Comparison of AEGL and ERPG/TEEL values for ALOHA Modeling Kelsey L. F. Curran Industrial Facilities Safety Basis Clover Leaf Solutions, Inc. / Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Issue SNL Determine if Update to Screening Criteria Necessary SNL Adopted ERPG-3 with 15 min Duration as Screening Criteria to Evaluate Facility Hazard Classification Current Protection Action Criteria (PACs) AEGLS ERPG TEEL Hierarchy of values 60-minute AEGL > ERPG >TEEL Protective Action Criteria Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) Estimate the concentrations at which most people (including sensitive individuals) begin to experience health effects if they are exposed to a
hazardous chemical for a specific length of time In November 2011, the National Advisory Committee for AEGLs was eliminated and the AEGL development process was modified Future development work on the AEGLs will focus on finalizing interim AEGLs through the National Academy of Sciences Derived from extensive reviews of animal and human studies As of early 2012, about 70 substances have final AEGLs and nearly 200 substances have interim AEGLs Three tiers are developed for five exposure periods: 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 4 hours, and 8 hours Protective Action Criteria Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) AEGL-3 - airborne concentration above which the general population could experience life-threatening health effects or death AEGL-2 - airborne concentration above which the general population could experience irreversible other serious, long-lasting adverse health effects or impaired ability to escape AEGL-1 - airborne concentration above which the general population could experience notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic nonsensory effects. Effects are not disabling and are transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure Protective Action Criteria
Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) Estimate the concentrations at which most people (excluding sensitive individuals) will begin to experience health effects if they are exposed to a hazardous airborne chemical for 1 hour Developed by the Emergency Response Planning committee of the American Industrial Hygiene Association Derived from extensive reviews of animal and human studies As of early 2012, about 145 chemicals have ERPGs Protective Action Criteria Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) ERPG-3 - maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing life-threatening health effects ERPG-2 - maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other serious health effects or symptoms which could impair an individual's ability to take protective action ERPG-1 - maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing other than mild transient health effects or perceiving a clearly defined, objectionable odor
Protective Action Criteria Temporary Emergency Exposure Levels (TEELs) Estimate the concentrations at which most people (including sensitive individuals) will begin to experience health effects if they are exposed to a hazardous airborne chemical for a given duration Derived by the U.S. Department of Energy Subcommittee on Consequence Assessment and Protective Actions (SCAPA) according to a specific, standard methodology Development methodology uses available levels of concern and manipulates current data using a peer-reviewed, approved procedure in order to establish the TEELs More than 3,000 chemicals have TEELs Protective Action Criteria Temporary Emergency Exposure Levels (TEELs) TEEL-3 - airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted the general population could experience life-threatening adverse health effects or death TEEL-2 - airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted the general population could experience irreversible or other serious, longlasting, adverse health effects or an impaired ability to escape TEEL-1 - airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted the general population could experience notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic, nonsensory effects. Effects are not disabling and are transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure
Protective Action Criteria Summary AEGL ERPG TEEL Yes No Yes National Academy of Sciences AIHA DOE Airborne Concentration
Above Below Above Health Effects Could Without Could Values Published 70 145 >3,000 Release Duration
10 min, 30 min, 60 min, 4 hr, 8 hr 60 min 60 min Default Available Only if no AEGL or ERPG Sensitive Individuals Publishing Agency ALOHA Model Issue AEGLs Based upon better data Duration based values
Do not exist for all SNL listed toxics Application of Safety Factor (i.e., 15 min release) to AEGLs? More exact numbers Based on real data Use 10, 30, or 60 min release duration? AEGL Exposure Period Example Germane (ppm) Chlorine (ppm) 10 min 30 min 60 min 4 hr 8 hr 10 min
30 min 60 min 4 hr 8 hr AEGL-1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 AEGL-1 0.50
28 20 10 7.1 Current SNL Evaluation Method ALOHA 5.4.3 95% or 50% atmospheric / meteorological data Evaluation used 95% atmospheric / meteorological data ERPG-3, if none, use TEEL-3 Apply Safety Factor of 4 to ERPG / TEEL Release duration 15 min. Release rate = quantity/15 min For Comparative Analysis Use 10 lb. release SNL 95% ALOHA Modeling Protocol Location = Kirtland AFB, New Mexico Latitude 35.2.0 N
Longitude 106.32.0 W Wind Tower Height = 10m Surface Roughness = Open Space Cloud Cover = Clear Skies Temperature = 20oC Relative Humidity = 25% Inversion Height = 300 m Wind Speed = 1.5 m/s Stability Class = F Source Input ERPG/TEEL Continuous Release Release Qty. = 10 lb.
TEEL-3 n/a 2.1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 20000 n/a Assumptions / Limitations ALOHA 5.4.3 information is current/correct No AEGL / ERPG, PAC=TEEL AEGL and ERPG/TEEL not available for all chemicals Met data will vary based on the site, therefore varying the results of the model run 4 of 10 chemicals evaluated had both AEGL and ERPG/TEEL ALOHA PAC Modeling Data Chemical
Ammonia Boron Trichloride Carbon Monoxide Chlorine Dichlorosilane Fluorine Germane Hydrogen Bromide Nitrous Oxide Silane Release Time Concentration (min) Threat Zone Radius (m) @ 100m (ppm) ERPG/ AEGL TEEL AEGL-3 ERPG-3 TEEL-3 AEGL ERPG TEEL 60 15 30.00 72.00 n/a
AEGL-3 ERPG-3 99.4 ppm @ 100m 397.0 ppm @ 100m Carbon Monoxide AEGL-3 ERPG-3 60.4 ppm @ 100m 241 ppm @ 100m Chlorine AEGL-3 ERPG-3 15 ppm @ 100m
40.9 ppm @ 100m Fluorine AEGL-3 ERPG-3 31.4 ppm @ 100m 101 ppm @ 100m Conclusions Based on Data: ERPG-3/TEEL-3 is more conservative AEGL-3 shows lower concentration at a closer distance Need more AEGLs to be published Compare new AEGL values to old ERPG values More information is required to make further conclusions on validity of using AEGLs vs. ERPG/TEELs Recommendations Stay with current ERPG-3 methodology Additional Evaluation Recommended:
Safety Factor applicability for AEGLs Newly adopted AEGLs versus old ERPG values Use of 10-min or 30-min AEGLs with corresponding release duration
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