Motivation, Emotion & Stress: Stress & Health Designated
Motivation, Emotion & Stress: Stress & Health Designated Unit: Unit II The Biological Bases Stress & Health: The Basics PA R T O N E Stress & Health: The Basics Stress The process by which we perceive & respond to
certain events (known as stressors) that we appraise as threatening and/or challenging Stress is not A simple stimulus or response Necessarily a negative thing Stress & Health: The Basics Richard Lazarus (1991) Cognitive Appraisal Approach Primary Appraisal An initial evaluation of whether an event is
(1) irrelevant to you (2) relevant but not threatening (3) stressful Secondary Appraisal An evaluation of your coping resources & options for dealing with the stressor Other factors? Stress & Health: The Basics Two major classifications of stress Acute Stressors
Relatively short in duration with a clear endpoint An encounter with a belligerent customer A major exam An impending natural disaster Chronic Stressors Relatively long in duration with no apparent endpoint Persistent financial strains A sick family member
A hostile boss Stress & Health: Types of Stress PA R T T W O Stress & Health: Types of Stress Frustration Occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted
Insignificant (in terms of stress) Traffic jam/difficult commute Broken air conditioner Significant (in terms of stress) Failure and/or loss Stress & Health: Types of Stress Conflict Occurs when two (or more) incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for
expression Approach-Approach Conflict A choice must be made between two attractive goals Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict A choice must be made between two unattractive goals Approach-Avoidance Conflict A choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive & unattractive
aspects Often produce vacillation Stress & Health: Types of Stress Life Changes Any significant alterations to ones circumstances that require readjustment Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes & Rahe, 1967) Death of a spouse (100) Divorce (73) Marital Separation (65) Jail Term (63) Death of a close family member (63)
Personal injury or illness (53) Marriage (50) Stress & Health: Types of Stress Pressure Involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way
Salespeople Professors Stand-up comedians Suburban homeowners Teenagers Stress & Health: Stress Responses PA R T T H R E E Stress & Health: Stress Responses Emotional Responses Dependent on the stimulus (and ones personality)
Common responses to stress typically occur along three dimensions of emotion (1) Annoyance, anger, rage (2) Apprehension, anxiety, fear (3) Dejection, sadness, grief Positive emotions? Yerkes-Dodson Law Asserts that there is an optimal level of emotional
arousal for any given task (i.e. coping with stress) Stress & Health: Types of Stress Physiological Responses Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome A model of the bodys stress response, consisting of three separate stages Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Fight-or-Flight
Response Stress & Health: Types of Stress Behavioral Responses Most behavioral responses to stress involve coping Active efforts to master, reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress; can be helpful or maladaptive Coping Mechanisms
Learned helplessness Self-blame Aggression Catharsis Self-indulgence Defense mechanisms Stress & Health: Types of Stress Constructive Coping Healthy efforts to deal with stressful events
How? Direct confrontation of the problem Realistic appraisal of the stress & coping resources Learning to recognize, and in some cases regulate, potentially disruptive emotional reactions to stress Stress & Health: Effects of Stress PA R T F O U R Stress & Health: Effects of Stress
Psychological Effects Burnout Psychological problems & disorders Physical & emotional exhaustion, as well as cynicism and a lowered sense of self-efficacy Generally brought on by work-related stress
Poor academic performance, sleep disturbances, sexual difficulties, alcohol & drug abuse, etc. Positive effects? Resilience Successful adaptation to significant stress & trauma Stress & Health: Effects of Stress Physical Effects Heart disease
Specifically coronary heart disease (90% of heart related deaths) Emotional reactions & depression also linked to heart disease Immune functioning Reduced immune activity Asthma, cancer, chronic pain, common cold, herpes, IBS, migraine headaches, rheumatoid arthritis, skin disorders, ulcers, etc.
Stress & Health: Personality Factors PA R T F I V E Stress & Health: Personality Factors Type A General Characteristics In life
Competitive & ambitious Time urgency & impatience Anger & hostility Easily annoyed Tend to be workaholics Often successful, but frequently unsatisfied Find it very difficult to relax/to do nothing More prone to..? Stress & Health: Personality
Factors Type B General Characteristics Less competitive & driven Easygoing & slow to anger Relaxed & amicable Charismatic Stress & Health: Personality Factors Type C
General Characteristics People-pleasers Peace-keepers Often lonely Find it difficult to express emotions, especially negative ones More prone to..?
Stress & Health: Personality Factors Type H (Hardy Personality) General Characteristics Type A individuals who thrive on stress, rather than succumbing to it Different from the traditional Type A in three key ways Commitment Control
Challenge Stress & Health: Personality Factors In conclusion If life gives you lemons Type A people get enraged & throw the lemons back, having a minor heart attack while doing so
Type B people gather all of the lemons & make lemonade Type C people dont say anything, but fume inside where no one can see Type H people gather the lemons, make lemonade, sell it, turn it into a franchise business & make millions
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