Vaccination for Contagious Diseases Overview Adapted from the

Vaccination for Contagious Diseases Overview Adapted from the

Vaccination for Contagious Diseases Overview Adapted from the FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases (2014) This Presentation National Veterinary Stockpile

Regulation of veterinary vaccines Types of vaccines Vaccine delivery and delivery devices: syringes, needles, etc. Vaccine handling and storage FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH National Veterinary Stockpile (NVS)

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH NVS USDA APHIS VS resource Augments State resources Repository of countermeasures Logistical support for North American FMD Vaccine Bank

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Regulation of Veterinary Vaccines FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Regulation of Vaccines USDA APHIS Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB)

Regulates veterinary biologics Such as vaccines, bacterins, antisera Pure, safe, potent, and effective Virus Serum Toxin Act FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Regulation of Vaccines CVB - Policy, Evaluation and Licensing (PEL) Establishes licensing standards

Reviews prelicense documentation Performs testing CVB - Inspection & Compliance (IC) Inspects production facilities, methods and records Investigates suspected violations and consumer complaints FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Types of Vaccines

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Types of Vaccines Modified live vaccines (MLV) Replicate in host, mild clinical signs Killed inactivated vaccines All or part of inactivated pathogen Require adjuvant Novel vaccines - include

Gene-deleted vaccines Live vectored vaccines Plant-derived vaccines DNA vaccines FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Modified Live Vaccines

Contain live organisms Sensitive to improper handling/storage May cause disease in stressed animals Can cause disease if given by the wrong route Do not administer to pregnant animals, unless otherwise stated on label FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Killed Vaccines Contain inactivated whole organism

or portion of organism Generally combined with an adjuvant Often require two doses to be effective FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Novel Vaccines Types: Gene-Deleted Vaccines Live Vectored Vaccines Plant-Derived Vaccines

DNA Vaccines FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH DIVA Vaccines May be live or killed vaccines Developed with a companion diagnostic kit Prevents confusion between vaccinated animals and infected animals Facilitate disease eradication

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Withdrawal Times Vaccination Withdrawal Time: The period between the administration of the vaccination and the time the vaccinated animal or products from that animal can legally enter the human food chain - specified in the vaccine license Vaccines used in food animals are

subject to withdrawal times FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Vaccine Delivery FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Vaccine Delivery Routes

Parenteral Injection Needle-Free Intranasal Ocular Oral Spray/Topical FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Parenteral Injection Delivered with a syringe and needle

In muscle (intramuscular) Under skin (subcutaneous) Use a new needle for each animal FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Needle-Free Injection Transdermal

Drives vaccine into skin by a burst of air or gas Minimal bodily fluid contamination Delivery of vaccine to dermis may enhance efficacy FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Intranasal and Ocular Methods mimic natural route of

infection Intranasal Delivered with a squeeze bulb attached to intranasal device Ocular Primarily used for fowl (chickens) Applied to surface of the eye FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Oral Vaccines

May be diluted in drinking water or sprayed onto food Convenient for mass vaccination Limited to fowl (chickens) and pigs Goal: Vaccinate a sufficient percentage of group FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Spray/Topical Vaccines Diluted in water or diluted and misted, sprayed, or nebulized onto a

large group of animals Convenient for mass vaccination Goal: Vaccinate a sufficient percentage of group FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Vaccine Handling FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH

Cold Chain Appropriate temperature range to ensure efficacy During transport, storage, and all handling Do not freeze vaccines intended to be refrigerated Do not subject to freezethaw cycles Store in box until needed FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH

Transporting and Receiving When transporting: Minimize the number of times transported Ensure cold chain is maintained When receiving vaccines: Inspect immediately on arrival Look for signs of physical damage Check expiration dates FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview

USDA APHIS and CFSPH Storage Units Dedicated to vaccine storage Avoid temperature fluctuations Do not use an outlet controlled by a wall switch or power strip FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview

USDA APHIS and CFSPH Diluents Lyophilized vaccine needs a diluent Diluents are not interchangeable Always use the diluent provided with the vaccine and lot number Follow manufacturers instructions for reconstituting vaccine FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH

Maintaining Sterility When using multi-dose vials: Use sterile technique to withdraw vaccine Never remove rubber stopper Disinfect rubber stopper before piercing Use a sterile needle each time Clearly mark vials with date, time, and users initials FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH

For More Information FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases http://www.aphis.usda.gov/fadprep Vaccination for Contagious Diseases web-base training module http://naherc.sws.iastate.edu/ FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH

Guidelines Content Authors (CFSPH) Jim Roth, DVM, PhD, DACVM Amber Stumbaugh, MS Anna Rovid-Spickler, DVM, PhD

Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH, PhD, DACVPM Janice Mogan, DVM Heather Allen, PhD, MPA

Shaine DeVoe Reviewers (USDA) John Zack, DVM Patricia Foley, DVM, PhD

R. Alex Thompson, DVM, PhD John Wiemers, DVM, MS FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases - Overview USDA APHIS and CFSPH Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was by the Center for Food Security and

Public Health at Iowa State University through funding from the USDA APHIS Veterinary Services PPT Author: Patricia Futoma, Veterinary Student Reviewers: Cheryl L. Eia, JD, DVM, MPH; Janice Mogan, DVM

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