Exposure Java 2013 APCS Edition Chapter 3 Slides

Exposure Java 2013 APCS Edition Chapter 3 Slides

Exposure Java 2013 APCS Edition Chapter 3 Slides Java Simple Data Types PowerPoint Presentation created by: Mr. John L. M. Schram and Mr. Leon Schram Authors of Exposure Java Section 3.2 Declaring Variables Java Keywords Reserved Words Part of the Java language Examples: public, static, void Pre-defined Java Identifiers Defined in Java Libraries Examples: print & println

User-defined Identifiers Examples: shown in this chapter // Java0301.java // This program demonstrates how to declare integer variables with , // and it shows how to display the value of a variable with . public class Java0301 { public static void main (String args[]) { int a; "a becomes int b; a = 10; b = 25; System.out.println(); System.out.println(a); System.out.println(b); System.out.println(); } }

a 10 b 25 "a equals 10" 10" "a stores the value of // Java0302.java // This program is the same as Java0301.java without assigning values // to the variables. Java does not compile a program that attempts to use // unassigned "simple" data types. public class Java0302 { public static void main (String args[]) { int a; int b; System.out.println(a); System.out.println(b); }

} a ? b ? What does 'a' store? What does 'b' store? // Java0303.java // This program demonstrates that it is possible to declare a variable // identifier and initialize the variable in the same statement. // It is a good habit to initialize variables where they are declared. public class Java0303 { public static void main (String args[]) { int a = 10; int b = 25; System.out.println(); a System.out.println(a);

10 System.out.println(b); System.out.println(); } } b 25 // Java0304.java // This program combines output of literals and variables. // "a: " is a string literal, which displays the characters a: // a is an integer variable, which displays its integer value 10. public class Java0304 { public static void main (String args[]) { int a = 10; int b = 25; System.out.println("a: " + a); System.out.println("b: " + b); } }

a 10 b 25 Section 3.3 The Integer Data Types Java Integer Data Types Data Type Bytes used in memory byte 1

-128 127 2 -32,768 32,767 4 -2,147,483,648 2,147,483,647 8 -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 short int long Minimum Value Maximum Value

// Java0305.java // This program demonstrates the five integer operations. public class Java0305 { public static void main (String args[]) { int a = 0; int b = 25; int c = 10; a = b + c; // Addition System.out.println(b + " + " + c + " = " + a); a = b - c; // Subtraction System.out.println(b + " - " + c + " = " + a); a = b * c;

// Multiplication System.out.println(b + " * " + c + " = " + a); a = b / c; // Integer Quotient Division System.out.println(b + " / " + c + " = " + a); a = b % c; System.out.println(b + " % " + c + " = " + a); } } // Integer Remainder Division Integer Quotient Division Examples 12 12 12

12 12 12 12 / / / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = = =

= = = = 12 6 4 3 2 2 1 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 / / /

/ / / / 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 = = = = = = = 1 1 1

1 1 0 undefined Integer Remainder Division Examples 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 % % % % % % %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = = = = = = = 0 0 0 0 2 0 5

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 % % % % % % % 8 9 10 11 12 13 0

= = = = = = = 4 3 2 1 0 12 undefined What do the red numbers have in common? 12 12 12 12 12

12 12 % % % % % % % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = = = = =

= = 0 0 0 0 2 0 5 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 % % % % %

% % 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 They are all factors of 12. = = = = = = = 4 3 2

1 0 12 undefined Flashback To Elementary School Long Division Using / gives you the integer quotient. 4 3)12 12 0 2 5)13 10 3 0 15)12 0 12

0 12)0 0 0 ??? 0)12 ??? ??? Using % gives you the integer remainder. Section 3.4 Real Number Data Types // Java0306.java // This program demonstrates the double data type which is used for real numbers // It also demonstrates the four real number operations. public class Java0306 { public static void main (String args[])

{ double d1 = 0; double d2 = 10.0; double d3 = 3.33333333; d1 = d2 + d3; // Addition System.out.println(d2 + " + " + d3 + " = " + d1); d1 = d2 - d3; // Subtraction System.out.println(d2 + " - " + d3 + " = " + d1); d1 = d2 * d3; // Multiplication System.out.println(d2 + " * " + d3 + " = " + d1); d1 = d2 / d3; // Real Number Quotient Division System.out.println(d2 + " / " + d3 + " = " + d1);

System.out.println(); } } NOTE: Calculations performed with double variables are accurate to 15 decimal places. Java Real Number Data Types/Operations float 4 bytes double 8 bytes Addition: 6.75 + 2.5 = 9.25 Subtraction:

6.75 - 2.5 = 4.25 Multiplication: 6.75 * 2.5 = 16.875 Real # Quotient Division: 6.75 / 2.5 = 2.7 What About Real # Remainder

Division? Java textbooks usually state that remainder or modulus division does not exist for real numbers. Real numbers do not have remainder division in any practical sense. There also is the issue that Java is based on C++, which does not allow remainder division with real number data types. Even though the following examples do not work in C++, they actually do work in Java. 10.0 % 5.0 10.0 % 3.0 3.0 % 10.0 6.75 % 2.5 = = = = 0.0 1.0 3.0 1.75

Section 3.5 Numerica Representation l Limits // Java0307.java // This program demonstrates memory overflow problems. // Saving memory is important, but too little memory can // also cause problems. public class Java0307 { public static void main (String args[]) { int intNum = 1000; System.out.println("intNum: " + intNum); intNum = intNum * 1000; System.out.println("intNum: " + intNum); intNum = intNum * 1000; System.out.println("intNum: " + intNum); intNum = intNum * 1000; System.out.println("intNum: " + intNum); }

} The Odometer Analogy in Decimal 9 9 9 9 9 9 + 0.1 mile = 0 0 0 0

0 0 When many cars reach 100,000 miles their odometers cease to be accurate. The Odometer Analogy with a short integer The largest possible short integer value is 32,767 which in binary looks like this: 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 If we add 1 we get this result: 1 0 0 0 0 0+ 01 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32767 + 1 = 32768 How Positive Numbers Give Negative Results The first bit in a number is the sign bit It determines if a number is positive or negative 0 = Positive

1 = Negative 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 32767 + 1 = -32768 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Memory Overflow Problems Memory overflow is a situation where the assigned value of a variable exceeds the allocated storage space. The resulting value that is stored will be inaccurate and can change from positive to negative or negative to positive. Avoid memory overflow problems by using a data type that can handle the size of the assigned values. It is important to save computer memory. However, do not be so stingy with memory that overflow problems occur. // Java0308.java // This program shows that there is a memory storage limitation to

// how many digits are stored beyond the decimal point. public class Java0308 { public static void main (String args[]) { double num1 = 1.012345; double num2 = 1.0123456789; double num3 = 1.01234567890123456789; System.out.println("num1: " + num1); System.out.println("num2: " + num2); System.out.println("num3: " + num3); System.out.println("\n\n"); } } // Java0309.java // This program demonstrates another error. // The program output displays a number that is mathematically incorrect. public class Java0309 { public static void main (String args[]) { double num1 = 10.0;

double num2 = 3.0; double num3 = num1 / num2; System.out.println("num1: " + num1); System.out.println("num2: " + num2); System.out.println("num3: " + num3); System.out.println("\n\n"); } } Rounding Err are common long decimal Section 3.6 Arithmetic Shortcut Notations // Java0310.java // This program shows "unary" arithmetic shortcut notation in Java. // Note that "postfix" x++ & "prefix" ++x don't always have the same result. public class Java0310 {

public static void main (String args[]) { int num = 10; System.out.println("num equals " + num); num++; System.out.println("num equals " + num); ++num; System.out.println("num equals " + num); System.out.println("num equals " + num++); System.out.println("num equals " + num); System.out.println("num equals " + ++num); System.out.println("num equals " + num); System.out.println(); } } Java Unary Operators k++; is the same as: k = k + 1; ++k; is the same as: k = k + 1;

k--; is the same as: k = k - 1; --k; is the same as: k = k - 1; Proper Usage of Shortcuts Proper Usage: k++; System.out.println(k); --k; System.out.println(k); Problematic Usage: System.out.println(k++); System.out.println(--k); // Java0311.java // This program shows arithmetic assignment operations in Java. // x+=10; is the same as x = x + 10; public class Java0311

{ public static void main (String args[]) { int x = 10; System.out.println("x equals " + x); x += 10; System.out.println("x equals " + x); x -= 10; System.out.println("x equals " + x); x *= 10; System.out.println("x equals " + x); x /= 10; System.out.println("x equals " + x); x %= 10; System.out.println("x equals " + x); System.out.println(); } } Binary Operator Shortcuts No Shortcut Notation Shortcut Notation

k = k + 5; k += 5; k = k - 5; k -= 5; k = k * 5; k *= 5; k = k / 5; k /= 5; k = k % 5; k %= 5; // Java0312.java // This program demonstrates very bad programming style by // combining various shortcuts in one statement. It is difficult // to determine what actually is happening.

public class Java0312 { public static void main (String args[]) { int x = 10; Do not waste any time System.out.println("Before: " + x); trying to figure out x += ++x + x++; why the answer is 32. System.out.println("After: " + x); The point being made System.out.println(); here is this code is } very confusing and } should be avoided. Shortcut Warning Do not combine shortcuts in one program statement!!! num

+= ++num + num++; Section 3.7 The char & String Data Types // Java0313.java // This program demonstrates the data types. // It also demonstrates how assignment can be "chained" with // multiple variables in one statement. public class Java0313 { public static void main (String args[]) { char c1 = 'A';

char c2 = 'B'; char c3 = 'C'; System.out.println("The three characters are: " + c1 + c2 + c3); c1 = c2 = c3 = 'Q'; System.out.println("The three characters are: " + c1 + c2 + c3); System.out.println(); } } // Java0313.java // This program demonstrates the data types. // It also demonstrates how assignment can be "chained" with // multiple variables in one statement. c1 c2 c3 public class Java0313 { A B

C public static void main (String args[]) { char c1 = 'A'; char c2 = 'B'; char c3 = 'C'; System.out.println("The three characters are: " + c1 + c2 + c3); c1 = c2 = c3 = 'Q'; System.out.println("The three characters are: " + c1 + c2 + c3); System.out.println(); } } // Java0313.java // This program demonstrates the data types. // It also demonstrates how assignment can be "chained" with // multiple variables in one statement. c1 c2 c3

public class Java0313 { A B C public static void main (String args[]) { c1 c2 c3 char c1 = 'A'; char c2 = 'B'; Q Q Q char c3 = 'C'; System.out.println("The three characters are: " + c1 + c2 + c3); c1 = c2 = c3 = 'Q'; System.out.println("The three characters are: " + c1 + c2 + c3); System.out.println(); } } This is a special shortcut

called CHAINING. // Java0313.java // This program demonstrates the data types. // It also demonstrates how assignment can be "chained" with // multiple variables in one statement. c1 c2 c3 public class Java0313 { A B C public static void main (String args[]) { c1 c2 c3 char c1 = 'A';

char c2 = 'B'; Q Q Q char c3 = 'C'; System.out.println("The three characters are: " + c1 + c2 + c3); c1 = c2 = c3 = 'Q'; System.out.println("The three characters are: " + c1 + c2 + c3); System.out.println(); } } // Java0314.java // This program demonstrates the data type. public class Java0314 { firstName lastName public static void main (String args[]) Kathy Smith { String firstName = "Kathy" ; String lastName = "Smith"; System.out.println("firstName:

" + firstName); System.out.println("lastName: " + lastName); System.out.println("Complete Name: " + firstName + " " + lastName); System.out.println(); } } Don't Get Confused! These may all look the same Value Data Type 7 int

7.0 double '7' char "7" String but the compute treats them differently String Concatenation Concatenation is the appending (or joining) of 2 or more strings. "Hello" + "World" =

"HelloWorld" "Hello" + " " + "World" "100" + "200" = = "Hello World" "100200" The plus operator ( + ) is used both for arithmetic addition and string concatenation. The same operator performs 2 totally different operations. This is called overloading. Section 3.8 The Boolean Data Type

// Java0315.java // This program demonstrates the data type. // The boolean type can only have two values: true or false. public class Java0315 { public static void main (String args[]) { boolean value = true; System.out.println("value: " + value); value = false; System.out.println("value: " + value); System.out.println(); } } value true value false AP Exam Alert The int, double, boolean and String data types will be tested. The byte, short, long, float and

char data types will NOT be tested. Section 3.9 Declaring Constants // Java0316.java // This program demonstrates how to create "constant" identifier values with // the keyword. Removing the comments from the three assignment // statements will result in compile errors. doubleConst intConst 100 3.14159 public class Java0316 { charConst public static void main (String args[]) { Q

final int intConst = 100; final double doubleConst = 3.14159; final char charConst = 'Q'; // intConst++; // doubleConst = 1234.4321; // charConst = 'A'; System.out.println("intConst: " + intConst); System.out.println("doubleConst: " + doubleConst); System.out.println("charConst: " + charConst); System.out.println(); } } // Java0316.java // This program demonstrates how to create "constant" identifier values with // the keyword. Removing the comments from the three assignment // statements will result in compile errors. public class Java0316 {

public static void main (String args[]) { final int intConst = 100; intConst final double doubleConst = 3.14159; 100 final char charConst = 'Q'; intConst++; doubleConst doubleConst = 1234.4321; 3.14159 charConst = 'A'; System.out.println("intConst: " + intConst); System.out.println("doubleConst: " + doubleConst); System.out.println("charConst: " + charConst); System.out.println(); charConst } Q } When the comment symbols a

Section 3.10 Documenting Your Programs // Java0317.java // This is an example of a poorly written program with single-letter variables. // Do you have any idea what this program does? public class Java0317 { public static void main (String args[]) { double a; double b; double c; double d; double e; a = 35; b = 8.75; c = a * b; d = c * 0.29; e = c - d; System.out.println("a = " + a);

System.out.println("b = " + b); System.out.println("c = " + c); System.out.println("d = " + d); System.out.println("e = " + e); System.out.println(); } } // Java0318.java // This program does exactly the same thing as the previous program. // By using self-commenting variables, the program is much easier to read and understand. public class Java0318 { public static void main (String args[]) { double hoursWorked; double hourlyRate; double grossPay; double deductions; double netPay; hoursWorked = 35; hourlyRate = 8.75; grossPay = hoursWorked * hourlyRate; deductions = grossPay * 0.29;

netPay = grossPay - deductions; System.out.println("Hours Worked: " + hoursWorked); System.out.println("Hourly Rate: " + hourlyRate); System.out.println("Gross Pay: " + grossPay); System.out.println("Deductions: " + deductions); System.out.println("Net Pay: " + netPay); System.out.println(); } } // Java0319.java // This program adds a multi-line comment at the beginning to help explain the program. // Several single-line comments are also added to provide more detail for each variable. /******************************************************************** ** ** ** Payroll Program ** **

Written by Leon Schram 09-09-09 ** ** ** ** This program takes the hours worked and hourly rate of ** ** an employee and computes the gross pay earned. ** ** Federal deductions are computed as 29% of gross pay. ** ** Finally the take-home pay or net pay is computed by ** ** subtraction deductions from gross pay. ** ** ** ********************************************************************/ public class Java0319 { public static void main

{ double hoursWorked; double hourlyRate; double grossPay; double deductions; double netPay; hoursWorked = 35; hourlyRate = 8.75; (String args[]) // // // // // hours worked per week payrate earned per hour total earnings in a week total federal tax deductions employee take-home pay The rest of the program is identical to the previous one and is not shown here. Section 3.11

Mathematical Precedence Hidden Math Operations Mathematics Java Source Code 5XY 5*X*Y 4X + 3Y 4*X + 3*Y 6(A - B) 5 7 A + B A - B AB XY

6*(A - B) 5.0/7.0 (A + B)/(A - B) (A * B)/(X * Y) PEMDAS Mathematical Precedence Parentheses Exponents Multiplication & Division Addition & Subtraction Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sal Painted Elephants March Down // Java0320.java // This program demonstrates mathematical precedence in Java operations. public class Java0320 { public static void main (String args[]) { double a, b, c, result;

a = 1000; b = 100; c = 2.5; System.out.println(); System.out.println("a = " + a + " b = " + b + " c = " + c); result = a + b * c; System.out.println("\na + b * c = " + result); result = (a + b) * c; System.out.println("\n(a + b) * c = " + result); result = a / b * c; System.out.println("\na / b * c = " + result); result = a / (b * c); } } System.out.println("\na / (b * c) = " + result); System.out.println();

Section 3.12 Type Casting // Java0321.java // This program demonstrates that the intended computation may not be Why is // performed by Java. The expression on the right side of the assignment the on answer // operator is performed without knowledge of the type the leftan side. integer? public class Java0321 { public static void main (String args[]) { int nr1 = 1000; int nr2 = 3000;

int nr3 = 6000; double mean; mean = (nr1 + nr2 + nr3) / 3; System.out.println("The mean equals: " + mean); System.out.println(); } } // Java0321.java // This program demonstrates that the intended computation may not be // performed by Java. The expression on the right side of the assignment // operator is performed without knowledge of the type on the left side. public class Java0321 { public static void main (String args[]) { int nr1 = 1000; The sum of 3 int nr2 = 3000; int nr3 = 6000; is an integer. double mean;

mean = (nr1 + nr2 + nr3) / 3; System.out.println("The mean equals: " + mean); System.out.println(); } } integers // Java0321.java // This program demonstrates that the intended computation may not be // performed by Java. The expression on the right side of the assignment // operator is performed without knowledge of the type on the left side. public class Java0321 { public static void main (String args[]) { int nr1 = 1000; When an integer is divided int nr2 = 3000; by another integer, you get int nr3 = 6000; integer quotient division.

double mean; mean = (nr1 + nr2 + nr3) / 3; System.out.println("The mean equals: " + mean); System.out.println(); } } // Java0321.java // This program demonstrates that the intended computation may not be // performed by Java. The expression on the right side of the assignment // operator is performed without knowledge of the type on the left side. public class Java0321 { public static void main (String args[]) { The fact that mean is a double int nr1 = 1000; has absolutely NO effect on the int nr2 = 3000; calculations which take place int nr3 = 6000; on the other side of the = sign.

double mean; mean = (nr1 + nr2 + nr3) / 3; System.out.println("The mean equals: " + mean); System.out.println(); } } // Java0322.java // This program corrects the logic error of Java0321.java. // Type casting is used to "force" real number quotient division. public class Java0322 { public static void main (String args[]) { int nr1 = 1000; int nr2 = 3000; int nr3 = 6000; double mean; mean = (double) (nr1 + nr2 + nr3) / 3; System.out.println("The mean equals: " + mean); System.out.println(); } }

// Java0323.java // This program demonstrates // "type casting" between // different data types. public class Java0323 { public static void main (String args[]) { int intVal = 65; double dblVal = 70.1; char chrVal = 'B'; System.out.println("(double) intVal 65 System.out.println("(char) intVal 65 System.out.println("(int) dblVal 70.1 System.out.println("(char) dblVal 70.1 System.out.println("(int) chrVal B System.out.println("(double) chrVal B System.out.println(); }

} becomes " + (double) intVal); becomes " + (char) intVal); becomes " + (int) dblVal); becomes " + (char) dblVal); becomes " + (int) chrVal); becomes " + (double) chrVal); Information Hiding Information Hiding is a computer science tool that involves using program features without the knowledge of how the program features are implemented. Example: You do not need to know how to build a car in order to drive one.

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