EVOLUTION Charles Darwin Darwins Theory of Evolution Evolution,
EVOLUTION Charles Darwin Darwins Theory of Evolution Evolution, or change over time, is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
A scientific theory is a well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world. How do you think Darwin came up with his theory?
Voyage of the Beagle Voyage of Beagle Dates: February 12th, 1831 Captain: Charles Darwin Ship: H.M.S. Beagle Destination: Voyage around the world. Findings: evidence to propose a
revolutionary hypothesis about how life changes over time Patterns of Diversity Darwin visited Argentina and Australia which had similar grassland ecosystems.
those grasslands were inhabited by very different animals. neither Argentina nor Australia was home to the sorts of animals that lived in European grasslands.
Patterns of Diversity Darwin posed challenging questions.
Why were there no rabbits in Australia, despite the presence of habitats that seemed perfect for them? Why were there no kangaroos in England? Living Organisms and Fossils Darwin collected the preserved remains of
ancient organisms, called fossils. Some of those fossils resembled organisms that were still alive today. Living Organisms and Fossils
Others looked completely unlike any creature he had ever seen. As Darwin studied fossils, new questions arose. Why had so many of these species disappeared?
How were they related to living species? Fossils The Galapagos Island The smallest, lowest islands were hot,
dry, and nearly barren-Hood Island-sparse vegetation The higher islands had greater rainfall and a different assortment of plants and animals-Isabela- Island had rich vegetation.
The Galapagos Island Darwin was fascinated in particular by the land tortoises and marine iguanas in the Galpagos.
Giant tortoises varied in predictable ways from one island to another. The shape of a tortoise's shell could be used to identify which island a particular tortoise inhabited.
Animals found in the Galapagos Land Tortoises Darwin Finches
Blue-Footed Booby Marine Iguanas Animals
The Journey Home Darwin Observed that characteristics of many plants and animals vary greatly among the islands Hypothesis:
Separate species may have arose from an original ancestor Ideas that shaped Darwins Thinking James Hutton: 1795 Theory of Geological change
Forces change earths surface shape Changes are slow Earth much older than thousands of years
Ideas that Shaped Darwins Thinking Charles Lyell Book: Principles of Geography Geographical features can be built up or torn down Darwin thought if earth changed over time,
what about life? Lamarck Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Tendency toward Perfection(Giraffe
necks) Use and Disuse (birds using forearms)
Inheritance of Acquired Traits Population Growth Thomas Malthus19th century English economist
If population grew (more Babies born than die) Insufficient living space Food runs out Darwin applied this theory to animals Publication of Orgin of Species
Russel Wallace wrote an essay summarizing evolutionary change from his field work in Malaysia
Gave Darwin the drive to publish his findings Natural Selection & Artificial Selection Natural variation--differences among
individuals of a species Artificial selection- nature provides the variation among different organisms, and humans select those variations they find useful.
Evolution by Natural Selection The Struggle for Existence-members of each species have to compete for food, shelter, other life necessities
Survival of the Fittest-Some individuals better suited for the environment Natural Selection Over time, natural selection results in changes in inherited
characteristics of a population. These changes increase a species fitness in its environment Descent
Descent with Modification-Each living organism has descended, with changes from other species over time Common Descent- were derived from common ancestors Evidence of Evolution
The Fossil Record Geographic Distribution of Living Things Homologous Body Structures
Similarities in Early Development Evidence for Evolution
The Fossil RecordLayer show change Geographic Distribution of Living Things Homologous Body Structures
Similarities in Early Development Evidence of Evolution
The Fossil Record Geographic Distribution of Living Things-similar environments have similar types of organisms Homologous Body Structures
Similarities in Early Development Homologous Structures Homologous Structures-structures that have different mature forms in different
organisms, but develop from the same embryonic tissue Evidence for Evolution Vestigial organs-organs that serve no useful function in an organism i.e.) appendix, miniature legs, arms
Similarities in Early Development Summary of Darwins Theory Individuals in nature differ from one another
Organisms in nature produce more offspring than can survive, and many of those who do not survive do not reproduce. Summary of Darwins Theory
Because more organisms are produce than can survive, each species must struggle for resources Each organism is unique, each has advantages and disadvantages in the
struggle for existence Summary (cont.) Individuals best suited for the environment survive and reproduce most successful
Species change over time Summary (cont.) Species alive today descended with modification from species that lived in the past
All organisms on earth are united into a single family tree of life by common descent
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