Chapter 1 What is Psychology? 2011 The McGraw-Hill

Chapter 1 What is Psychology?  2011 The McGraw-Hill

Chapter 1 What is Psychology? 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Preview Defining Psychology Psychology in Historical Perspective

Contemporary Approaches to Psychology What Psychologists Do Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychology: Defined Psychology is the scientific study of

behavior and mental processes. Three Key Components science systematic methods behavior what can be directly observed mental processes thoughts, feelings, motives 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Science of Psychology

Critical Thinking Skepticism Objectivity Curiosity 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

History of Psychology Western Philosophy Biology and Physiology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) 1879 established 1st psychology lab 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Wundts Structuralism

identified structures of the mind introspection systematic, detailed self-reports 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. James Functionalism

identified the functions and purposes of the mind stream of consciousness human interactions with outside world why is human thought adaptive?

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychology and Evolution Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species, 1859 Natural Selection competition for resources genetic characteristics that promote reproduction and survival are favored

environmental changes alter course of evolution 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contemporary Approaches Current Psychological Perspectives Biological Behavioral Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Evolutionary Sociocultural 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Biological Approach The biological approach focuses on the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience study of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous system thoughts and emotions have physical basis in brain allowed psychologists to better understand the brain 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Behavioral Approach The behavioral approach focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behavior. Notable Behaviorists John Watson B.F. Skinner rejected thought processes 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamics emphasizes unconscious thought conflict between biological drives and demands of society early childhood family experiences Psychoanalysis - Freud

2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Humanistic Approach Humanists emphasize positive human qualities capacity for positive growth free will Humanistic Theorists Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cognitive Approach The cognitive approach emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing.

Information Processing how humans interpret incoming info, weigh it, store it, and apply it 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Evolutionary Approach The evolutionary approach uses ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection to explain human behavior. Evolutionary Psychologists David Buss

Leda Cosmides 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sociocultural Approach examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes studies differences between ethnic and

cultural groups within and across countries 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Career Settings in Psychology 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Areas of Specialization

Physiological Psych / Behavioral Neuroscience Sensation and Perception Learning Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Motivation & Emotion Psychology of Women & Gender Personality Psychology

Social Psychology Industrial / Organizational Psychology Clinical & Counseling Psychology Health Psychology 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Areas of Specialization Also (but not addressed in text beyond this chapter)

Community Psychology School & Educational Psychology Environmental Psychology Forensic Psychology Sport Psychology Cross-Cultural Psychology 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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