Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Implementation
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Implementation of the Juvenile Justice Reform Act 2018 Caren Harp Administrator Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Tennessee Juvenile Court Services Association Conference August 5, 2019 Franklin, TN Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Brief History and Purpose of the JJDP Act Enacted in 1974 to provide a comprehensive, coordinated approach to prevent and address juvenile delinquency and improve the juvenile justice system
Established OJJDP to support local and state efforts Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Brief History and Purpose of the JJDP Act Created the Title II Formula Grants Program Established the core requirements deinstitutionalization of status offenders (DSO) separation of juveniles from adults in secure facilities (Separation) removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups (Jail Removal) addressing disproportionate minority contact within the juvenile justice system (DMC) 1988 Reauthorized in 2002 as the JJDP Act of 2002 Changed confinement to contact in the DMC core Reauthorized in 2018 in the Juvenile Justice Reform Act (JJRA) of 2018 Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov
Purpose of the JJRA of 2018 The purposes of this subchapter and subchapter II are (Section 101) (1) to support State, tribal, and local programs that prevent juvenile involvement in delinquent behavior; (2) to assist State, tribal, and local governments in promoting public safety by encouraging accountability for acts of juvenile delinquency; and (3) to assist State, tribal, and local governments in addressing juvenile crime through the provision of technical assistance, research, training, evaluation, and the dissemination of current and relevant information on effective and evidence-based programs for combating juvenile delinquency; and
(4) to support a continuum of evidence-based or promising programs (including delinquency prevention, intervention, mental health, behavioral health and substance abuse treatment, family services, and services for children exposed to violence) that are trauma informed, reflect the science of adolescent development, and are designed to meet the needs of at risk youth and youth who come into contact with the justice system. Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Summary of the JJRA of 2018 Definitions (Sections 103) Annual Report (207) State Allocations Minimum Allocation [Section 221(2)(A) and (B)] Planning and Administration [Section 221(c)] State Advisory Group Allocation [Section 221(d)]
State Plan Requirements Publication on States Website [Section 223(a)] State Advisory Group Composition [Section 223(a)(3)] Juvenile Crime Analysis [Section 223(a)(7)(B)] Program Areas for which Title II Formula Grants Funds May Support [Section 223(a)(9)] Juveniles Treated As Adults [Section 223(a)(11)(B)] System of Compliance Monitoring [Section 223(a)(14)] Racial and Ethnic Disparities [Section 223(a)(15)] Valid Court Order [Section 223(a)(23)] Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth
ojjdp.gov Summary of the JJRA of 2018 Additional Information Required in State Plan Description of policies, procedures and training in effect to eliminate use of dangerous practices, unreasonable restraints, and unreasonable isolation, including by developing effective behavior management techniques [Section 223(a)(29)] Description of evidenced-based methods that will be used to conduct mental health and substance abuse screening, assessment, referral, and treatment [Section 223(a)(30)(A)] Description of how the state will seek, to the extent practicable, to provide or arrange for mental health and substance disorder treatment [Section 223(a)(30)(B)] Description of reentry planning for juveniles to include a written case plan [Section 223(a)(31)] Assurance of coordination between the DSA and SEA to develop and implement a plan to support educational progress [Section 22 (a)(32) Description of policies and procedures to screen for, identify, and document in state records identification of victims of domestic human trafficking or those at risk of such trafficking and diversion [Section 223(a)(33) Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth
ojjdp.gov Juvenile Justice (JJ) Specialists Allocation of Funds/Planning and Administration [Section 221(c)] (p. 34) In accordance with regulations promulgated under this part, a portion of any allocation to any State under this part shall be available to develop a State plan or for other pre-award activities associated with such State plan, and to pay that portion of the expenditures which are necessary for effective and efficient administration of funds, including the designation of not less than one individual who shall coordinate efforts to achieve and sustain compliance with the core requirements and certify whether the State is in compliance with such requirements (i.e., JJ Specialist). Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov State 3-Year Plans
State Plan Requirements [Section 223(a)] In order to receive formula grants under this part, a State shall submit a plan for carrying out its purposes applicable to a 3-year period. Such plan shall be amended annually to include new programs, projects, and activities. The State shall submit annual performance reports to the Administrator which shall describe progress in implementing programs contained in the original plan, and shall describe how the State plan is supported by or takes account of scientific knowledge regarding adolescent development and behavior and regarding the effects of delinquency prevention programs and juvenile justice interventions on adolescents. Not later than 60 days after the date on which a plan or amended plan submitted under this subsection is finalized, a State shall make the plan or amended plan publicly available by posting the plan or amended plan on the States publicly available website. Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov State 3-Year Plans Demonstrate that the applicant satisfies the 33 statutory requirements of the state plan listed in 34 U.S.C. 11133(a), including the requirement to provide data and documentation to demonstrate compliance with the four core requirements of the Formula Grants Program and the adequacy of the
states compliance monitoring system. Provide a coherent narrative setting forth a 3-year plan for the proposed uses of the Title II funds based on the states juvenile delinquency crime analysis and in accordance with the JJDP Act of 1974 (as amended through P.L. 115-385). The 3-year plan is to be amended in the second and third years of the 3-year cycle to include new programs, projects, and activities (currently in 2 nd year of cycle). Explain how and with what other delinquency prevention and related programs operated by entities within the state the designated agency coordinates, as required by Section 223 (a) (8) (i.e., programs operated by public and private agencies and organizations, and other related programs such as education, special education, recreation, health, and welfare programs). Source: OJJDP FY 2018 Title II Formula Grants Program solicitation Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov SAG Composition SAG Composition [Section 223(a)(3)(A)] (p. 35-38) (3) Provide for an advisory group (i)
which members have training, experience, or special knowledge concerning adolescent development, the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency, the administration of juvenile justice, or the reduction of juvenile delinquency; (A) shall consist of not less than 15 and not more than 33 members appointed by the chief executive officer of the State Locally elected official representing general purpose local government; Representative of law enforcement and juvenile justice agencies, including: Juvenile and family court judges Prosecutors Counsel for children and youth Probation workers Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov SAG Composition Representatives of public agencies concerned with delinquency prevention or treatment, such as:
Welfare Social services Child and adolescent mental health Education Child and adolescent substance abuse Special education Services for youth with disabilities Recreation Youth services Representatives of private nonprofit organizations, including persons concerned with: Family preservation and strengthening Parent groups and parent self-help groups Youth development Delinquency prevention and treatment Neglected or dependent children Quality of youth justice
Education Social services for children Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov SAG Composition Volunteers who work with delinquent youth or youth at risk of delinquency; representatives of programs that are alternatives to incarceration, including programs providing organized recreation activities; persons with special experience and competence in addressing problems related to school violence and vandalism and alternatives to suspension and expulsion; persons, licensed or certified by the applicable State, with expertise and competence in preventing and addressing mental health and substance abuse needs in delinquent youth and youth at risk of delinquency; Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth
ojjdp.gov SAG Composition representatives of victim or witness advocacy groups, including at least one individual with expertise in addressing the challenges of sexual abuse and exploitation and trauma, particularly the needs of youth who experience disproportionate levels of sexual abuse, exploitation, and trauma before entering the juvenile justice system; and for a State in which one or more Indian Tribes are located, an Indian tribal representative (if such representative is available) or other individual with significant expertise in tribal law enforcement and juvenile justice in Indian tribal communities; Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov SAG Composition (iii) a majority of which members (including the chairperson) shall not be full-time employees of the Federal, State, or local government;
(iv) at least one-fifth of which members shall be under the age of 28 at the time of initial appointment; and (v) at least 3 members who have been or are currently under the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system or, if not feasible and in appropriate circumstances, who is the parent or guardian of someone who has been or is currently under the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system; Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov SAG Duties SAG Duties [Section 223(a)(3)(B-E)] (p. 38) (B) shall participate in the development and review of the State's juvenile justice plan prior to submission to the supervisory board for final action; (C) shall be afforded the opportunity to review and comment, not later than 45 days after their submission to the advisory group, on all juvenile justice and delinquency prevention grant applications submitted to the State agency designated under paragraph (1); (D) shall, consistent with this subchapter
(i) advise the State agency designated under paragraph (1) and its supervisory board; and (ii) submit to the chief executive officer and the legislature of the State ) at least every 2 years a report and necessary recommendations regarding State compliance with the core requirements; and (iii) contact and seek regular input from juveniles currently under the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system; and Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov SAG Duties (E) may, consistent with this subchapter (i)
advise on State supervisory board and local criminal justice advisory board composition; and (ii) review progress and accomplishments of projects funded under the State plan. Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Use of Title II Formula Grants Program Funds [Section 223(a)(5)(A-C)] (p. 39-40) (5) unless the provisions of this paragraph are waived at the discretion of the Administrator for any State in which the services for delinquent or other youth are organized primarily on a statewide basis, provide that at least 66 2/3 per centum of funds received by the State under section 11132 of this title reduced by the percentage (if any) specified by the State under the authority of paragraph (25) and excluding funds made available to the State advisory group under section 11132(d) of this title, shall be expended (A)
through programs of units of local government or combinations thereof, to the extent such programs are consistent with the State plan; (B) Through programs of local private agencies, to the extent such programs are consistent with the State plan, except that direct funding of any local private agency by a State shall be permitted only if such agency requests such funding after it has applied for and been denied funding by any unit of local government or combination thereof; and (C) to provide funds for programs of Indian tribes that agree to attempt to comply with the core requirements applicable to the detention and confinement of juveniles, an amount that bears the same ratio to the aggregate amount to be expended through programs referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) as the population under 18 years of age in the geographical areas in which such tribes perform such functions bears to the State population under 18 years of age Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Formula Grants Program Areas [Section 223(a)(9)] (p. 42-46) Addressing the Needs of Girls (V)
Learning and Other Disabilities (I) Aftercare/Reentry (R) Legal Representation for Juveniles (G) After-School Programs (Q) Alternatives to Detention and Placement (A) Mental Health or Co-occurring Disorder Services (T) Child Abuse and Neglect Programs (D) Mentoring, Counseling, and Training Programs (H) Diversion Planning and Administration
Compliance Monitoring and TTA to Secure Facilities (W) Denationalization of Status Offenders Disproportionate Minority Contact Jail Removal Separation of Juveniles from Adult Inmates Positive Youth Development (L) Delinquency Prevention (C) Gangs (J) Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Formula Grants Program Areas [Section 223(a)(9)] (p. 42-46) Graduated and Appropriate Sanctions (M) Hate Crimes (P) Indian Tribe Programs
Indigent Defense (G) Job Training (H) Juvenile Justice System Improvement School Programs (E) Strengthening Families (B) (N) & (O) Probation (F) Protecting Juvenile Rights (S) Records Expungement and Sealing (U) Reducing Probation Officer Caseloads Rural Area Juvenile Programs State Advisory Group Allocation Substance and Alcohol Abuse (K) Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov
SAG Composition and Duties [Section 223(a)(3)] (p. 35-38) (III) Representatives of public agencies concerned with delinquency prevention or treatment, such as welfare, social services, child and adolescent mental health, education, child and adolescent substance abuse, special education, services for youth with disabilities, recreation, and youth services (VII) persons with special experience and competence in addressing problems related to school violence and vandalism and alternatives to suspension and expulsion Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Juvenile Crime Analysis Juvenile Crime Analysis [Section 223(a)(7)] (p. 40-41) Provide for an analysis of juvenile delinquency problems
Plan to Provide alternatives to detention for SOs and HT victims (list of suggestions) Reduce use of secure detention and correction for youth awaiting residential treatment Engage family members where appropriate in delivery of services Use community-based services Promote evidence-based and trauma-informed programs and practices Eliminate use of restraints for pregnant juveniles plan needed by Dec 2019; implementation expected by December 2020. Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Coordination and Utilization of Evidencedbased (EBPs) and Promising Programs Coordination and Utilization of EBPs [Section 223(a)(8)] (p. 42) Provide for the coordination and maximum utilization of existing evidencebased and promising juvenile delinquency programs, programs operated by public and private agencies and organizations, and other related programs (such as education, special education, recreation, health, and welfare programs)
Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Juvenile Reentry Planning Requirements Reentry Planning [Section 223(a)(31)] (p. 58) (31) describe how reentry planning by the State for juveniles will include (A) a written case plan based on an assessment of needs that include (i) the pre-release and post-release plans for the juveniles; (ii) the living arrangement to which the juveniles are to be discharged; and (iii) any other plans developed for the juveniles based on an individualized assessment; and (B) review processes Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Waiver/Transfer [Section 223(a)(11)(B)
Not later than 3 years after enactment of JJRA 2018 Juveniles certified as adults for criminal court s/s separation and no adult lock up unless certain conditions are met: Hearing to determine if holding juvenile is in the interest of justice Follow up hearings every 30 days (45 days rural jurisdictions) for continuing need to detain Not longer than 180 days total without good cause for an extension or an express waiver by the juvenile Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Monitoring System Section 223(a)(14) Adequate monitoring system changes to effective monitoring system JJRA provides no definition of effective Funding based on data from earlier years; JJRA silent as to how to address that issue Use adequate system for the 10/1/18 9/30/19 reporting
period for FY2020 funding; Use effective system for the 10/1/19-9/30/20 reporting period for FY2021 funding Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Identification and Reduction of RED Identification and Reduction of RED [Section 223(a)(15)] (p. 53) CORE (15) implement policy, practice, and system improvement strategies at the State, territorial, local, and tribal levels, as applicable, to identify and reduce racial and ethnic disparities among youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system, without establishing or requiring numerical standards or quotas, by (A) establishing or designating existing coordinating bodies, composed of juvenile justice stakeholders, (including representatives of the educational system) at the State, local, or tribal levels, to advise efforts by States, units of local government, and Indian Tribes to reduce racial and ethnic disparities; SAG (B)
identifying and analyzing data on race and ethnicity at decision points in State, local, or tribal juvenile justice systems to determine which such points create racial and ethnic disparities among youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system; and (C) developing and implementing a work plan that includes measurable objectives for policy, practice, or other system changes, based on the needs identified in the data collection and analysis under subparagraph (B) Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov Valid Court Order Exception VCO for a status offense Youth taken into custody for VCO Court finds detention necessary for violation of the
order Court issues (detention) order Cannot be extended or renewed The court may not issue a second or subsequent (detention) order unless the status offender violates a valid court order AFTER THE DATE of the (detention) order *emphasis and parenthesis added here to help clarify the language* Enhancing Safety Ensuring Accountability Empowering Youth ojjdp.gov QUESTIONS?
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