WHAT IS OROGENY? Processes of mtn building Distinctive
WHAT IS OROGENY? Processes of mtn building Distinctive patterns of deposition eugeocline, miogeocline Deformation
Folding and thrust-faulting Metamorphism Intrusions: batholiths, etc Volcanic Activity
TYPES OF MOUNTAINS
Volcanic: Shield and composite Fault-block: normal faulting and tension Folded: reverse faults and compression Complex: mixture of most of the above Mauna Loa in
Background Kilaeua is Behind Mauna Loa Mauna Kea
Shield volcano Hot Spot Basalt Kilaeua Newest ground in
The world Asthenosphere coming To the surface Composite Volcano Mt Rainier
Compressive forces Subduction zones Andesitic composition Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador Quito in foreground
Composite volcanoes explosive Normal fault Footwall moves Up relative to Hanging wall
FOOTWALL HANGING WALL Tension forces
Tilted fault-block range: Sierra Nevada from east, Steep side of block fault; Ansel Adams photo Tilted Fault-block Sierra Nevada from west Side, low angle
Yosemite valley the result Of glaciation on low-angle relief Wasatch Range From Salt Lake City
Typically faultBlock system Grand Tetons: Another fault-block system Alternating normal faults lead to a characteristic pattern called a Horst and Graben system. An area under tension will often have
Multiple mountain ranges as a result. Basin and range province: tilted fault-block mountains in Nevada. The results of a horst and graben system. Nevada is under tension Because of rising magma which is unzipping the system, all the way From Baja California
Sierra Nevada and Wasatch Ranges part of this system REVERSE FAULTS: Hanging wall moves up relative to footwall Result of compression: plates colliding Two types: low-angle or thrust faults, and high-angle reverse faults
Individual layers can move 100s of kilometers Alps are a great example Thrust faults main cause Of folded mountains
Appalachian Mountains of the US Atlas Mountains, Northern Africa Classic folded terrain: well-developed anticline
ZAGROS MTS PERSIAN GULF Alternating Anticlines and Synclines
High-angle reverse faults Forms Sawtooth Mtns Flatirons classic example Sawtooth effect result of Differential erosion
SAWTOOTH RANGE, IDAHO Alice Lake White Cloud peak
COMPLEX MOUNTAINS Tend to have a little of Everything: volcanoes, Folds, thrust faults, normal faults
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