STRATEGIES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE HABITATS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH &

STRATEGIES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE HABITATS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH &

STRATEGIES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE HABITATS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH & URBAN ENVIRONMENT CONSIDERATIONS Conference on : Mainstreaming Planning Considerations for Integrating Solar Energy Efficiency in Built Environment 6 T H DEC 13, Raina Singh & Priyamvada Kayal The Energy and Resources Institute Agenda Elements of a Sustainable Habitat Rating system for Sustainable Habitat Development - GRIHA for Large Developments Improving energy efficiency: What the future holds Developing a framework for Sustainable Habitat development Elements of Sustainable Habitat

Built Environment Buildings Choice of materials Location of Building Smart Buildings (bldgs. as generators of energy) Efficient appliances and fixtures Surroundings Optimal allocation of land Transport systems and infrastructure Environmental management - Water & waste Energy security renewable sources and energy efficiency Rating system for Sustainable Habitat Development

GRIHA-Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment Tool to facilitate design, construction, operation of a green building ,and in turn .measure greenness of a building in India What gets measured gets managed Genesis TERI Retreat 2000 2000 Over 100 audits TERI- GRIHA 2005 CPW D adopt s GRIH A

ECB C 2007 2001 Advent of LEED: CII-Sorabhji Godrej Green Business Centre, HyderabadPlatinum Rated 2007 Capacity building GRIHA certified Trainers and Evaluators 2009 2008

NMSH GRIHA LD GRIHA android app 2010 2009 Setting up of ADaRSH 2011 2011 2011 GRIHA adopted by PCMC 2013 2012

SVA GRIHA Product catalogue Variants of GRIHA 7 SVAGRIHA GRIHA GRIHA Pre-certification Impact of proposed development on theurban 2500 100 2499 scale/surroundings 1,50,000 sqm sqm GRIHA LD > 50 hectare site

area New/upcoming projects GRIHA LD: GRIHA for Large Developments Projects which can be rated under GRIHA LD All projects which satisfy either of the following two thresholds may apply for a GRIHA LD rating: Total built up area greater than or equal to 1, 50,000 sq.m Total site area greater than or equal to 50 hectares. Projects which can be rated under GRIHA LD 1. Large (mixeduse) townships: Housing complex by builders

Housing complexes by urban development organizations Housing board and Public Sector Undertaking Townships Plotted developments with part construction by the developer 2. Educational and institutional campuses 3. Medical colleges and Hospital complexes (eg: AIIMS) 4. Special economic zones 5. Hotels/ resorts Conventional Rating System The higher the points, the higher

rating Overall Impact 75 % - 66 % 65 % - 56 % GRIHA LD The lower the detrimental the impact, It the higher Rating the 1 star rating 2 star 55 % - 46 % 3 star 45 % - 36 % 4 star

35 % or lower 5 star Sections The impact of the development is analysed across 6 sections, which are: Site Planning Energy Water & Waste Water Solid Waste Management Transport

Social Impact in each section The impact in each section is evaluated in two parts: Quantitative parameters how much? Qualitative parameters how good/bad? The rating of the projects will be done in parts: Design Stage Rating Energy balance Sustainable Energy Demand

Supply Day lighting integration in design Natural ventilation / thermal comfort Efficient building envelop design External lighting Efficient indoor and external lighting fixtures Automatic controls Efficient HVAC systems Equipment to meet Building space conditioning (Street, landscaping, architectural) Building lighting (Day lighting &Artificial lighting)

Equipment (Transformer/pumps/motor s etc.) Energy generation from RE energy Solar Wind Bio Gas Geo thermal Energy Demand Reduction: Design of energy efficient buildings, energy efficient street lighting, pumping and other site infrastructure facilities. Reduce the total amount of energy (kWh) required from the local Municipal grid/Diesel gensets by at least 25 per cent.

Mandatory Supply Optimization: Generation of clean energy on site to reduce the dependence on grid electricity. Design the development to be self-sufficient in its annual energy requirement. - Optional Energy- Impact Calculation Base Case Energy Consumption : (B1+E+L1+P) = B kWh x losses Design Case Energy Consumption losses RE Generation : R kWh Net Impact on Grid Electricity % Impact : (B2+E+L2+P) = P kWh x

: (P-R) kWh : x 100 where, B1& B2 E : Building energy consumption in base & design case respectively : Equipment and plug loads in the buildings L1 & L2 : St lighting energy consumption in base & design case respectively P : Pumping energy consumption R : Renewable energy generation at site Benchmarks for Base Case EPI (kWh/m2/year) Daytime occupancy 5 Days a week

EPI (kWh/m2/year) 24 hours occupancy 7 Days a week Air conditioned buildings (Commercial) Moderate 120 350 Composite/Warm and Humid/hot and dry 140 450 Benchmark for buildings Air conditioned buildings (Residential) Composite/Warm and Humid/hot and dry 200 Non air conditioned buildings Moderate

20 85 Composite/Warm and Humid/hot and dry 25 100 SI. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Classification A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 Road Type Dual/Single Carriageway Dual/Single Carriageway

Dual/Single Carriageway Single Carriageway Single Carriageway Width of carriageway (m) 14 17.5 21 10.5 7 Lighting Power per run (W/m) 14.5 17.5 21.5 11.5 10.5 Benchmark for St. Lighting Input fields without benchmarks Input fields like water pumping etc. do not have a benchmark. The project will calculate the total annual energy being consumed for their respective layout and insert the information in the tool.

Police Training School, Turuchi,Tasgaon Visibility of green building through implementation of RE 21.5% of internal lighting annual energy requirements met by renewables. 28,105 kWh electricity generated from 1kVA of solar power and 13 windmills with power capacity of 5.5kW each. Energy savings compared to GRIHA benchmark: 31% GRIHA Rated University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 30.1% of internal lighting annual energy requirements met by solar lighting. 100 kWP Renewable energy installed on site 95.3% annual energy saved by solar hot water system Energy savings compared to GRIHA benchmark: 42.7% GRIHA Rated Suzlon - One Earth, Pune Adequate day lighting and glare control measures adopted 100% desks equipped with LED lights governed by motion sensors. 154.83 kW Renewable energy installed on site

250000 units of electricity generated annually. Energy savings compared to GRIHA benchmark: 47% GRIHA Rated Improving energy efficiency: What the future holds Benefits of Efficient Appliances Mtoe ~8% electricity savings by 2031 possible in residential sector in alternative efficiency scenarios as compared to BAU 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

10 0 BEE initiative already exists: Lighting Refrigerators, AC Fans & other appliances Awareness Residential Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum Fuels Building Efficiency / Green Buildings Commercial Sector

Hospitals From 2000 2030 Area under AC (X 4 times) Hospitali ty Area under AC (X 1.2 times) Office Area under AC (X 2 times) Educatio

n Area under AC (X 3 times) Shops Area under AC (X 2 times) Shopping Malls All shopping malls will continue to be AC Energy consumption is likely to increase 18 times, With 5-8% of EPI and low carbon intervention saving of 2.5 times is possible by 2030 Solar Roof Top Potential Estimates Enough radiation in India

Nearly 58% of the geographical area potentially represent the solar hotspots in the country. In 2009, TERI estimated, about 7000 MWp of solar rooftop potential can be developed in residential areas alone. Integrating solar energy on rooftops in building design. Germany as a Shining example -Houses are net generators of power / Smart homes Germany produced 22 gigawatts of energy from the sun half of the worlds total and the equivalent of 20 nuclear power plants. Incentives like reduction in panel prices by 66% from 2006

Reverse flow of energy at a prices more than the usual Source: Ramachandraa, T., Jain, R., & Krishnadasa, G. (2011). Hotspots of solar potential in India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 31783186. http://www.vnews.com/opinion/5376960-95/column-germany-is-a-shining-example-of-the-benefits-of-solar-power Integrating land use planning in City development Process Urbanization increasing no of cities will grow Integration of land use and transportation plays a major role in reducing the travel demand Aim should be to create compact cities with travel demand met through PT, IPT and NMT. Reduce travel demand & distances Reduce congestion

Improve energy security, environmental impact Kyoto, Japan Six action plans in Kyoto Walkable city, Kyoto Kyoto-style buildings & forest development Low carbon lifestyle Decarbonization of Industries Comprehensive use of renewable energy Establishment of a Funding mechanism Source: Japan scenarios and Action towards Low-Carbon Socities (LCSs), Mikiko Kainuma Iskandar, Malaysia

Low Carbon policy Residential & commercial Buildings Industries Energy efficient equipments Technological transfer Transportation & Land Use Energy efficient equipments & Alternate fuels & Vehicles Urban + Transport appliances Energy captured from renewable Planning Public resources Transport Environmental Performance standards (Buildings, Equipments Education and information services & Vehicles) Incentives (Subsidies on tax & Loans)

Introduction & promotion of energy efficient equipments & buildings Energy efficiency improvement Controlled urban growth and modal choice for travel demand Lowering CO2 Intensity Source: Japan scenarios and Action towards Low-Carbon Socities (LCSs), Mikiko Kainuma Transport demand control Singapore: Holistic approach Guiding Principles Long-Term, Pragmatic and CostIntegrated Planning Effective Manner Policies - from energy Economic growth and a good to transport to

environment in the most costindustry and urban effective planning Flexibility Acceptable to changes in technology and in the global environment. Key Priorities Improve Resource Efficiency can grow with fewer resources achieve more with less, reduce costs and free up precious resources Improve the Quality of Our Environment controlling pollution

improving physical landscape Build Up Our Knowledge environmentally friendly way, using technology to overcome our resource constraints Encourage Community Ownership and Participation Business leaders, non-government organisations community leaders Source: Sustainable Singapore, Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, Government of Singapore. Developing a framework for Sustainable Habitat development

Indian context Urbanization No of large cities to increase Energy security : fuel import dependency, coal dependency increasing Energy shortages already, low per capita energy consumption; environmental considerations Sustainable habitats Integrated planning esp. for cities Self-sufficient neighborhood Elements contributing to sustainable habitat Density:

Design: Diversity: Distance to transit: the average of the shortest street It is the concentration of population, dwelling units, employment or any other variable over a specific area which can be either gross or net the street network which is pedestrian oriented rather than auto and whose characteristics include side walk, inter connection with in the streets, number of intersection, pedestrian crossing, street lighting It is a measure of variety of land uses present in a given area on the basis of floor area, employment and land area routes from home or work to the nearest rail stations and bus stops Destination accessibility:

the ease with which one can access the trip attraction to both local (market) and regional (jobs) destinations Source: Travel & Built Environment: A Meta Analysis, Reid Ewing and Robert Cervero Generalised framework Density Diversity Design Destina tion Accessibility Distance to Transit Walkabilit y INCREASED Transit Use Vehicle Miles Tra velled DECREASE D

C o n t ro l l e d b u i l t e n v i ro n m e n t Tr a n s i t O r i e n t e d D e v e l o p m e n t Lo w e r d e p e n d e n c e o n n o n re n e w a b l e re s o u rc e s ( c re a t i n g e n e rg y s e c u r i t y ) Re d u ce d G H G e m i s s i o n s Source: Travel & Built Environment: A Meta Analysis, Reid Ewing and Robert Cervero Click icon to add picture Thank You

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