The Making of a Revolution 1754-1783 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Preludes to a Revolution The French and Indian War, 17541763. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The French and Indian War, 17541763 The war changed the landscape of North America. After the British victory, France ceded Canada and the land east of the Mississippi River to the British. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. North America Before and After the French and Indian War 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights
reserved. Causes: Europe 1740: Great Britain attacks French and Austrians the British capture Nova Scotia. The British Drama Spills over into North America British & Iroquois vs. French & Huron The British decide they want to expand their power westward The French build Ft. Duquesne basically deep into British territory Milestones: Albany Plan of Union Albany Plan of Union: Beginning of the American Republic in 1754.
A meeting of colonists & Indians ( Iroquois) to plan the war 1st time the colonists meet to attempt to unite Ban together military to protect each other from the French and Indians. Plan a self imposed tax system to raise money for the common defense They sent their plan to the colonial assembly & to Great Britain They BOTH shot down the plan, NOT ONE COLONY AGREED !!! NO UNITY !!! Milestones continued Washington ( Ft. Necessity) gets his butt kicked trying to capture Ft. Duquesne. This is the spark that begins the 7 Years War to North
America !!!! William Pitt British secretary of state during the French and Indian War Pitt resolved to commit whatever resources were necessary to defeat the French in North America and on the European continent. Under Pitt the British again attack and defeat the French and take Ft. Duquesne. 1763 Paris Peace Settlement basically gives North America to the British Effects: Colonists realize the British ARENT AWESOME Brits looked down at the Colonists. Even the military
Indian resentment. They will side with the Brit in the Am. Rev. Proclamation 1763 !!! Colonists werent allowed to move west of the that line. British Raise Taxes because of huge debt The Proclamation Line of 1763 In October 1763, the king issued a proclamation that there should be no British settlement west of the
crest of the Appalachian Mountains and that Indian rights to western lands would be protected forever. The line infuriated the British colonists. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. CLASS DIFFERENCES. Bacons Rebellion Pontiacs Rebellion
The Paxton Boys The Regulators All are examples of class conflict and how the lower class feels disenfranchised Tax, debtors prison, no vote, no holding office Pontiac and Indian Responses 1763 Pontiacs Rebellion: Pontiac and his followers attacked British forts across the region. Eight forts were destroyed, and hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions
in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years. Native Americans were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict. **The Rebellion was a reflection of a growing divide between the separate populations of the British colonists and Native Americans 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Paxton Boys and Rural White Responses The Paxton Boys decided to eliminate Indians. In December 1763, the Paxton Boys attacked a Delaware village, killed six people, and burned the town. Hatred of Indians would haunt the inhabitants of North America for a long time to come. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Threats of New Taxes Victory in the war had virtually
drained the kingdoms treasury. In 1764, George Grenville and the majority in Parliament asked Britains North American colonists to pay what the authorities in London thought was a fair share of the wars cost. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Revolution Was in the Minds of the People
According to John Adams, The Revolution was in the minds of the people, and this was effected from 1760 to 1775, fifteen years before a drop of blood was shed at Lexington. The revolutionary change took place for many reasons. ANTI-REVOLUTION: Loyalists African Slaves: offered freedom by both Native Americans : bc British didnt want to move west 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Transition from the Rights of
Man to Revolt Throughout the 1770s, Lockes ideas guided some of the Revolutions most articulate advocates Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin. They also believed in the need to overthrow unjust authorities. Republicanism: A complex, changing body of ideas values, and assumptions that held that self-government by the citizens of a country or their representatives provided a more reliable foundation for the good society and individual freedom than ruled by kings or any other distant elite. America has set the example and France has followed it,
of charters of power granted by liberty. James Madison 2015 Multiple revolutions are happening around the world: French Revolution 1789 1799 Haitian Revolution 1791 Latin Inc. American Pearson Education, All rightsRevolutions 1810 - 1826 reserved.
The Accompanying Revolution in Religion 1740 - Gilbert Tennant challenged the leaders of all Protestant denominations to judge their ministers. He was calling out to congregations that were not pro-awakening to challenge their ministers It was not a great leap to challenge civil authority as well. Ideas, Belief, and Culture 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
From the Stamp Act to the Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party British actions in the 1760s & 1770s escalated tensions in North American cities. The govt needed to pay off the debt from the F&I war, and with each attempt the resistance grew 1764 Sugar Act 1765 The Stamp Act (SONS OF LIBERTY: formed an underground resistance to the acts) Any paper productwills, playing cards, licenses, etc..well to do people had to pay the tax First direct revenue tax on the Colonists !!! Paid by the people, as opposed to merchants 1767 Townshend duties second attempt on a variety of goodspaper, lead, paint, tea 1773 Tea Act . Gave a monopoly to the Brit East India company
2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Cont. Colonists saw each tax and act and an attack on their civil liberties. March 5th 1770 Boston Massacre (5 died) Paul Reveres engravingpropaganda, drunk dock workers. Calm for 3 years until the Tea Act 1773 Boston Tea Party (probably the most famous act of resistance) Result the Intolerable Acts were passed in response to the event. ( Coercive Acts and Quebec Act) Daughters of Liberty: Womens response to the Sons of liberty, they opposed British measures, avoided British taxed tea, spun their own yarn and wove their own cloth to avoid purchasing British goods. The main purpose of these societies was to intimidate
tax agents/collectors. Tarred and feathered officials Revolts in the Back Country Rural people on the frontier from New York to the Carolinas were also taking matters into their own hands, but for different reasons. They called themselves The Regulators They violently opposed movements by the government to implement courts and offices attempting to force and punish people who didnt pay taxes Throughout the colonies the most contentious
issue for inland communities was relationships with Indian tribes. Colonists wanted more land than the 1763 Proclamation Line allowed. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Growing Unity in the Colonies The First Continental Congress The colonies joined together in united action against British Tyranny 1774 Philadelphia, First Continental Congress: meeting of delegates from most of
the colonies held in Philadelphia in 1774 in response to the British efforts to tax the colonies. All colonies, except Georgia, sent representatives. At the time, few were ready to break with Britain, finding common ground wasnt easy. Agreements of the 1st Cont. Congress Their natural rights should not be infringed upon
Ban on British imports A ban on exports A ban on the consumption of tea (symbolic) Meet again in May 1775 if relations with Britain didnt improve Talk of Freedom for Slaves Somerset Decision: 1772 ruling by Britains Lord Chief Justice in the case of James Somerset that set him free and essentially declared slavery illegal in England, though not in British colonies. The Somerset decision caused a considerable stir in the colonies and in Britain.
Whites on both sides of the Atlantic noted the absurdity of colonists protesting their own perceived enslavement by Parliament while those same colonists enslaved Africans. thousands of tens of thousands of their fellow creatures! Quakers made it mandatory for members of their denomination to free their slaves or allow them to purchase their freedom 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The War For Independence British Courts and Troops Stationed in the Colonies as the Revolution Began
Patriots (Colonists who fought for independence from Great Britain) Loyalists (Colonists who remained loyal to Great Britain during the Revolution) Tories almost 60,000 of them. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. From Lexington and Concord to Bunker HillRevolt Becomes
War April 1775 Battles of Lexington and ConcordCatalyst June 1775 - Battle of Bunker Hill (Breeds Hill)First true battleBrits win, but had heavy losses. After that battle, however, the American forces became better organized and gained support from all 13 colonies. Become unconventional in their fighting. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. African-Americans in the Armies
of Both Sides The outbreak of war opened a new avenue to freedom for American slaves. Some heard the rumor that the British intended to help of free the Africans In Winter 1777-78, Washington finally embraced black volunteers. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Moving Toward Independence May 1775 Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia Delegates from the thirteen colonies met in Philadelphia to create
a Continental army and prepare the colonies for war against Britain. OLIVE BRANCH PETITION. Letter seeking reconciliation. One more try !!! King never even addresses it. Thomas Paines Common Sense: Common Sense was a pamphlet that attacked the British monarchy and provided a rationale for American independence from Britain. It was written in plain terms that all Colonial Americans could understand. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Declaring Independence, 1776 Thomas Jefferson writes the first draft of The Declaration of
Independence On July 4, 1776, Congress adopted it. 1777- Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation. Ratified in 1781 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. George Washington and His Victorious Patchwork Army Washington understood that though his army could fight, they could not withstand a direct battle with British regulars. For much of the war, his goal was not a decisive victory, but avoiding a decisive loss.
He knew the British would tire of war. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. of Saratoga (New York), 1777 Two Significant Battles Battle at attempt by the British to cut New England and the South off from one another by seizing control of New York the victory by the Continental Army convinced the French to join the war on the side of the colonists
Battle of Yorktown (Virginia), 1781 combined French and Continental troops force the surrender of General Cornwallis and the British the last major battle of the American Revolution Colonial American victory forced the British to start negotiating a treaty to bring the war to an end Treaty of Paris, 1783
the treaty officially ended the Revolution and recognized the United States as a free, sovereign, and independent nation Terms of the Treaty The Great Lakes served as the northern border of the United States The Mississippi River served as the western border of the United States Spain retained control of Florida (obvious problems later) Britain retained control of Canada (obvious problems later) the United States agreed to treat the loyalists fairly
in the post war years the British agreed to remove all troops from United States territory Major Battles of the American Revolution. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. VIDEOS F&I War: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ktkw7iSITkc CC:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eytc9ZaNWyc&list=PL8dPuuaLjXt MwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=6 School House Rock: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-9pDZMRCpQ
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