26 The Reproductive System Lecture Presentation by Betsy

26 The Reproductive System Lecture Presentation by Betsy

26 The Reproductive System Lecture Presentation by Betsy C. Brantley Valencia College 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.1: Male Reproductive Structures Overview of the male reproductive system Male gonads Testes or testicles Produce gametes called spermatozoa or sperm Produce hormones Male reproductive tract Transports semen (sperm with secretions of accessory glands)

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.1: Male Reproductive Structures Overview of the male reproductive system Accessory organs Ductus deferens (sperm duct) older name Vas deferens Conducts sperm between the epididymis (site of sperm maturation) and prostate gland/ Seminal glands Secrete fluid forming bulk of semen volume Prostate gland Secretes fluid and enzymes 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of the male reproductive structures Accessory Organs

Ductus deferens Gonads Testis Seminal gland Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland Urethra External Genitalia Penis Scrotum Epididymis 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.1 1

Module 26.2: Main Structures of the Male Reproductive System Path of spermatozoa Testes to the epididymis (site of sperm maturation) to the ductus deferens to the ejaculatory duct to the urethra Accessory organs secrete various fluids into the reproductive tract Seminal vesicles secrete into the ejaculatory ducts Bulbourethral and prostate glands secrete into the urethra (note seminal vesicles and prostate different_ Urethra passes through the penis to exit the body 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sagittal sectional view of male reproductive structures Ureter Pubic symphysis

Urinary bladder Urethra Rectum Ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct Penis Epididymis Lies on top of testicle Testis Seminal Gland to Ejact. duct Prostate gland

to urethra Anus Bulbourethral Gland to urethra Scrotum 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.2 1 Module 26.2: Main Structures of the Male Reproductive System Scrotum and associated structures (continued) Inguinal canal Extends from the inguinal ring to the scrotal cavity Presence of spermatic cords creates weak points

in the abdominal wall Inguinal hernias Protrusions of visceral tissue or organs into the inguinal canal Relatively common in males A hernia is a protrusion of tissue 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Male reproductive system in anterior view Inguinal ligament Inguinal canal Superficial inguinal ring Protrusion of tissue from lower abdominal region is a hernia Cremaster muscle

Nerve Artery Venous plexus Spermatic cord Ductus deferens Scrotal septum Dartos muscle Scrotal cavity Raphe 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.2 3 Module 26.2: Main Structures of the Male Reproductive System

Internal organization of the testes Tunica albuginea Tough, fibrous capsule Covers the testes Continuous with septa subdividing testes into lobules Seminiferous tubules Coiled tubules within lobules Critical Site of sperm production Merge into straight tubules 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of the structure of the testes ***Epididymis Efferent ductule

Straight tubule Ductus deferens Mesothelium Scrotum Skin ***Tunica albuginea Dartos muscle Superficial fascia Septa Cremaster muscle Scrotal cavity

***Seminiferous tubules Rete testis 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Know three highlighted Structures with *** Figure 26.2 4 Module 26.3: Sperm Formation and Structure Spermatogenesis Sperm production Involves three processes 1. Mitosis and cell division (cytokinesis) Process producing two identical daughter cells

Since daughter cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes (or 2 sets of chromosomes), they are called diploid In seminiferous tubules, stem cells undergo mitosis Original cell has 46 chromosomes 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chromosomes in mitosis Mitosis Stem cell (2n) Chromosomes Chromosome Duplication (4n) A mitosis event

++Identicial to cell in upper right hand corner 2n 2n Chromosomes of daughter cell 1 Chromosomes of daughter cell 2 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Daughter cells 1

Stem cell 2 Cell entering meiosis Figure 26.3 1 Module 26.3: Sperm Formation and Structure Spermatogenesis (continued) Involves three processes (continued) 2. Meiosis Special form of cell division involved in gamete production Two cycles of cell division (meiosis I and II) Produces four haploid (haplo, single) cells, each with 23 individual chromosomes Synapsis

Corresponding material and paternal chromosomes associate to form 23 chromosome pairs Set of four chromatids is called a tetrad 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chromosomes in meiosis Meiosis ONE Daughter cell (2n) Chromosomes Meiosis I Chromosome duplication, synapsis, and tetrad formation Tetrad (4n)

Meiosis II 1n 1n 1n 1 2 3 Chromosomes of 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 1n 4 1 4

gametes of 1n each 2 3 Gametes (n) 4 Figure 26.3 2 Module 26.3: Sperm Formation and Structure Spermatogenesis (continued) Involves three processes (continued) 3. Spermiogenesis Differentiation of immature male gametes into physically mature spermatozoa

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.3: Sperm Formation and Structure Process of spermatogenesis Mitosis of spermatogonium Spermatogonia (singular, spermatogonium) Original stem cells in the seminiferous tubules Go through mitosis to form two daughter cells One cell remains in contact with the tubule basement membrane The other is a primary spermatocyte 16 days from spermatogonium to primary spermatocyte ***We will follow path of primary spermatocyte 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.3: Sperm Formation and Structure

Process of spermatogenesis (continued) Meiosis I Each primary spermatocyte begins with 46 chromosomes (note-begins with 46, not 92 or 23) Daughter cells produced are called secondary spermatocytes Each contains 23 chromosomes Each chromosome has pair of duplicate chromatids 24 days from primary spermatocyte to secondary spermatocyte 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.3: Sperm Formation and Structure Process of spermatogenesis (continued) Meiosis II Secondary spermatocytes divide to produce haploid spermatids

Each spermatid contains 23 chromosomes Each primary spermatocyte produces four spermatids Only a few hours from secondary spermatocyte to spermatid 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.3: Sperm Formation and Structure Process of spermatogenesis (continued) Spermiogenesis Physical maturation of sperm Each spermatid matures into a single spermatozoon (sperm) 24 days from spermatid to spermatozoa 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Spermatogenesis

Slide 1 Spermatogenesis Mitosis of spermatogonium All of your body cells are 2n like this > or 46 chromosomes DNA replication Meiosis I Duplication or 4n > Split Returns to 2n > Meiosis II Primary spermatocyte (diploid, 2n)

Split > Primary spermatocyte Synapsis and tetrad formation Secondary spermatocytes Spermatids (haploid, n) Spermiogenesis (physical maturation) Each sperm cell is 1n > or 23 chromosomes 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Spermatozoa (haploid,

n) Figure 26.3 3 Module 26.4: Seminiferous Tubules Seminiferous tubules Tightly coiled within lobules Sites of sperm formation Spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis together take ~9 weeks Each segment at different phase of spermatogenesis Every tubule is continuously producing spermatozoa 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Micrographs of the seminiferous tubules

Rete testis Seminiferous tubules Septa Testis Seminiferous tubule containing late spermatids Seminiferous tubule containing spermatozoa Seminiferous tubule containing early spermatids

Seminiferous tubules 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.4 1 2 Module 26.4: Seminiferous Tubules Structure of the seminiferous tubule Surrounded by a delicate connective tissue capsule Spaces between tubules contain: Areolar tissue Blood vessels Large interstitial cells (Leydig cells) Leydig cells secrete androgens, such as testosterone and androstenedione (dominant sex

hormones in males) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.4: Seminiferous Tubules Cells in the wall of the seminiferous tubule 3 stages as follows 1)Spermatogonia (stem cells) 2)Spermatocytes (undergoing meiosis) 3)Spermatids (undergoing spermiogenesis) Develop into mature spermatozoa Nurse cells (Sertoli cells) Extend from the tubular capsule to the lumen Located between other types of cells Nurse cell cytoplasm surrounds those other cells

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.4: Seminiferous Tubules Compartments of the seminiferous tubule Nurse cells are joined by tight junctions Form a bloodtestis barrier protecting developing sperm cells from the bodys immune system This layer of nurse cells divides the seminiferous tubule into two compartments Basal compartment Contains spermatogonia Luminal compartment Where meiosis and spermatogenesis occur 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.5: Male Reproductive Tract and Glands Activation of sperm (continued) Capacitation

Process enabling sperm to become motile and fully functional Usually occurs in two steps 1. Spermatozoa become motile when mixed with seminal gland secretions 2. Spermatozoa become capable of fertilization when exposed to the female reproductive tract 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.5: Male Reproductive Tract and Glands Male reproductive tract Epididymis (epi, on, + didymos, twin) Start of the male reproductive tract Coiled tube bound to posterior border of each testis Length of tubule is almost 7 m (23 ft) Sperm undergo functional maturation here 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Module 26.5: Male Reproductive Tract and Glands Male reproductive tract (continued) Ductus deferens (or vas deferens) 4045 cm (16016 in.) long Passes through inguinal canal as part of spermatic cord Transports spermatozoa from the epididymis ***Clipped in a vasectomy procedure Ejaculatory duct Carries fluid from the seminal gland and ampulla to the urethra 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view of the urinary bladder, prostate gland, and other structures of the male reproductive system Ureter Ductus

deferens Seminal gland Urinary bladder Ampulla Ejaculatory duct Prostate gland Surrounds urethra Prostatic urethra Urogenital diaphragm Bulbourethral glands 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.5 1

Module 26.5: Male Reproductive Tract and Glands Semen Contains spermatozoa and seminal fluid Fluid is a combination of secretions from: Seminal glands Nurse cells Epididymis Prostate gland Bulbourethral glands 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.5: Male Reproductive Tract and Glands

Accessory glands Seminal glands (also called seminal vesicles) Sandwiched between the posterior wall of the urinary bladder and the rectum Secretion ejected by smooth muscle lining gland Stimulates flagellum movement in spermatozoa First step of capacitation Produce ~60 percent of semen volume 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.5: Male Reproductive Tract and Glands Accessory glands (continued) Prostate gland Small, muscular, rounded organ ~4 cm (1.6 in.) in diameter Encircles the proximal urethra as it leaves the bladder Glandular tissue wrapped in blanket of smooth

muscle fibers Produces 2030 percent of semen volume 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.5: Male Reproductive Tract and Glands Accessory glands (continued) Bulbourethral glands (Cowpers glands) Located at the base of the penis Duct of each gland empties into the urethra Secrete thick, alkaline mucus Helps neutralize acids in the urethra Also lubricates the tip of the penis 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.6: Penis Tissue layers of the penis (continued) Erectile tissue

Three-dimensional network with vascular spaces In the resting state, arterial branches constricted and muscular partitions are tense (restricts blood flow into the erectile tissue) Corpora cavernosa (singular, corpus cavernosum) Two cylindrical masses on the anterior/dorsal surface of the penis Corpus spongiosum Surrounds the penile urethra Expands at the tip of the penis to form the glans 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sectional view through the penis Superficial and deep dorsal veins of penis Tissue Layers of the Penis The skin overlying the penis resembles that of

the skin on the scrotum. The dermis has a layer of smooth muscle that is a continuation of the dartos muscle of the scrotum. Areolar tissue containing superficial arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels Dense network of elastic fibers Deep artery of penis Corpora cavernosa Corpus spongiosum Erectile tissues Urethra 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.6

2 Module 26.6: Penis Phases in the male sexual response Arousal Erotic thoughts or stimulation of sensory nerves in the genital region increase parasympathetic stimulation through pelvic nerves Release of nitric oxide causes arterial dilation Through a cascade of events leading to production of cyclic GMP Blood flow increases, engorging vascular channels Erection of the penis occurs ***Viagra (sildenafil drug) inhibits the enzyme called phosphodiesterase 5 which degrades cyclic GMP. If cGMP levels are maintained then blood flow inflow increases. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.6: Penis Impotence or erectile dysfunction (ED)

Inability to achieve or maintain an erection Various causes Vascular changes (e.g., low blood pressure) Interference with neural commands Psychological factors (depression, anxiety) Viagra and Cialis (sildenafil is generic) temporarily inactivate enzymes that oppose nitric oxide (NO) Small amounts of NO can then produce erection 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.7: Hormonal Interactions Regulating Male Reproductive Function Hormonal interactions (continued) Luteinizing hormone (LH) from the hypothalamus Targets the interstitial cells of the testes Interstitial cells secrete testosterone and other androgens Testosterone levels regulated by negative feedback

High testosterone inhibits release of GnRH from hypothalamus 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.7: Hormonal Interactions Regulating Male Reproductive Function Hormonal interactions (continued) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Targets nurse cells of seminiferous tubules Nurse cells Promote spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis Secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP) Stimulates maturation of spermatids Secrete inhibin Inhibits FSH Provides feedback control of spermatogenesis +++LH and FSH play a role in male reproduction 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hormonal interactions from the hypothalamus to testes Release of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) ? Negative feedback HYPOTHALAMUS TESTES Secretion of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Interstitial Cell Stimulation Testosterone ANTERIOR

LOBE OF THE PITUITARY GLAND Nurse Cell Stimulation Secretion of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Negative feedback Inhibin KEY Stimulation Inhibition 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.7 Module 26.7: Hormonal Interactions

Regulating Male Reproductive Function Testosterone functions Maintains libido (sexual drive) and related behaviors Stimulates bone and muscle growth Establishes and maintains male secondary sexual characteristics Maintains accessory glands and organs of the male reproductive system 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.8: Female Reproductive Structures Overview of the female reproductive system Female gonads are the ovaries Produce gametes (oocytes (eggs) that mature into ova) Produce hormones Female reproductive tract

Uterine tubes or Fallopian tubes (deliver oocyte or embryo to the uterus) **** notice or Normal sites of fertilization Uterus (site of embryonic and fetal development) Also site of exchange between maternal and embryonic/fetal bloodstream 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of the female reproductive structures Mammary Glands Female Reproductive Tract Gonads Ovary Uterine tube Uterus Vagina

External Genitalia 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.8 Module 26.9: Female Reproductive Organs Ovary function EXCELLENT SUMMARY Three main functions: 1. Production of immature female gametes (oocytes) 2. Secretion of female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone) 3. Secretion of inhibin (inhibits FSH production in the anterior pituitary gland) 4. ++++Feedback system between ovary and pituitary gland. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Module 26.9: Female Reproductive Organs Layers of the ovaries Germinal epithelium Layer of squamous or cuboidal cells covering the ovary Continuous with the visceral peritoneum Tunica albuginea Dense connective tissue layer just deep to the germinal epithelium Interior of the ovary Cortex (superficial layer where oocytes are produced) Medulla (deep to the cortex) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.9: Female Reproductive Organs Female reproductive system structures Uterine tube or Fallopian tube Expanded funnel (infundibulum) opens into the

pelvic cavity along the surface of the ovary Other end opens into the uterine cavity Uterus Inferior to the ovaries Usually angled anteriorly above the urinary bladder 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sagittal sectional view of the female reproductive system Ovary Infundibulum Uterine tube Rectouterine pouch Uterus

Vesicouterine pouch Sigmoid colon Urinary bladder Pubic symphysis Vagina Rectum Urethra External Genitalia Clitoris Accessory glands Labia

Anus 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.9 1 Module 26.9: Female Reproductive Organs Connective tissues and ligaments stabilize the ovary Suspensory ligament Extends from lateral surface of ovary to pelvic wall Broad ligament Extensive mesentery enclosing ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus Attaches to sides and floor of pelvic cavity 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view of the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries

Ovarian artery and vein **Ovary **Uterine tube Ovarian ligament Mesovarium Infundibulum Fimbriae **Suspensory ligament ** Notice yellow

highlighted **Uterus **Broad ligament **Ureter Uterosacral ligament **Broad ligament External os **Cervix Vaginal rugae **Vaginal wall Posterior view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.9

2 Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Oogenesis The formation and development of the oocyte Begins before birth, accelerates at puberty, ends at menopause (finite number of eggs) Nuclear events are the same as with spermatogenesis 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Oogenesis (continued) Distribution of cytoplasm is unequal Produces one functional secondary oocyte and two or three polar bodies (nonfunctional cells that later disintegrate)

Note:4 different sperm are produced, but during oogenesis only 1 secondary oocyte is retained, while the other three polar bodies disintegrate. Ovary releases a secondary oocyte (not a mature ovum) Meiosis does not complete unless fertilization occurs 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Steps in oogenesis Mitosis of oogonium (plural, oogonia) Oogonia are female reproductive stem cells Mitosis completed prior to birth For each oogonium, produces one oogonium and one primary oocyte 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Steps in oogenesis (continued) Meiosis I Begins between third and seventh month of fetal development Primary oocytes begin meiosis I, but stop at prophase I until puberty (oocyte is arrested until puberty) Rising FSH levels trigger start of the ovarian cycle Each month, some of the primary oocytes are stimulated to complete meiosis I Yields haploid secondary oocyte and a polar body Secondary oocyte gets the majority of cytoplasm 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Steps in oogenesis (continued) Meiosis II

Secondary oocyte begins meiosis II First polar body may or may not complete meiosis II Suspended in metaphase II at ovulation If fertilization does not occur, meiosis II does not complete If fertilization does occur, the secondary oocyte divides into a second polar body and a mature ovum (both haploid) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Oogenesis Slide 1 Oogenesis Mitosis of oogonium Oogonium (stem cell)

Primary oocyte (diploid, 2n) Oogonium DNA replication Meiosis I Primary oocyte Tetrad First polar body First polar body may not complete meiosis II

Secondary oocyte (haploid, n) Secondary oocyte released (ovulation) in metaphase of meiosis II Meiosis II Second polar body Sperm (n) Nucleus of ovum (n)

Fertilization 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.10 1 Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Ovarian cycle Involves changes in ovarian follicles Specialized structures where oocyte growth and meiosis I occur About 2 million primordial follicles exist at birth Each containing a primary oocyte By puberty, only about 400,000 primordial follicles remain

Others degenerated in a process called atresia Each month, FSH stimulates the development of several follicles 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Stages of the ovarian cycle (header of A,B,C,D,E, and F on subsequent slides) Primordial follicle in egg nest Primordial follicle Inactive primary oocyte surrounded by a simple squamous layer of follicle cells Egg nests Clusters of primary oocytes in the outer portion of the ovarian cortex, near the tunica albuginea 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Stages of the ovarian cycle (continued) A. Formation of primary follicles Follicular cells enlarge, divide, and form several layers around the primary oocyte Follicular cells now called granulosa cells Zona pellucida (pellucidus, translucent) Region that develops around the oocyte Thecal cells (theca, box) Layer of cells that form around the follicle Thecal cells and granulosa cells work together to produce estrogen 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Stages of the ovarian cycle (continued)

B. Formation of secondary follicles Follicle wall thickens and follicular cells secrete fluid Fluid-filled pockets expand and separate the inner and outer layers of the follicle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Stages of the ovarian cycle (continued) C. Formation of tertiary follicle Occurs about day 1014 of cycle One secondary follicle becomes a tertiary follicle or mature graafian follicle Roughly 15 mm in diameter Expanded central chamber (antrum) is filled with follicular fluid Oocyte projects into the antrum

Granulosa cells form a protective layer (corona radiata) around the secondary oocyte 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Stages of the ovarian cycle (continued) D. Ovulation Tertiary follicle releases secondary oocyte and corona radiata into the pelvic cavity Important- Marks follicular phase end and start of luteal phase E. Formation of corpus luteum (lutea, yellow) Empty tertiary follicle collapses Remaining granulosa cells proliferate CRITICAL Secrete progesterone and estrogens Progesterone stimulates maturation of the uterine lining (i.e. prepare for fertilization) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Module 26.10: Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle Stages of the ovarian cycle (continued) F. Formation of corpus albicans Knot of pale scar tissue produced by fibroblasts Formed by degeneration of the corpus luteum when fertilization does not occur after 12 days Marks the end of the ovarian cycle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The ovarian cycle Primordial Follicles in Egg Nest Primary oocyte Follicle cells Slide 1

Formation of Primary Follicles Formation of Secondary Follicles Thecal cells Granulosa cells Primary oocyte Zona pellucida Thecal cells Nucleus of primary oocyte Granulosa cells Corona radiata Formation of a Tertiary Follicle

Antrum containing follicular fluid Corona radiata Ruptured follicle Secondary oocyte Formation of Corpus Albicans Formation of Corpus Luteum Ovulation Secondary oocyte 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 26.10 2 Module 26.11: Uterine Tubes and the Uterus Uterine tubes Hollow, muscular structures ~13 cm long Lined with ciliated epithelium Distal portion connects to the uterus Infundibulum Funnel-like expansion adjacent to the ovary Has numerous fingerlike projections (fimbriae) Extend into the pelvic cavity Drape over the surface of the ovary (but no physical connection)

Inner surface lined with cilia that beat toward the lumen of the uterine tube 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.11: Uterine Tubes and the Uterus Oocyte transport Involves combination of ciliary movement and peristaltic contraction of smooth muscle in the uterine tube Takes 34 days for a secondary oocyte to travel from infundibulum to the uterine cavity (time in tubes until it reaches uterus) Fertilization must occur within the first 1224 hours after ovulation 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.11: Uterine Tubes and the Uterus Uterus Hollow, muscular organ

Capable of great changes in size and shape Provides mechanical protection, nutritional support, and waste removal for embryo (weeks 18) and fetus (>8 weeks) Contractions in the muscular wall are important in delivering the fetus at birth 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.11: Uterine Tubes and the Uterus Layers of the uterine wall Perimetrium (peri, around + metra, uterus) Outer surface Incomplete serosa continuous with the peritoneal lining Myometrium (myo-, muscle) Thick muscular middle layer Smooth muscle layer provides force for childbirth

Endometrium Glandular inner lining whose characteristics change with each uterine cycle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Layers of the uterine wall Ampulla Isthmus Infundibulum Uterine cavity Layers of the Uterine Wall Perimetrium Myometrium Endometrium Uterine

artery and vein The Uterine Cavity Uterine cavity or uterine lumen Internal os Cervical canal Vagina External os 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.11 1 Module 26.11: Uterine Tubes and the Uterus Regions of the uterus Fundus Rounded portion superior to the openings of the uterine tubes (superior like stomach)

Body Largest portion of the uterus (2/3 of the organ) Ends at the constriction encircling the internal os Cervix Inferior portion of the uterus Surrounds the cervical canal Projects into the vagina 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Regions of the uterus Ovarian artery and vein Suspensory ligament of ovary Ovary Regions of the Uterus Fundus Body

Broad ligament Cervix Vaginal artery Vagina 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.11 4 Module 26.12: The Uterine Cycle The uterine cycle or menstrual cycle Monthly changes in the functional zone of the uterus in response to sex hormone levels Averages 28 days in length (range 2135 days) First cycle (menarche) begins ~1112 years of age Cycles continue until menopause (~4555 years

of age) Regular cycle may be interrupted by illness, stress, starvation, or pregnancy 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.12: The Uterine Cycle Phases of the uterine cycle A. Menses Degeneration of the functional zone of the endometrium Caused by constricted spiral arteries Reduces endometrial blood flow Weakened arterial walls rupture Blood and degenerating tissues enter the uterine lumen Process of endometrial sloughing (menstruation) Lasts ~17 days ~3550 mL blood lost

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The uterine lining during menses Menses Perimetrium Myometrium Endometrium Uterine glands UTERINE CAVITY Basilar zone of endometrium MYOMETRIUM 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 26.12 3 Module 26.12: The Uterine Cycle Phases of the uterine cycle (continued) B. Proliferative phase Uterine gland basal cells multiply and spread, restoring uterine epithelium Stimulated and sustained by estrogens secreted from developing ovarian follicles Builds the functional zone to several millimeters thick Uterine glands manufacture glycogen-rich mucus Can be metabolized by an early embryo 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The uterine lining during the proliferative phase

Proliferative Phase Uterine cavity Uterine glands UTERINE CAVITY Functional zone ENDOMETRIUM Basilar zone MYOMETRIUM 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.12 3

Module 26.12: The Uterine Cycle Phases of the uterine cycle (continued) C. Secretory phase Uterine glands enlarge Increased secretion of glycoproteins to support embryo Arteries supplying uterine wall elongate and spiral through the functional zone Stimulated by both progesterone and estrogens from the corpus luteum Begins at ovulation and lasts until menses 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The uterine lining during the secretory phase Secretory Phase Functional zone

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.12 3 Module 26.13: Vagina and External Genitalia Functions of the vagina 1. 2. 3. Passageway for menstrual fluids Receives penis during sexual intercourse and holds spermatozoa prior to their passage into the uterus Forms inferior portion of birth canal 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Structures of the vagina Cervix External os Fornix Vaginal artery Vaginal vein Rugae Vaginal canal Hymen Greater vestibular gland Labia minora 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Vestibule Figure 26.13 1 The female external genitalia Mons pubis Urethra Prepuce or hood of clitoris Vestibule Labia minora Clitoris Vaginal entrance Labia majora

Vestibular bulb Anus Greater vestibular gland Hymen (torn) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.13 2 Module 26.14: Mammary Glands Mammary glands Provide nourishment (milk) for developing infant Milk production (lactation) controlled by hormones released by the reproductive system and the placenta Located on the anterior chest, directly over the

pectoralis major muscle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.14: Mammary Glands Structure of a mammary gland Embedded in the subcutaneous tissue of the pectoral fat pad deep to the skin Suspensory ligaments of the breast Bands of dense connective tissue Surround the duct system and form partitions between lobes and lobules Glandular tissue divided into lobes Each lobe has several secretory lobules Each lobule is composed of secretory alveoli 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.14: Mammary Glands Structure of a mammary gland (continued)

Ducts from the lobules converge into one lactiferous duct per lobe Each lactiferous duct expands near the nipple to form a lactiferous sinus Nipple Conical projection where 1520 lactiferous sinuses open onto the body surface Areola Reddish-brown skin around the nipple Grainy texture from sebaceous glands deep to the surface 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The mammary gland The Structure of a Mammary Gland Pectoralis major muscle

Pectoral fat pad Suspensory ligaments of the breast Lobules Secretory alveoli Lactiferous duct Lactiferous sinus Nipple Areola Lobe Left breast 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.14

1 Module 26.15: Regulation of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles Ovarian and uterine cycles (CRITICAL SLIDES) Ovarian and uterine cycles are controlled by cyclical changes in hormones Two cycles must operate synchronously for proper reproductive function Steps in ovarian cycle hormonal regulation 1. Release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) From hypothalamus Causes production and secretion of FSH Causes production 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. (not secretion) of LH

Module 26.15: Regulation of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles Steps in ovarian cycle hormonal regulation (continued) 2. Follicular phase of the ovarian cycle Begins when FSH stimulates some secondary follicles to become tertiary follicles As follicles develop, FSH levels decline (due to negative feedback effects of inhibin) Developing follicles also secrete estrogens (especially estradiol) Low levels of estrogens inhibit LH secretion Inhibition decreases as estrogen levels climb Estrogen decreases basal body temperature about 0.3C (0.5F) lower than during the luteal phase 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Module 26.15: Regulation of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles Steps in ovarian cycle hormonal regulation (continued) 3. Luteal phase GnRH and elevated estrogen levels stimulate LH secretion Massive surge in LH on or around day 14 triggers: Completion of meiosis I by the primary oocyte Forceful rupture of the follicular wall Ovulation (~9 hours after LH peak) Formation of corpus luteum

Luteal phase begins after ovulation 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.15: Regulation of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles Steps in ovarian cycle hormonal regulation (continued) 3. Luteal phase (continued) Corpus luteum secretes progesterone Stimulates and sustains endometrial development Progesterone levels increase and estrogen levels fall Suppresses GnRH If pregnancy does not occur, corpus luteum degenerates Progesterone levels fall GnRH increases and begins a new cycle

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Regulation of female reproduction Slide 1 HYPOTHALAMUS 1 Release of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Release of GnRH ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY GLAND Production and secretion of FSH

Production of LH Secretion of LH Negative feedback After day 10 Before day 10 OVARY Follicle development Secretion of inhibin Secretion of estrogens

Effects on CNS 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulation Establishment and of bone and maintenance of muscle growth female secondary sex characteristics Meiosis I completion Ovulation Corpus luteum formation Maintenance of accessory glands and

organs Secretion of progesterone Stimulation of endometrial growth and secretion KEY Stimulation Inhibition Figure 26.15 1 Key events in the ovarian and uterine cycles Slide 1

FOLLICULAR PHASE OF OVARIAN CYCLE LUTEAL PHASE OF OVARIAN CYCLE LH Gonadotropic hormone levels (IU/L) FSH Follicle stages during the ovarian cycle Follicle development Ovulation Corpus

luteum formation Mature corpus luteum Corpus albicans Progesterone Ovarian hormone levels Estrogens Inhibin Destruction of Repair and regeneration functional zone of functional zone

Secretion by uterine glands Endometrial changes during the uterine cycle Phases of the uterine cycle MENSES PROLIFERATIVE PHASE SECRETORY PHASE Basal body temperature

(C) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.15 2 Module 26.16: CLINICAL MODULE: Birth Control Strategies Progesterone-only forms of birth control One form is a Depo-Provera injection (injected every 3 months) Uterine cycles become irregular and cease in 50 percent of women Problems include: 1. tendency to gain weight 2. slow return to fertility (up to 18 months) after discontinuing injections Another form is as a progesterone-only pill

(taken daily) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.16: CLINICAL MODULE: Birth Control Strategies Rhythm method or Natural Family Planning Abstaining from sexual activity on days ovulation may be occurring Timing based on patterns and physical changes indicating ovulation Basal body temperature (not accurate) Cervical mucus texture Urine tests for LH (dipstick detects ovulation) High failure rate (1320 percent) due to irregularity in womens cycles 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.16: CLINICAL MODULE: Birth Control Strategies

Hormonal post-coital contraceptives (Plan B) Also called the emergency morning after pill Involves taking levonorgestrel contraceptive pills up to 5 days (120 hours) after unprotected intercourse Prevents the ovary from releasing an oocyte for longer than usual RU-486 or mifepristone is a progesterone blocker and causes contractions of the uterus Preventing oocyte from joining a sperm Reduces expected pregnancy rate up to 89 percent when taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex Can be purchased over-the-counter 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.16: CLINICAL MODULE: Birth Control Strategies Surgical sterilization male Vasectomy Each ductus deferens is cut and blocked (either

segment removed and tied/cauterized or silicone plug inserted) Relatively easy to reverse with silicone plugs Can be performed in a physicians office in minutes Failure rate extremely low No disruption in sexual function Sperm are still produced, but degenerate in the male reproductive tract 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.16: CLINICAL MODULE: Birth Control Strategies Surgical sterilization female Tubal ligation

Each uterine tube is cut and tied Can be done by laparoscopy Requires general anesthesia Complications are more likely than with a vasectomy Failure rate also extremely low 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.17: CLINICAL MODULE: Reproductive System Disorders Prostate disorders (continued) Prostate cancer Second most common cause of cancer deaths in males Can be screened for by blood tests for prostatespecific antigen (PSA) Treatment is radiation or surgical removal of prostate (prostatectomy) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Benign prostatic hypertrophy Urine flow Bladder Enlarged prostate Constricted prostatic urethra 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.17 1 Module 26.17: CLINICAL MODULE: Reproductive System Disorders Testicular cancer Most common cancer among males ages 1535

Occurs at relatively low rate (3 cases per 100,000 males per year) Survival rate near 95 percent as a result of early diagnosis and improved treatment Lance Armstrong famous cyclist 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.17: CLINICAL MODULE: Reproductive System Disorders Breast disorders Changing hormone levels can cause inflammation of the mammary gland tissues Cysts Formed if inflamed lobules are walled off by scar tissue Fibrocystic disease Condition when clusters of cysts can be felt as discrete masses Benign condition, but may need biopsy to distinguish masses from breast cancer

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Module 26.17: CLINICAL MODULE: Reproductive System Disorders Breast disorders (continued) Breast cancer Malignant metastasizing tumor of mammary gland Leading cause of death in women ages 3545 Most common in women over age 50 Notable risk factors Family history of breast cancer First pregnancy after age 30 Early menarche or late menopause Treatment includes surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and hormones Genetic testing- actress- Angelina Jolie- preventive mastectomy- controversial

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Breast cancer Breast cancer with calcifications 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.17 3 Module 26.17: CLINICAL MODULE: Reproductive System Disorders Ovarian cancer 3rd most common reproductive cancer among women but most dangerous Seldom diagnosed in early stages

1-in-70 chance of developing during female lifetime Treatment is chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery Prognosis For cancers originating in the general ovarian tissues or abnormal oocytes, relatively good prognosis For 85 percent of ovarian cancers that are carcinomas (epithelial cancers), sustained remission in only 1/3 of cases 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Ovarian cancer Ovarian carcinoma 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Normal ovary Figure 26.17

4 Module 26.17: CLINICAL MODULE: Reproductive System Disorders Cervical cancer Most common cancer of the reproductive system in women ages 1534 Of ~12,000 diagnosed each year with invasive cervical cancer, 1/3 die from the condition Another 35,000 cases per year are diagnosed with a less aggressive form Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 75 percent of cervical cancers Vaccine (Gardasil) protects against four types of HPV 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Cervical cancer Cancerous

tissue Vaginal wall Cervix 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 26.17 5

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