THE RENAISSANCE The Beginning (1400 1550) The End

THE RENAISSANCE The Beginning (1400  1550) The End

THE RENAISSANCE The Beginning (1400 1550) The End (1625 1660) The Acme (1559 1625) The Beginning

- a revolution of thought: arts letters - an intellectual movement: Western Europe . Italy: Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio . Greek: Plato, Homer, Sophocles - the invention of printing (1450) - the outbreak of the Reformation: translations - the revival of Learning: essays: . Sir Thomas More (1478 1535): Utopia (1516)

the true prologue to the Renaissance poetry: . Thomas Wyatt (1503 -1542): Petrarchan sonnets an octave + sestet abba abba cdc dcc . Henry Howard/Earl of Surrey (1517 1547): English Sonnet three quatrains + a couplet abab cdcd efef gg drama: . Nicholas Udall

Comedy Ralph Roister Doister (1533) . Thomas Norton Tragedy Gorboduc or Ferrex and Porrex (1562) . Thomas Sackville (1536 1608) The Mirror for Magistrates The Acme of the Renaissance / the Elizabethan Age Poetry 1. Edmund Spenser (1552 1599) - Shepherds Calendar (1579) - Fairie Queene (1589 1596) Spenserian stanza: 8 lines + 1

iambic pentameter ababbcbc + alexandrine c - Amoretti (1595) - Epithalamion - Prothalamion 2. Sir Philip Sidney (1554 1586): - Astrophel - Stella - Arcadia - Defence of Poesie (an essay) 3. Sir Walter Raleigh (1552 1618): - The Discovery of the Empire of Guiana - History of yhe World 4. Thomas Campion (1567 1620):

- songs 5. Michael Drayton (1563 -1631): - songs Drama Precursors of Shakespeare: 1. John Lily (1554 1606) - Euphues - Endymion (myth) 2. George Peele (1558 1597) - David and Bethsabe (old mistery) 3. Robert Green (1560 1592) - Friar Bacon and Friar Bangay (love story) - James IV (history) 4. Thomas Lodge (1558 1625)

- A Looking Glass for London and England (+Green) - Rosalinde (pastoral romance) 5. Thomas Nash (1567 1601): - The Life of Jack Wilton (1594) picaresque novel 6. Thomas Dekker (1570 1632): - The Bachelors Banquet (tragic comedy) 7. Thomas Kyd (1558 1594): - The Tragedy of Blood / The Tragedy of Revenge - Spanish Tragedy (a pro-Shakespearean Hamlet) 8. Christopher Marlowe (1564 1593):

- Tamburlaine ( 1587) - Doctor Faustus (1588) - The Jew of Malta (1590) - Edward II (1591) WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564 1616) Concerning the Form: - Blank verse - Heroic couplets Concerning the Plot: The idea and the subject of the story are taken from - the history - novels (esp. Italy and France)

- romances -daily life - heroes from Englands history Style of Writing: - poetic drama - beauty, spontaneity and passion to strictness of order - formal and dignified language of the classics - followed the fashion of the time Concerning the extent of work: - 37 plays: 16 comedies 10 tragedies

11 historical - 2 long narrative poems - 154 sonnets + other poems Shakespeares Plays the Brilliant Apprentice (26 30): - 1590-1594: Venus and Adonis (1593) Lucrece (1594) King Henry Love Labours Lost The Comedy of Errors (15921594) Two Gentlemen of Verona The Successful Craftsman (30 36)

- 1594-1600: Midsummer Nights Dream Much Ado about Nothing As You Like It Twelfth Night Merchant of Venice Richard II (1596) Henry V (1598-99) Romeo and Juliet Julius Caesar (1598-99) Taming of the Shrew (1594-97) Marry Wives of Windsor (1597-1600) The Accomplished Master (36 43) - 1600 - 1607:

Hamlet (1600-01) Alls Well that Ends Well (160004) Troilus and Cressida (1601-03) Measure to Measure (1603-04) Othelo (1604-05) King Lear (1605-06) Macbeth (1605-06) The Ease of Genius (43 49) - 1607 1613: Antony and Cleopatra (160708) Timon of Athens (1608-10) Pericles Coriolanus Cymbeline

The Winters Tale (1610-11) The Tempest (1611-12) Henry VIII (1612-13) The Great Art of Shakespeare The universality of his genius:

tragedies comedies historical plays narrative verse sonnets His profound insight into the psychology of man, and his characters are the real men and women with complex personality His characters are as a rule so well conceived Enormous dramatic tension dramatic irony The dialogue form highest perfection in a complete harmony of poetry and drama

Shakespeares Contemporaries George Chapman (translator of Homer) - a pleasant wit - a sober manner - a graceful style of in comedies: 1. Al Fooles (1605) 2. Monsieur dOlive (1606) 3. The Gentleman Usher (1606) - tragedies: 1. Bussy dAmbois (1598) 2. The Revenge of Bussy dAmbois (1613) 3. Conspiracie and Tragedie of Charles (1608) 4. Duke of Byron (1608) 5. Marshall of France (1608)

Ben Jonson (1573 1639) - concept of Humor: 1. Every Man in His Humor (1598) 2. Every Man out of His Humor (1599) 3. Cynthias Revels (1601) 4. Poetaster (1602) 5. Volpone, or the Fox 6. Epicaene, or the Silent Woman (1606) 7. The Alchemist (1610) 8. Bartholomew Fayre (1614) - tragedy: 1. Sejanus (1603) 2. Catiline (1611) 3. Julius Caesar (1599)

4. The Sad Shepherd (unfinished) John Marston (1575 1634) - melodrama: 1. Antonio and Mellida (1600) 2. Antonios Revenge (1600) - a tragi-comedy - a violent comedy: 1. The Malcontent (1601) - cynisism: 1. The Dutch Courtezan (1605) 2. The Honest Whore (with Dekker) 3. Parasitaster, or the Fawne (1606) - comedy of manner: 1. Eastward Hoe

Thomas Middleton (1580 1627) - comedies: 1. Michaelmas Terme (1604) 2. A Trick to Catch The Old One (1606) 3. A Mad World 4. My Masters, Your Five Gallants 5. A chast Mayd John Fletcher (1579 1625): 1. Tragedie of Valentinian (1614) 2. The Tragedie of Bonduca (1614) 3. The Loyal Subject (1618) 4. The Humorous Lieutenant (1619) 5. Monsieur Thomas (1621) 6. The Pilgrim

7. The Wild-goose Chase Philip Massinger (1583 1639) - comedies: 1. A New Way to Pay Old Debts (1626) 2. The City Madam (1632) 3. The Guardian (1633) 4. The Fatall Dowry (1619) 5. The Duke of Millaine (1620) 6. The Unnatural Combat (1621) 7. The Maid of Honour (1626) 8. The Bond-Man (1623) 9. The Renegado (1624) 10. The Roman Actor (1626) 11. The Picture (1629)

John Ford (1586 1639): 1. Perkin Warback 2. The Lovers Melancholy 3. Tis Pity Shees a Whore 4. The Broken Heart James Shirley (1596 1666): 1. The Traytor (1631) 2. The Cardinall (1631) 3. The Wedding 4. Changes 5. Hyde Park 6. The Gamester 7. The Lady of Pleasure 8. The Young Admirall

9. The Opportunitie 10. The Imposture METAPHYSICAL POETRY Characteristics: - metaphysical conceit - obscure language - metaphor Poets 1. John Donne (1572 1631) - Elegies, satyres, divine poems 2. George Herbert (1593 1633) - The Temple

- The Pulley Andrew Marvell (1621 1678): 1. To His Coy Mistress Abraham Cowley (1618 1667): 1. Pindarique Odes 2. Miscellanies 3. Ode to the Royal Society John Milton (1608 1674) - religious poem: 1.

Ode on the Morning of Christs Nativity 2. LAllegro 3. Il Penseroso 4. Arcades 5. Comus (1634) 6. Lycidas (1637) 7. Paradise Lost (1667) 8. Paradise Regained (1671)

9. Samson Agonistes (1671) The Anglican Poets George Herbert (1593 1633) 1. 2. 3. 4. Richard Crashaw (1612 1649):

Musics Duel Wishes to a supposed Mistress The Weeper The Flaming Heart Henry Vaughan (1622 1695) - secular verses, myticism: Scintillans The Retreat 1. 2.

Francis Quarles (1592 1644): 1. Emblems (1635) Andrew Marvell (1621 1678) Abraham Cowley (1618 1667) Sir John Denham (1615 1669) - descriptive, didactic poems: 1. Coopers Hill (1642)

The Cavalier Poets 1. Sir John Suckling (1609 1642): A Ballad upon a Wedding 1. 2. 3. Thomas Carew (1598 1639): Ask me no more When Thou, poor Excommunicate

Read in These Roses the Sad Story 1. 2. 3. Robert Herrick (1591 1674): Hesperides/Works both humane and divine (1648) The Hock-cart or Harvest Home Corinnas going a-Maying 1.

Richard Lovelace (1618 1658): To Althea from Prison The End of the Renaissance Prose Sir Thomas Browne (1603 1682) - a physician, theologian/preacher: 1. Pseudo-doxia Epidemica (1646) 2. Religio Medici (1643) 3. The Garden of Cyrus 4. Hydriotaphia Jeremy Taylor (1613 1667) - Anglican prosaist, dreamer:

1. Liberty of Prophesying (1646) 2. Holy Living (1650) 3. Holy Dying (1651) 4. The Marriage Ring Francis Bacon (1567 1626) - lawyer, statesman, philosopher: 1. Essays 2. The Advancement of Learning John Bunyan (1628 1688) - a traveling thinker, Puritan preacher, allegorist (49 books): 1. The Pilgrims Progress (1678)

2. Everyman 3. The Life and Death of Mr. Badman (1680) 4. Grace Abounding (1666) 5. The Holy War (1682) Thomas Hobbes (1588 1679) - philosophy: 1. Elements of Law, Natural and Politics (1640) 2. Leviathan (1651) Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty (1611 1660) 1. Church History of Britain (1655-6) 2. Holy and Profane State (1642) 3. The History of the Worthies of England (1662) Izaac Walton (1593 1683)

1. The Compleat Angler (1653) Drama - the decay of drama: no drama produced closing of the theatres -Drama was restored by John Dryden in the Restoration period

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