Chapter 7 The Axial Skeleton - Spine PowerPoint

Chapter 7 The Axial Skeleton - Spine PowerPoint

Chapter 7 The Axial Skeleton - Spine PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College - North Harris Modified by CHB 11/09

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column The spine or vertebral column Protects the spinal cord Supports the head and body

26 bones 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx The Vertebral Column Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 716 The Vertebral Column.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Vertebrae The neck Seven cervical vertebrae The upper back 12 thoracic vertebrae

Each articulates with one or more pair of ribs The lower back Five lumbar vertebrae Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column The Sacrum and Coccyx The fifth lumbar vertebra articulates with the

sacrum The sacrum articulates with the coccyx Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Four Curvatures of the Vertebral Column Cervical curve Thoracic curve Lumbar curve

Sacral curve Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Thoracic and sacral curves Are called primary curves (present during fetal development) Or accommodation curves (accommodate internal organs)

Lumbar and cervical curves Are called secondary curves (appear after birth) Or compensation curves (shift body weight for upright posture) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 717 Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Structure of a Vertebra The vertebral body (centrum) Transfers weight along the spine The vertebral arch Posterior margin of vertebral foramen

The articular processes Lateral projections between laminae and pedicles Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 718a Vertebral Anatomy.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 718c Vertebral Anatomy. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Structure of a Vertebra

The vertebral arch Pedicles: walls of the vertebral arch Laminae: roof of the vertebral arch Spinous process: projection where vertebral laminae fuse

Transverse process: projection where laminae join pedicles Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Structure of a Vertebra The articular processes Superior articular process Inferior articular process: have articular facets on articular faces

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 718 Vertebral Anatomy. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column

Vertebral Foramina Intervertebral foramina Gaps between pedicles of adjacent vertebrae For nerve connections to spinal cord Vertebral canal Formed by vertebral foramina Encloses the spinal cord Intervertebral Discs

Are pads of fibrous cartilage Separate the vertebral bodies Absorb shocks Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 718 Vertebral Anatomy. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Vertebral Regions Vertebral Regions Vertebrae are numbered By region, from top (superior) to bottom(inferior) C1 articulates with skull, L5 with sacrum Vertebrae of each region Have characteristics determined by functions

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Regions of the Vertebral Column Cervical (C) Thoracic (T) Lumbar (L) Sacral (S) Coccygeal (Co)

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions The Cervical Vertebrae Small body (support only head) Large vertebral foramen (largest part of spinal cord) Concave superior surface Slopes posterior to anterior C1 (atlas) has no spinous process

All others have short spinous processes tip of each spinous process is notched (bifid) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 719 The Cervical Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Vertebral Regions The Cervical Vertebrae Transverse processes Are fused to costal processes Which encircle transverse foramina (protect arteries and veins) Atlas (C1) Articulates with occipital condyles of skull Has no body or spinous process

Has a large, round foramen within anterior and posterior arches Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 719 The Cervical Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Vertebral Regions The Cervical Vertebrae Axis (C2) Supports the atlas Has heavy spinous process To attach muscles of head and neck Axis and atlas bodies fuse during development to form the dens Vertebra prominens (C7) Transitions to thoracic vertebrae Has a long spinous process with a broad tubercle

Has large transverse processes Ligamentum nuchae (elastic ligament) extends from C7 to skull Rotation of Cervical Vertebrae Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 719 The Cervical Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Vertebral Regions Figure 719 The Cervical Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Thoracic vertebrae (T1T12) Have heart-shaped bodies

Larger bodies than in C1C7 Smaller vertebral foramen than in C1C7 Long, slender spinous processes Dorsolateral surfaces of body have costal facets: Which articulate with heads of ribs Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Thoracic vertebrae (T1T12)

T1T10 Have transverse costal facets On thick transverse processes for rib articulation Ribs at T1T10 Contact costal and transverse costal facets T1T8 articulate with two pairs of ribs At superior and inferior costal facets

T9T11 articulate with one pair of ribs T10T12 transition to lumbar vertebrae 3D Rotation of Thoracic Vertebrae Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 720a The Thoracic Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Vertebral Regions Figure 720b The Thoracic Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 720c The Thoracic Vertebrae.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Lumbar vertebrae (L1L5) Largest vertebrae Oval-shaped bodies Thicker bodies than T1T12 No costal or transverse costal facets Triangular vertebral foramen

Superior articular processes Face up and in Inferior articular processes Face down and out Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Lumbar vertebrae (L1L5)

Transverse processes Slender Project dorsolaterally Spinous process: Short, heavy For attachment of lower back muscles 3D Rotation of Lumbar Vertebrae

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 721a The Lumbar Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions

Figure 721b The Lumbar Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 721c The Lumbar Vertebrae. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Vertebral Regions Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions The sacrum Is curved, more in males than in females Protects reproductive, urinary, and digestive organs Attaches The axial skeleton to pelvic girdle of appendicular skeleton Broad muscles that move the thigh

The adult sacrum Consists of five fused sacral vertebrae Fuses between puberty and ages 2530 Leaving transverse lines Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions The sacrum Sacral canal Replaces the vertebral canal

Sacral cornua Horn shaped Formed by laminae of the fifth sacral vertebra Which do not meet at midline Sacral hiatus Opening at the inferior end of the sacral canal Formed by ridges of sacral cornua Covered by connective tissues

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions The sacrum Median sacral crest Fused spinous processes Four pairs of sacral foramina open to either side Lateral sacral crest

Fused transverse processes Attach to muscles of lower back and hip Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions The sacrum Auricular surface Thick, flattened area Articulates with pelvic girdle (forming sacroiliac joint)

Sacral tuberosity Rough area Attaches ligaments of the sacroiliac joint Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions The sacrum Four regions of the sacrum

Base: the broad superior surface Ala: wings at either side of the base to attach muscles Sacral promontory: at the center of the base

Apex: the narrow inferior portion articulates with the coccyx Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions The coccyx Attaches ligaments and a constricting muscle of the anus Mature coccyx

Consists of three to five fused coccygeal vertebrae First two coccygeal vertebrae: Have transverse processes Have unfused vertebral arches Coccygeal cornua Formed by laminae of first coccygeal vertebra 3D Rotation of Sacrum and Coccyx

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 722 The Sacrum and Coccyx. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage

The skeleton of the chest Supports the thoracic cavity Consists of: thoracic vertebrae ribs sternum (breastbone) The Rib Cage Formed of ribs and sternum

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 723a The Thoracic Cage. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage

Figure 723b The Thoracic Cage. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Functions of the Thoracic Cage Protects organs of the thoracic cavity Heart, lungs, and thymus Attaches muscles

For respiration Of the vertebral column Of the pectoral girdle Of the upper limbs Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Ribs Are mobile Can absorb shock

Functions of ribs Rib movements (breathing): affect width and depth of thoracic cage changing its volume Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 724c The Ribs.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Ribs (costae) Are 12 pairs of long, curved, flat bones Extending from the thoracic vertebrae Ribs are divided into two types True ribs False ribs

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Ribs 17 (true ribs) Vertebrosternal ribs Connected to the sternum by costal cartilages Ribs 812 (false ribs) Do not attach directly to the sternum Vertebrochondral ribs (ribs 810)

Fuse together Merge with cartilage before reaching the sternum Floating or vertebral ribs (ribs 1112) Connect only to the vertebrae and back muscles Have no connection with the sternum Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage

Figure 723 The Thoracic Cage. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Structures of the Ribs The head (capitulum) At the vertebral end of the rib Has superior and inferior articular facets

The neck The short area between the head and the tubercle Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Structures of the Ribs The tubercle (tuberculum) A small dorsal elevation Has an auricular facet that contacts the facet of its

thoracic vertebra (at T1T10 only) The tubercular body (shaft) Attaches muscles of the pectoral girdle and trunk Attaches to the intercostal muscles that move the ribs Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage

Figure 724a The Ribs. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 724b The Ribs. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage The sternum

A flat bone In the midline of the thoracic wall Three parts of the sternum The manubrium The sternal body The xiphoid process Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage

Manubrium The superior portion of sternum Broad, triangular shape Articulates with clavicles (collarbones) Articulates with cartilages of first rib pair Has a jugular notch, a shallow indentation between clavicular articulations Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage

The sternal body Is tongue-shaped Attaches to the manubrium Attaches to costal cartilages of ribs 27 The xiphoid process Is the smallest part of the sternum Attaches to the sternal body Attaches to diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

The Thoracic Cage Figure 723 The Thoracic Cage. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Development of the Sternum The developing sternal body Consists of four unfused bones

Completes fusion about age 25 Leaving transverse lines The xiphoid process Is the last part of sternum to fuse Can easily be broken away Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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