The Architectural Role of Emotions in Cognitive Systems
The Architectural Role of Emotions in Cognitive Systems Jonathan Gratch USC Institute for Creative Technologies Joint work with Stacy Marsella USC Information Sciences Institute Outline Outline Emotions are adaptive Can inform cognitive system design Ground in implemented cognitive system Mission Rehearsal Exercise system Cognitive Appraisal Theory Illustrate impact on architecture design
General implications for cognitive systems Adaptive Outline Role of Emotions Revolutionary progress in emotion research Neurophysiology of emotion (Damasio, LeDoux) Appraisal theories (Frijda, Lazarus, Scherer) Emotions appear adaptive (in moderation?) Decision-making Learning Belief formation Focus of attention Social relationships Communication
Growing interest in emotional systems with focus on modeling human behavior HCI (non-verbal recognition and generation) User and human behavior modeling Believability/Entertainment Outline Architectural Perspective Can inform intelligent behavior in general Motivate behavior Balancing competing goals Balancing reaction and deliberation
Disambiguating stimuli in light of existing beliefs and commitments Abstract and formalize as information processing Not new idea: Simon(1967), Oatley&Johson-Laird(1987), Sloman Revisit in light of new findings In intelligent systems In theories of emotion Grounding: Virtual Humans Face-to-face interaction Verbal & non-verbal behavior Swartout, Gratch, Hill, Hovy, Johnson, Marsella, Narayanan, Rickel, Traum, Marsella, Johnson & Labore Mission Rehearsal Exercise
Social Training Simulation Explore high-stakes social interactions in safety of VR Mission Rehearsal Exercise Team decision-making in crisis situations : Non-scripted real-time interactions Planning, replanning, and plan execution Teamwork, distributed authority and responsibility Collaborative, mixed initiative dialogue Multi-party conversations Verbal and non-verbal communication Emotionally-biased behavior Mission Rehearsal Exercise Assumptions/Limitations:
Assist Eagle 1-6:False Medevac Available:True Get Medevac Responsibility:LT Intend: True Child-Healthy Desire: SGT(+80) Belief: False Probability: 75% Causal Interpretation Combines decision-theoretic plans with models of belief and intention Uniform representation of past, present, future Agent centric subjective view
Architectural Role of Emotion Began with view emotion as veneer Ended up as central organizing construct Initial problem: how to convey emotion in interactive setting? Built mechanism to infer plausible emotions In response to simulation events In response to user interventions But discovered resolved architectural issues Coherence is more than skin deep Build it and they will come How to convey emotion Cognitive Appraisal Theory Influential and well-established theory Arnold, Frijda; Lazarus; Ortony, Clore & Collins; Scherer; Smith
Emphasizes tight coupling between Emotion Cognition Motivation Cognitive Appraisal Theory External Events Appraisal Goals, Beliefs Emotion Problemfocused Coping
Emotionfocused Smith and Lazarus cognitive-motivational-emotive system Appraisal External Events Appraisal Goals, Beliefs Appraisal = Situation assessment Compare beliefs, desires and intentions with external circumstances Appraisal
Characterize via appraisal variables Desirability Likelihood Urgency Unexpectedness Causal attribution (causality, agency, blame/credit) Coping potential (controllability, adaptability) Superset of criteria considered by cog systems Decision theory: desirability, likelihood Scheduling: desirability, urgency
Coping Strategies Coping = Response strategy Characterized by ontology of coping strategies Emotion External Events Problemfocused Goals, Beliefs Coping Emotionfocused Coping Strategies Problem-focused (act on the world)
Action execution Planning Seek instrumental social support Analogous to: Deliberative or reactive problem solving Team negotiation Coping Strategies Emotion-focused (act on belief) Denial Find silver lining Shift blame
Distancing Not typically considered by cog systems systems More than a decision (e.g. abandon current plan) Provides self-justification for why Related to motivational / explanatory coherence Leads to persistent change in behavior Modeling Appraisal and Coping Future Past Soars Working Memory Planning Perception
Dialogue Soar Operators Action Modeling Appraisal and Coping Appraisal as plan-evaluation Causal interpretation mediates agent-environment relationship Define appraisal variables in terms of features of interpretation Fast, reactive, parallel Coping as generalized plan critics Map to operators that change interpretation Problem-focused execute step, add plan step Emotion-focused Denial
Architectural Implications Emotion as central control construct Planning (inform course-of-action selection) NLU (inform reference resolution) Dialogue (prompt dialogue initiative) NLG (biases sentence generation strategies) Non-verbal expression General Implications Emotion and Reflection Appraisal is form of self-reflection / focus of attention
Emotion as decision-making Generalization of decision-theory More to the world than probabilities and utilities Emotion and plausible reasoning Emotion-focused coping motivate preference/beliefs Attempt to construct coherent motivational explanation Non-rational but adaptive? General Implications Emotion and Learning Focus learning on emotionally salient events Appraisal variables as features / case indexes Conclusion Emotion is form of information processing Arguable adaptive Juggling competing goals and commitments
Focusing cognitive resources Enforcing coherence Arguable unexplored by cognitive systems Dialogue Example: Sgts Behavior 1 Render Aid Decomposition Area Secure Squads in area A=Lt, R=Sgt 2
Secure 4-8 A=Sgt, R=2sldr 5 A=Sgt, R=3sldr Secure 8-12 6 A=Sgt, R=4sldr Secure Accident Focus=1 Lt: U9 Secure a landing zone Committed(lt,7), 7 authorized, Obligation(sgt,U9) Sgt: U10 First we should secure the assembly area Disparaged(sgt, 7), endorsed(sgt,2) Lt: U11Secure the area Committed(lt,2), 2 authorized, Obligation(sgt,U11)
ends conversation about 2, realizes 2 Pop(2), Push(7) More than a theory of emotion Appraisal as a mediating variable Direct mappings (e.g. Hayes-Roth personality model) World state Beliefs Desires Personality Behavior Indirect mappings World state Beliefs Desires Personality
Appraisal Variables Behavior Direct: More links, No insight on how to map Indirect: more constrained. More modular Mediating Variable Appraisal Mediates Personality Personality Variable Appraisal Variables Behavior e.g Extroversion Control Hope Penley & Tomaka (2002) Appraisal Mediates Culture Culture Variable Appraisal Variables Behavior e.g. Uncertainty avoidance Threat Fear
Kupperbusch et al Mediating variables Coping mediated by appraisal Undesirable & Controllable Distress Problem directed coping Undesirable & Uncontrollable Distress Emotion directed coping
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