of Peru Miguel Cardozo Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S Volcanics Limestones Coarse clastics Fine clastics 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G E R L IA S U P PE R T R IA S S IC P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200

LO W E R 250 P EN N SY LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n P hase 350 D E V O N IA N Followed by a terrestrial clastic sequence and intense sub-aereal volcanic activity 400 S IL U R IA N 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N A thick, mainly late Pz Up.K, marine sed.- volc. Sequence. 2000 0 100 C O S TA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O

EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S Volcanics Limestones Coarse clastics Fine clastics 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G E R L IA S U P PE R T R IA S S IC P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200

LO W E R 250 P EN N SY LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n P hase 350 D E V O N IA N 400 S IL U R IA N 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N 2000 0 100 C O S TA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Intense, episodic magmatism

occurred in the Cordilleran region. Intrusives range from deep batholithic to subvolcanic settings Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 Cu Porphyry PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 LO W E R P E R M IA N

250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N Deposit Types 2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km

Cu-Au Porphyry Cu Skarn Northern Peru Cu-Au Porphyry Belt La Granja 800 Mt @ 0.61% Cu Caariaco 365 Mt @ 0.5% Cu Cerro Corona 6Mt @1.4 g/t Au 40Mt @ 1.33 g/t Au, 0.7% Cu Minas Conga 641 Mt @ 0.3% Cu, 0.8 g/t Au, Galeno 430 Mt @ 0.6% Cu, 0.2 g/t Au Michiquillay 630 Mt @ 0.69% Cu La Arena 34Mt @ 0.8 g/t Au La Virgen 2 Mt @ 2.3 g/t Au Paleocene Southern Peru Cu-Porphyry Belt Cerro Negro 64 Mt @ 0.56% Cu (xidos) Cerro Verde 175 Mt @ 0.6% Cu 420 Mt @ 0.6% Cu Cuajone 61 Mt @ 0.49% Cu (oxides) 1,212 Mt @ 0.64% Cu Quellaveco 213 Mt @ 0.94% Cu, 0.014% Mo, 1.74 g/t Ag 761 Mt @ 0.57% Cu, 0.023% Mo, 2.31 g/t Ag Toquepala 770 Mt @ 0.74% Cu Eocene-Oligocene Apurimac Cu-Porphyry-Skarn Belt Las Chancas 200 Mt @ 1% Cu Las Bambas 40Mt @ +2% Cu + potential porphyry Tintaya +200 Mt @ +1.5% Cu Antapaccay 390 Mt @ 0.83% Cu Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E Deposit Types In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E IOCG P e ru v ia n P h o s e

U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N

2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E Deposit Types In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E IOCG P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM

J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N 2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A

300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Cu VMS Cu-Zn VMS Iron Oxides Cu-Au Coastal Belt Raul-Condestable +30 Mt @ 1- 2.5% Cu Cerro Lindo 42 Mt @ 5.1% Zn, 0.8% Cu, 35 g/t Ag Marcona 1,800 Mt @ 53.3% Fe + potential for Cu-Au mineralization Lancones Basin VMS Cu-Zn-Au Tambogrande TG1 64 Mt 1.7% Cu, 1.4% Zn, 0.7 g/t Au, 31 g/t Ag TG3 110 Mt 0.7% Cu, 1.0% Zn, 0.7 g/t Au, 17 g/t Ag Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E Deposit Types In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e

LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N 2000 0 100 C O STA

W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km MVT Central & Northern Peru MVT Zn-Belts Bongar +5 Mt @ +15% Zn San Vicente +30 Mt @ 12 14% Zn Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E Deposit Types In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM

J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N 2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A

300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Cu Skarn Cu-Zn Skarn Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E Deposit Types In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E Cu Skarn P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 Cu-Zn Skarn M o c h ic a P h o s e Polymet Replac. LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC

150 Polymet Veins D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N 2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A

300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Central Peru MVT Zn-Belt Magistral Antamina 500Mt @ 1.2% Cu, 1% Zn Cerro de Pasco +120Mt @ 7.2% Zn, 2.3% Pb Colquijirca ~25 Mt @ 7% Zn San Gregorio +70Mt @ 7.4% Zn, 2.2% Pb Morococha +30 Mt @ +7% Zn + Toromocho porphyry with 364 Mt @ 0.67% Cu Iscaycruz +5Mt @ +18% Zn Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E Deposit Types In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM

J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N 2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A

300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Epithermal Yanacocha, Pierina & Southern Peru Epithermal Gold-Silver Belts Tantahuatay 350 Mt 0.85% Cu, 0.33 g/t Au, 9 g/t Ag, 0.18% As + 25 Mt @ 1.0 g/t Au (oxides) La Zanja 24 Mt @ 0.8 g/t Au Sipn 16Mt @ 2.0 g/t Au Yanacocha 650 Mt @ 1.0 g/t Au Quiruvilca +6 Mt @ 7 oz/t Ag, 5% Zn, 0.9% Cu Pierina 90 Mt @ 2,1 g/t Au Antapite Quicay 6 Mt @ 1,1 g/t Au Santa Rosa Ares +1 Mt @ 20 g/t Au Orcopampa +2 Mt @ 18 g/t Au Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E Deposit Types In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e

U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N 2000

0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Mesothermal Au Pataz Batholith & Coastal Batholith Mesothermal Gold Belts Poderosa Horizonte Quartz-gold vein-systems, typical grades between 14 g/t and 20 g/t Au Retamas Arirahua San Juan de Chorunga Ishihuinca Gold and Polymetallic Mineralization in Southeastern Peru San Rafael +15 Mt @ 5.3% Sn, 0.2% Cu Ana Mara very high grade, narrow veins Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases

Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 Cu Porphyry PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 LO W E R P E R M IA N 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 450 Cu-Zn Skarn Polymet Veins 500

Epithermal 550 Mesothermal Au 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N Cu-Zn VMS Cu Skarn Polymet Replac. 400 O R D O V IC IA N C A M B R IA N IOCG Cu VMS L IA S U P PE R Cu-Au Porphyry MVT 150 D O G G ER T R I A S S IC Deposit Types 2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N

R E G IO N km Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 Main Commodities PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e Iron. Copper LO W E R Copper-Gold M A LM J U R A S S IC 150 Copper-Zinc Zinc D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R

P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200 250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 400 Gold-Silver Tin + Other 450 Tungsten + Other M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N Polymetallic 2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O

EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km Q UATER NARY 0 P L IO C E N E T E R T IA R Y Phases Q uechua M IO C E N E O L IG O C E N E In c a ic P h a s e s E O C E N E 50 Mineralization Age PA LE O C E N E P e ru v ia n P h o s e U P PE R C R E TA C E D U S 100 M o c h ic a P h o s e LO W E R M A LM J U R A S S IC 150 D O G G ER L IA S U P PE R T R I A S S IC LO W E R P E R M IA N C A R B O N IFER OU S 200

250 P EN N S Y LV A N IA N L a te H e r c y n ia n Phoss 300 M IS S IS S IP P IA N E a r ly H e r c y n i a n Phase 350 D E V O N IA N S IL U R IA N 400 450 O R D O V IC IA N 500 C A M B R IA N 550 600 P R E - C A M B R IA N 2000 0 100 C O STA W ESTER N C O R D IL L E R A 300 200 A L T IP L A N O EA STER N C O R D IL L E R A SU B AN D EA N R E G IO N km U.Tertiary Eocene-Olig.

Paleocene Cretaceous Jurassic Paleozoic MINERALIZED BELTS Lancones Basin VMS Cu-Zn-Au Northern Peru Cu-Au Porphyry Belt Northern Peru MVT Zn Belt Yanacocha Epithermal Gold Belt Pataz Batholith Mesothermal Gold Belt Pierina Epithermal Gold Belt Central Peru MVT Zn-Belt Central Peru Polymetallic Skarn & Replacement Belt Eocene-Oligocene Apurimac Cu-Porphyry-Skarn Belt Iron Oxides Cu-Au Coastal Belt Coastal Batholith Mesothermal Gold Belt Ananea Mesothermal Gold Belt Paleocene Southern Peru Cu-Porphyry Belt Southern Peru Epithermal Au-Ag Belt World-class ore deposits in Peru High-Sulphidation Epithermal Gold Yanacocha: + 40 million oz of gold Pierina: +7 million oz of gold Cu-Zn Skarn Deposits Antamina: 500Mt @ 1.3% Cu, 1% Zn Polymetallic Replacement Deposits

Cerro de Pasco: +120Mt @ 7.2% Zn, 2.3% Pb San Gregorio: +70Mt @ 7.4% Zn, 2.2% Pb World-class ore deposits in Peru Copper Porphyries Cuajone: 1,[email protected] 0.64% Cu Toquepala: 770Mt @ 0.74% Cu Massive Sulphide Deposits Tambogrande TG1: 64Mt @ 1.7% Cu, 1.4% Zn, 0.7g/t Au TG3:110Mt @ 0.7% Cu, 1.4% Zn, 0.7g/t Au Iron Ore Deposits Marcona: 1,800Mt @ 53.3% Fe Peru: Current Production & Resources (as a Percentage of Global Figures) Commodity Production Known resources Gold 5.7% 0.8% Copper 4.1% 6.1% Zinc 11.2% 2.8% Silver 11.2% 8.8% Tin 16.0% 3.3% Calculated from USGS figures for year 2000 PERU: A MINING COUNTRY

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