Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins
Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins Chapter 10 Leadership and Creating Trust 10-1 2005 Prentice-Hall Leadership Ability to
influence a group toward the achievement of goals 10-2 2005 Prentice-Hall Trait Theories 1990s Seven traits seemed to differ leaders from non-leaders:
ambition and energy desire to lead honesty and integrity self-confidence intelligence high selfmonitoring job-relevant knowledge
10-3 2005 Prentice-Hall Researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework Resulted in consistent and strong support for traits as predictors of leadership
10-4 2005 Prentice-Hall Traits do a better job at predicting the emergence of leaders than in actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders 10-5 2005 Prentice-Hall
Behavioral Theories Assumes people can be trained to lead Researched the behaviors of specific leaders Provides the basis of design for training programs 10-6 2005 Prentice-Hall
Ohio State Studies Developed two categories of leadership behavior Initiating structure - attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals Consideration - concern for followers comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction 10-7 2005 Prentice-Hall
University of Michigan Studies Employee-oriented - emphasize interpersonal relations Production-oriented emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job 10-8 2005 Prentice-Hall
10-9 2005 Prentice-Hall Limitations of Behavioral Theories Did not identify consistent relationships between leadership behavior and group performance Missing consideration of the situational factors that influence success and failure
Fiedler Leadership Model Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leaders style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire 10-12 2005 Prentice-Hall
Fiedler Contingency Dimensions Leader-member relations Task structure Position power 10-13 2005 Prentice-Hall Fiedler Model
10-14 2005 Prentice-Hall Leader-Member Exchange Theory Leaders do differentiate among followers Disparities are far from random Followers with in-group status have: higher performance ratings lower turnover intentions greater satisfaction with their superiors
higher overall satisfaction than those in the out-group 10-15 2005 Prentice-Hall Path-Goal Theory Leaders job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the direction and support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the
organization Acceptable, Motivational 10-16 2005 Prentice-Hall Path-Goal Theory
2005 Prentice-Hall Leader-Participation Model Leader behavior must adjust to reflect the task structure Sequential set of rules that should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making 10-19
2005 Prentice-Hall Transactional Transformational leaders - motivate leaders - inspire their followers in followers to transcend the direction of their own selfestablished goals interests for the good
by clarifying role of the organization and task requirements 10-20 2005 Prentice-Hall Charismatic Leadership Theory Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain
behaviors 10-21 2005 Prentice-Hall Charismatic Leaders Have vision Willing to take risks to achieve that vision Sensitive to both environmental constraints and follower needs
Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary 10-22 2005 Prentice-Hall How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers Articulates an appealing vision Communicates high performance expectations Conveys, through words and actions, a
new set of values Makes self-sacrifices and engages in unconventional behavior to demonstrate convictions about the vision 10-23 2005 Prentice-Hall Increasing body of research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction
among followers 10-24 2005 Prentice-Hall Contemporary Issues Role of emotional intelligence in leadership effectiveness Ethical implications in leadership Need to modify leadership style to cultural differences
10-25 2005 Prentice-Hall Emotional Intelligence (EI) Recent studies indicate that EI is the best predictor of who will emerge as a leader
10-26 2005 Prentice-Hall What is Trust? A positive expectation that another will not--through words, actions, or decisions--act opportunistically Familiarity, Risk 10-27 2005 Prentice-Hall
Polyuric, oliguric, or anuric. Phosphorus. Danger Values <1.5 mg/dl. Hemolysis, neurologic signs. Mild hypophosphatemia (>2 mg/dl) without hypercalcemia and without DKA is often ignored. If hypercalcemia, Rule out neoplasia >> Primary HyperPTH. Phosphorus.
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