Measuring the fusion cross-section for neutron-rich light nuclei
Measuring the fusion cross-section for neutron-rich light nuclei at near and subbarrier Indiana University: T. Steinbach,V. Singh, J. Vadas,energies B. Wiggins, M.J. Rudolph, Z.Q. Gosser, K. Brown S. Hudan, RdS Florida State: I. Wiedenhover, L.T. Baby, S.A. Kuvin, V. Tripathi Theoretical support: Z. Lin (IU), C.J. Horowitz (IU), S. Umar (Vanderbilt) Understanding neutron-rich matter is important for a broad range of phenomena: Nucleosynthetic r-process Neutron-star crusts (X-ray superbursts) Neutron star mergers Motivation: understand the character of neutron-rich nuclear matter One laboratory to investigate the character of neutron rich matter is the skin of neutron-rich nuclei Gain insight into neutron skin by investigating fusion for an isotopic chain of neutron-rich nuclei (interplay of nuclear structure and dynamics) This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Science under Grant No. DEFG02-88ER-40404 Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017
Neutron-rich light nuclei allow investigation over a broad range of neutron number. O + 24O or 28Ne + 28Ne originally proposed as trigger for X-ray superburst. 24 Drip line! Most of the extended tail of the neutron density distribution for 24 O is achieved with 22O ! Z. Lin and C.J. Horowitz O Core 16 O Core 16 valence neutrons If valence neutrons are loosely coupled to the core, then polarization can result and fusion enhancement will
occur. Neck Damped density oscillations Surface waves S. Umar Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Go al Develop a technique capable of directly measuring the fusion cross-section with a low intensity (103 106 ions/s) radioactive beam at near barrier energies (E/A = 1-3 MeV/A). Measure the dependence of the fusion cross-section on E cm (fusion excitation function) Challeng es Separating the fusion products from beam (1 part in 107 108 at the lowest energy) Low energy of the fusion products Experimental setup needs to be compact and transportable to make use of different RIB facilities worldwide
Approach 1) Develop a highly efficient setup to compensate for the low beam intensity. 2) Demonstrate technique by measuring a well known fusion excitation function : 18O + 12C 3) Apply technique to the measurement of more neutron-rich systems : 19,20,21O + 12C Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Measuring fusion using low intensity beams Direct detection of evaporation residues (ERs) Target Evap. Residue Beam Emission of evaporated particles kicks evaporation residues away from zero degrees Evaporation residues Evaporated particles Distinguish fusion residues using ETOF To measure the fusion count the number of
evaporation residues relative to the number of incident O nuclei Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Predicted Energy and angular distributions of the Ers (PACE4) Efficient detection of ERs can be accomplished by two annular silicon detectors. Low energy of ERs requires low threshold detectors. Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Experimental Details: Florida State Tandem T.K. Steinbach et al., PRC90, 041603 (2014). Incident Beam: 18O @ 1-2 MeV/A Intensity of 18O: 3x105 pps Target: 100 g/cm2 carbon foil T2 and T3: Annular silicon detectors T2: Lab = 3.5 - 10.8; T3: Lab = 11.3 - 21.8 Time-of-Flight (TOF) between TGT-MCP and Si (T2, T3) Efficiency for ER detection 75-80%
Design (S5) from Micron Semiconductor low-energy evaporation residues (Entrance window 0.1 0.2 m) Fast timing electronics gives timing resolution of ~ 450 ps (require ~ 1 ns time resolution) Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Identifying Evaporation Residues T.K. Steinbach et al., Phys. Rev. C 90, 041603 (R) (2014) Evaporation residues are well separated from elastic and slit scattered beam particles Slit scattered beam provides a reference line Alpha particles are also cleanly resolved fusion N ER ER N O 18t NER # of evaporation residues
NO-18 # of incident 18O nuclei t target thickness ER efficiency (typically 80%) Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 18 O+ 12 C Fusion Excitation Function Measured the cross section for ECM ~ 5.3 14 MeV matches existing data (ECM ~ 7 14 MeV) Extends cross-section measurement down to ~800 b level (~30 times lower than previously measured) Parameterize with penetration of a parabolic barrier (Wong) Lowest Eyal data Rc = 7.34 0.07 fm V = 7.62 0.04 MeV
h/2 = 2.86 0.09 MeV Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Compare the 18 O+ 12 C Excitation Function with DC-TDHF TDHF provides good foundation for describing large amplitude collective motion; 3D Cartesian lattice; Skyrme effective interaction (SLy4); BCS pairing (Lipkin-Nogami extension) Above the barrier, DC-TDHF with pairing predicts a larger cross-section In this energy regime the quantity expt./DC-TDHF is roughly constant at 0.8 Below the barrier the experimental cross-section falls less steeply with decreasing Ec.m. than the DC-TDHF predictions. Below the barrier the quantity expt./DC-TDHF increases from 0.8 to approximately 15 at the lowest energy measured.
Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Role of pairing in DC-TDHF Elimination of pairing acts to increase the fusion cross-section Underscores the need to accurately treat pairing during the fusion process Coupled channels calculations (CCFULL) provide essentially the same description as DC-TDHF CCFULL also over-predicts the cross-section at above barrier energies and decreases more rapidly with decreasing energy as compared to the experimental data. Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Summary for stable beam experiment: O+ 18 C 12
1) Measured excitation function agrees well with existing data (extending it down by a factor of 30!). Measurement made with 10 5 lower beam intensity! 2) DC-TDHF under-predicts the fusion cross-section at near and sub-barrier energies. The experimental data exceeds the model calculations by a factor of 15 at the lowest energies measured. 3) Alpha emission is significantly under-predicted by the statistical decay codes evapOR and PACE4, a common feature for similar systems. With the experimental approach well established by measurement of 18O + 12C we turn to radioactive beams Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 O+ 19 9MV tandem SC linac
C at Florida State University 12 D2 cell RESOLUT O produced by: 18O(d,p) @ ~68 MeV Intensity of 19O: 2-4x103 ions/s Beam tagging by E-TOF Target: 100 g/cm2 carbon foil T2: Lab = 3.5 - 10.8; T3: Lab = 11.3 - 21.8 Time-of-Flight (TOF) between target-MCP and Si (T2, T3) 19 While the production of the 19O favors a higher energy, the fusion measurement needs to be conducted at energies near and below the barrier. 19 18 O
7+ O7+ 18 O6+ Simultaneous measurement of 19O and 18O excitation functions! Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 FSU O experimental setup 19 Degrade beam directly in front of target with a compact gas cell (ionization chamber) Ion
chamber Evaporation residues are well separated from elastic and slit scattered beam particles Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Fusion excitation functions for 19O + 12C and 18 O + 12C were simultaneously measured The excitation function for 18O matches the results of the high resolution measurement previously performed within the statistical uncertainties. At all energies 19O + 12C is associated with a significantly large cross-section. 16 O 18 O
Rc 7.25 0.25 fm 7.39 0.11 fm V 7.93 0.16 MeV 7.66 0.1 MeV h/2 2.95 0.37 MeV 2.90 0.18 MeV 19 O 8.1 0.47 fm 7.73 0.72 MeV 6.38 1.00 MeV Rc is larger by 10% for 19O as compared to 18O
h is larger by a factor of ~2 Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Fusion Enhancement in O+ 19 C 12 For 18O + 12C a slightly larger cross-section is observed above the barrier as compared to 16O + 12C Just below the barrier the cross-section increases slightly to a ratio of ~1.7 For 19O + 12C Above the barrier, the fusion cross-section for 19O is roughly 20% larger than that for 18O Just above the barrier at ~9 MeV the fusion cross-section for 19O increases dramatically as compared to 18O. At the lowest energy measured the cross-section for 19O exceeds that for 18O by approximately a factor of three. Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017
Impact of just an extended neutron density distribution? Z. Lin C.J. Horowitz (IU) Drip line! Sao Paulo (Barrier penetration model) Frozen density distributions While RMF + Sao Paulo provides a reasonable description of the fusion excitation function for 16O + 12C and 18O + 12C, it fails to predict the enhancement observed for 19O + 12C Dynamics is KEY
to understanding the fusion enhancement! Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Comparison with DC-TDHF Although DC-TDHF provides a reasonable description of the 19O + 12C fusion excitation function at the crosssection level shown, it over-predicts the cross-section for 18O + 12C and16O + 12C. Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 [email protected]: 39,47K + 28Si Extending to mid-mass nuclei 67,75 As* with A. Chbihi, D. Ackermann (GANIL) M. Famiano (Western Michigan) K beam contaminated by 36Ar (~5%) 47
Elab = 2.3 3 MeV/A Average intensity ~ 104 p/s Reaction products distinguished by ETOF ER detection: 1 lab 7.3 (70% efficiency) Below the barrier, 47K is enhanced relative to 39K by up to a factor of 7 at the lowest energy measured Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017 Conclusions and Outlook Developed an efficient method to measure the fusion excitation function for low-intensity radioactive beams at energies near and below the barrier. For 18O + 12C: Measured the fusion cross-section down to the 800 b level (~30x lower than previously measured.) In the sub-barrier regime the cross-section is substantially larger than that predicted by the DC-TDHF model suggesting a narrower barrier. Alpha emission is substantially enhanced over the predictions of the statistical model codes. For 19O + 12C: This first measurement indicates a significant fusion enhancement (~ three-fold) due to a single extra neutron as one approaches and goes below the barrier. DC-TDHF provides a reasonable description for 19O at the cross-section level measured (but
not 18,16O). High quality measurement of the fusion excitation function for an isotopic chain of neutron-rich light nuclei at sub-barrier energies provides a unique opportunity to investigate the neutron skin and test microscopic models. Outlook: O, 21O + 12C ([email protected]); 22O + 12C (Letter of Intent at GANIL) 39,47 K + 28Si ([email protected]) Analysis underway (tentative 7-fold enhancement!) 41,45 K + 28Si and 36,44Ar + 28Si MSU PAC41 20 Romualdo deSouza, FUSION17, Feb. 23, 2017
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