ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 1 Topic 1 Introduction to Project Management ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 2 Topics Reading Learning objectives What is a project?
Course Technology www.course.com/mis/schwalbe Project Management Institute www.pmi.org ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 4 Learning Objectives At the end of this topic, you should be able to: Explain the growing need for better IT project management. Explain what a project is and provide examples
of information technology projects Describe what project management is and discuss key elements of the project management framework ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 5 Learning Objectives (cont.) Discuss how project management relates to other disciplines Understand the history of project management Describe the project management profession, including recent trends in project management
research, certification, and software products ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 6 Project Management Statistics The U.S. spends $2.3 trillion on projects every year, an amount equal to one-quarter of the nations gross domestic product. The world as a whole spends nearly $10 trillion of its $40.7 trillion gross product on projects of all kinds. More than sixteen million people regard project
management as their profession; on average, a project manager earns more than $82,000 per year.* *PMI, The PMI Project Management Fact Book, Second Edition, 2001 ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 7 More Statistics More than half a million new information technology (IT) application development projects were initiated during 2001, up from 300,000 in 2000.* Famous business authors and consultants are
stressing the importance of project management. As Tom Peters writes in his book, Reinventing Work: the Project 50, To win today you must master the art of the project! *The Standish Group, CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 8 Motivation for Studying Information Technology (IT) Project Management IT projects have a terrible track record A 1995 Standish Group study (CHAOS) found that only 16.2% of IT projects were successful
and over 31% were canceled before completion, costing over $81 B in the U.S. alone The need for IT projects keeps increasing In 2000, there were 300,000 new IT projects In 2001, over 500,000 new IT projects were started ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 9 Advantages of Using Formal Project Management
Better control of financial, physical, and human resources Improved customer relations Shorter development times Lower costs Higher quality and increased reliability Higher profit margins Improved productivity Better internal coordination Higher worker morale ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 10
What Is a Project? A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique product or service (PMBOK Guide 2000, p. 4) Attributes of projects unique purpose temporary require resources, often from various areas should have a primary sponsor and/or customer involve uncertainty
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 11 Project vs. Operations Operations ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 12 Questions Is doing this unit a project? Who is the project manager? Is an assignment a project: Database assignment? Research paper? ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 13
IT Projects Examples What is an IT project? IT projects refers to projects involving hardware, software, and networks Northwest Airlines developed a new reservation system called ResNet (see case study: www.course.com/mis/schwalbe) Many organizations upgrade hardware, software, and networks via projects Organizations develop new software or enhance existing systems to perform many business functions ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 14 Goals Organisational goals What is the organisation trying to achieve? E.g. best customer service or most innovative projects. Sony vs. Dell (what are their goals?) Project goals Must meet the organisational goals ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 15 What is success? Project Goal Project ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Goal Semester 1, 2004
Slide 17 The Triple Constraint Every project is constrained in different ways by its Scope goals: What is the project trying to accomplish? Time goals: How long should it take to complete? Cost goals: What should it cost? It is the project managers duty to balance these three often competing goals ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 18 Improvement in Project Success From 2001 Standish Group Report : Time overruns decreased from 222% to 163% Cost overruns decrease from 189% to 145% Required features and functions were up from 61%to 67% Successful US projects up from 28,000 to 78,000 28% of IT projects succeeded compared to 16% ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 19 Why the Improvements? "The reasons for the increase in successful projects vary. First, the average cost of a project has been more than cut in half. Better tools have been created to monitor and control progress and better skilled project managers with better management processes are being used. The fact that there are processes is significant in itself.* *The Standish Group, "CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success" (2001) ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 20 What is Project Management? Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements (PMI*, Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 2000, p. 6) *The Project Management Institute (PMI) is an international professional society. Their web site is www.pmi.org. ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 21 Project Management Framework ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 22 Project Stakeholders Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities Stakeholders include
the project sponsor and project team support staff customers users suppliers opponents to the project ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 23 9 Project Management Knowledge Areas Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop 4 core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality) 4 facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management) 1 knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004 Slide 24 Question Identify examples of each of the nine knowledge areas for the new Perth-Mandurah rail link project 4 Core scope, time, cost, and quality 4 Facilitating human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management 1 Knowledge area project integration management
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 25 How Project Management Relates to Other Disciplines Much of the knowledge needed to manage projects is unique to the discipline of project management Project mangers must also have knowledge and experience in general management the application area of the project
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 26 Questions Is it enough to be a good project manager or do you need to understand the area you are managing? For example, could an experience project manager with no IT background manage an IT project? Or, a documentation project (e.g. putting together a tender) with no tendering experience?
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 27 History of Project Management Some people argue that building the Egyptian pyramids was a project, as was building the Great Wall of China Most people consider the Manhattan Project to be the first project to use modern project management This three-year, $2 billion (in 1946 dollars) project had a separate project manager and
a technical manager ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 28 Project Management Tools & Techniques Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management Some specific ones include Project Charter, scope statement, and WBS (scope) Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, critical chain scheduling (time) Cost estimates and earned value management (cost)
See Schwalbe Table 1-1 on p. 11 for many more ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 29 Software and tools Gantt Chart Network diagram Portfolio management (Enterprise project management) ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004 Slide 30 Project Management Software By 2003, there were hundreds of different products to assist in performing project management Three main categories of tools exist: Low-end tools: Handle single or smaller projects, cost under $200 per user Midrange tools: Handle multiple projects and users, cost $200-500 per user, Project 2000 most popular High-end tools: Also called enterprise project management software, often licensed on a per-user basis Project 2002 now includes a separate version for enterprise
project management (see Appendix A for details on Project 2002) ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 31 Sample Gantt Chart The WBS is on the left, and each tasks start and finish date are shown on the right using a calendar timescale. Early Gantt Charts, first used in 1917, were drawn by hand. ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 32 Sample Network Diagram Each box is a project task from the WBS. Arrows show dependencies between tasks. The bolded tasks are on the critical path. If any tasks on the critical path take longer than planned, the whole project will slip unless something is done. Network diagrams were first used in 1958 on the Navy Polaris project, before project management software was available. Enterprise Project Management Tool In recent years, organizations have been taking advantage of software to help manage their projects throughout the enterprise.
The Project Management Profession The job of IT Project Manager is in the list of the top ten most in demand IT skills Professional societies like the Project Management Institute (PMI) have grown tremendously Project management research and certification programs continue to grow ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 35
Top Ten Most in Demand IT Skills Rank IT Skill/Job Average Annual Salary 1 SQL Database Analyst $80,664 2 Oracle Database Analyst $87,144 3 C/C++ Programmer $95,829 4 Visual Basic Programmer $76,903
Network Engineer $82,906 Paul Ziv, The Top 10 IT Skills in Demand, Global Knowledge Webcast (www.globalknowledge.com) (11/20/2002). Sample PM Job in Perth 6 month contract This role will manage several of our clients software development, implementation support projects (concurrently) on a day-to-day basis with a responsibility to deliver the project commitments with a consistently high-level of customer service. Projects will be a mix of ecommerce and non e-commerce, greenfields and customisation projects. Skills required: Manage client relationships Consulting background helpful Be comfortable and experienced with using formal methods (RUP is an advantage, but not essential) Be technically competent with MS Project or similar. A strong software background and formal
project management skills are essential. OO experience and advantage, as is conceptual knowledge of tools such as Java, Oracle. Commercial rather than Technical Experience Effective leadership experience You will need to be comfortable managing, planning and estimating large software projects. You will have at least 5 years experience in managing software projects Insurance experience an advantage You will need to confident negotiating with business customers, as well as building and maintaining client relationships. (from www.seek.com January 8, 2004) ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 37
Project Management Knowledge Continues to Grow and Mature PMI hosted their first research conference in June 2000 in Paris, France, and the second one in Seattle in July 2002 The PMBOK Guide 2000 is an ANSI standard PMIs certification department earned ISO 9000 certification Hundreds of new books, articles, and presentations related to project management have been written in recent years ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004
Slide 38 Project Management Certification PMI provides certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP) A PMP has documented sufficient project experience, agreed to follow a code of ethics, and passed the PMP exam The number of people earning PMP certification is increasing quickly PMI and other organizations are offering new certification programs (see Schwalbe Appendix B) ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004 Slide 39 Growth in PMP Certification, 1993-2002 ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 40 Ethics in Project Management Ethics is an important part of all professions Project managers often face ethical dilemmas
In order to earn PMP certification, applicants must agree to the PMP code of professional conduct ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 41 Applying Project Management Project Management can apply to all areas Project management applies to work as well as personal projects Project management applies to many different disciplines (IT, construction,
finance, sports, event planning, etc.) Project management skills can help in everyday life ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 42 Next Week Reading Topics 1 & 2 Tutorial Hand in Weekly Report for topic 2 Template on FTP & WebCT sites.
Diagnostic writing test Practical exercises. Skills ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2004 Slide 43
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