Chapter 8 The Texas Executive Branch LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Chapter 8 The Texas Executive Branch LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Chapter 8 The Texas Executive Branch LEARNING OBJECTIVES LO 8.1 Describe the governors office and the characteristics of the typical Texas governor. LO 8.2 Analyze both the governors powers of persuasion and the limits on them. LO 8.3 Analyze the structure and characteristics of the Texas bureaucracy. LO 8.4 Analyze the political relationships among executive agencies, the public, interest groups, and elected officials.

LO 8.5 Evaluate strategies for holding state agencies accountable. LO 8.6 Apply what you have learned about the states executive branch. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 THE GOVERNORS OFFICE: QUALIFICATIONS, TENURE AND STAFF Formal Qualifications for Governor

Informal Qualifications for Governor Thirty years of age An American citizen Citizen of Texas for five years prior to election WASP Genderthe governor is historically male Middle-aged Businessperson or attorney

Republican (today) Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 THE GOVERNORS OFFICE: QUALIFICATIONS, TENURE AND STAFF The only female governor of Texas before Ann Richards (19911995) was Miriam A. Ferguson, who served for two nonconsecutive terms (1925 1927 and 19331935).

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4 THE GOVERNORS OFFICE: QUALIFICATIONS, TENURE AND STAFF Qualifications and Elections (cont.) The nomination Democratic primary: must forge coalition Republican primary: contest between businessoriented conservatives and ideological conservatives

Well-funded campaigns Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 5 In 2014, Texans elected Republican Greg Abbott as the states governor. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 6 THE GOVERNORS OFFICE:

QUALIFICATIONS, TENURE AND STAFF Tenure, Removal, Succession, and Compensation Governor serves 4-year term, no term limits Removal only by impeachment House issues articles of impeachment (legislative equivalent of an indictment) Senate acts as court Two-thirds vote required to convict Succeeded by lieutenant governor (whenever the office of governor is vacated) 7

THE GOVERNORS OFFICE: QUALIFICATIONS, TENURE AND STAFF Tenure, Removal, Succession, and Compensation Compensation Set by legislature at $150,000 annually Among highest in nation Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 THE GOVERNORS OFFICE:

QUALIFICATIONS, TENURE AND STAFF Staff Evaluating appointees Legislative liaisons Budget preparation Planning Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 THE GOVERNORS POWERS Informal (extralegal) powers

Powers that are not stated in rules, a law, or a constitution, but are usually derived from these legal powers Formal (legal) powers Powers stated in rules, a law, or a constitution Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 10 THE GOVERNORS POWERS Media access, party influence, and

appointive powers to boards, commissions are all things that provide an opportunity for the governor to have greater influence on both the legislative and administrative policy. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 11 THE GOVERNORS POWERS The governors ability to influence the making and executing of government policy depends on his or her:

bargaining skills ability to broker effectively between competing interests persuasiveness Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 12 A PLURAL EXECUTIVE The executive branch of Texas government is best described as fragmented. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning.

All rights reserved. 13 TEXASS ELECTED OFFICIALS Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 14 THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION The Governor as Chief Executive Appointive powers

Interest-group concerns Influence of the Senate Senatorial courtesy: The tradition of allowing a senator to reject the governors appointment of a political enemy from the senators district. Bureaucratic concerns Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 15 THE BOARD AND COMMISSION SYSTEM Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

16 THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION The Governor as Chief Executive (cont.) Removal Powers Law Enforcement Powers Military Powers Clemency Powers Judicial powers Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

17 THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION The Governor as Chief of State Ceremonial duties International function Federal-State relations Governor may request federal aid in times of a disaster, drought, or an economic calamity Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 18

THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION Governor as Party Chief Influential position Can reward supporters with political appointments National party leader Positions on national issues Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 19

THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION Legislative Tools of Persuasion The most influential bargaining tools of the governor Message power Constitution requires that a state-of-the-state message must be given by the governor at the beginning of each legislative session. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 20

THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION Legislative Tools of Persuasion Budget powers The veto (gives the Texas governor a strong bargaining position with legislators) Power to stop a bill from becoming law Item veto: Governor may remove funds for specific items or projects without killing the entire bill Not allowed to use pocket veto Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 21

THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION Legislative Tools of Persuasion Can be overridden by 2/3 vote of legislature, but Difficult to do (Only one overridden since World War II) Threat of a veto An informal legislative power of the governor not mentioned in the constitution or the law One of the most persuasive tools of the governor Gives the governor the opportunity to shape legislation Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning.

22 All rights reserved. THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION The governors authority to reject a proposed law is almost an absolute power because the legislature is seldom in session when the governor issues a veto. Most bills passed at end of session Legislature cannot override veto isuued after session is over Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

23 THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION Legislative Tools of Persuasion (cont.) Special sessions Called only by Governor Agenda determined by Governor Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 24

THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION Fact-finding commissions Used to delay the actual consideration of a political hot potato until it has cooled. They can serve as trial balloons to measure public acceptance of various proposals. They are a means to inform and increase interest group support. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 25

THE GOVERNORS POWERS OF PERSUASION Compared to those of other states, the governor of Texas has weaker executive and administrative powers. In fact, the Texas governors overall institutional power ranking is 35th among the 50 states. Would Texas benefit from having a stronger governor? Why? Why not? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 26

THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION The system of officials and their employees administering or managing government policies and programs is called bureaucracy. No one officially in charge of Texas bureaucracy most distinctive characteristic of the Texas administration Fragmented into elective and appointive positions Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

27 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Texas has a plural executive, which means that the governor shares executive power with several other independently elected executives and boards. Elected executive officials are not directly responsible to the governor More than 200 separate entities Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 28

THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION The Sunset Advisory Commission makes recommendations as to the alteration, termination, or continuation of about 130 state boards, commissions, and agencies. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 29 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION A system that allows the chief

executive to appoint and remove toplevel administrators, thereby giving the chief executive more control over the administration is called cabinet system. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 30 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Elected Executives and the Plural Executive System Lieutenant Governor Part of executive branch, but source of power is

legislative branch President of the senate Ex officio chair of Legislative Budget Board, the Legislative Council, and Legislative Audit Board Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 31 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Elected Executives and the Plural Executive System (cont.) Attorney General Interprets constitution through opinions Represents state in civil and criminal litigation

But does not prosecute criminal cases Attorney generals opinion Which are the attorney generals most important powers? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. Why? All rights reserved. 32 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Elected Executives and the Plural Executive System (cont.) The attorney general is the lawyer for: State officials

State board members State agencies Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 33 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION AG Advisory Opinions Advisory opinions are technically not legally binding, but they carry great weight in Texas government. Government officials usually follow these opinions even though they are not binding. If an official ignores the opinions, the attorney general will

not defend the action in court. The attorney general has the power to give an opinion that a law or practice does or does not violate other laws or practices of the Texas or U.S. Constitutions. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 34 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Elected Executives and the Plural Executive System (cont.) Comptroller of Public Accounts Manages financial activities of state government Certifies states approximate biennial revenue

What is the comptrollers most important constitutional duty? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 35 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION What is the most important constitutional duty for the comptroller of public accounts? Certifying the approximate biennial revenue for the state Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning.

All rights reserved. 36 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Elected Executives and the Plural Executive System (cont.) Commissioner of the General Land Office The revenues from the management of public lands are dedicated to the Permanent School Fund, which benefits public schools Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

37 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Elected Executives and the Plural Executive System (cont.) Commissioner of Agriculture Administers laws for both consumer and labor protection Checking the accuracy of scales in meat markets. Administering the Texas Agricultural Finance Authority. Conducting research, educational, and regulatory activities relating to agriculture. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

38 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Elected Executives and the Plural Executive System (cont.) Commissioner of Agriculture Administration of all agricultural purchase agreements. Administration of the Texas food bank program. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 39

THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Appointed Executives Secretary of State States Chief Election Officer By executive order, Governor Rick Perry directed the Secretary of State to serve as his liaison for Texas border and Mexican affairs. Adjutant General Health and Human Services Commissioner Insurance Commissioner Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

40 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Boards and Commissions Elective boards Texas Railroad Commission Texas State Board of Education But, Commissioner of Education is not legally independent of the governor Ex officio boards Texas Bond Review Board Appointed boards Texas Commission on Environmental Quality

Advisory boards Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 41 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Characteristics of Bureaucracy Size Has increased dramatically Mandates shift burden to local government Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

42 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Characteristics of Bureaucracy Neutrality No statewide civil service (or merit) system; Texas relies on patronage Attempts to depoliticize with independent board and commission system Local governments turning to nonpartisan elections Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

43 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Characteristics of Bureaucracy Privatization Conservative support Contract spoils A practice in which politicians award contracts to their political supporters and contributors in the business community. Hierarchy Texas government not arranged hierarchically Department of Transportation

44 TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 45 THE TEXAS ADMINISTRATION Characteristics of Bureaucracy Expertise Public Support

Beneficial in battles over appropriations requests and jurisdiction Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 46 THE BUREAUCRACY, POLITICS, AND PUBLIC POLICY Clientele Groups Benefit directly from agency programs Most concerned with the laws and policies being administered by a government agency

Agency-clientele alliance Share information Have common attitudes and goals Exchange employees Lobby the legislature together 47 THE BUREAUCRACY, POLITICS, AND PUBLIC POLICY

Clientele Groups The revolving door practices of special interest groups (clientele groups) help them gain influence over public policy. 48 THE BUREAUCRACY, POLITICS, AND PUBLIC POLICY The Governor Agencies need for support depends on governors formal and informal powers Appointive powers important Governors support provides greater bargaining power with legislators and interest groups

How can political alliances enhance the power of the governor? What risks do they present? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 49 THE BUREAUCRACY, POLITICS, AND PUBLIC POLICY Public Policy and the Iron Texas Star Coalition between political actors, including:

Lieutenant governor Speaker Standing committees Governor Administrators Boards and commissions Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 50 THE IRON TEXAS STAR MODEL

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 51 THE BUREAUCRACY, POLITICS, AND PUBLIC POLICY The Legislature, the Lieutenant Governor, and the Speaker Agencies dependent on legislative allies Support of lieutenant governor and speaker most important Plus finance and appropriations committees, Legislative Budget Board, Legislative Council

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 52 THE BUREAUCRACY, POLITICS, AND PUBLIC POLICY The Control of Information Agencies control to benefit agency or constituent interests Administration of the Law Administrative review Administrative law enforcement

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 53 BUREAUCRATIC ACCOUNTABILITY Bureaucratic Accountability Accountability to the People Elective accountability Accountability to the Legislature Accountability to the Chief Executive Reformers advocate cabinet system

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a cabinet system headed by a strong chief executive? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 54 STRUCTURE OF THE CABINET SYSTEM In a cabinet system used in some states and the national government, the chief executive directly

appoints agency administrators and is ultimately responsible for their performance. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 55 BUREAUCRATIC ACCOUNTABILITY Bureaucratic Accountability (cont.) Bureaucratic Responsibility Open-meetings laws

Laws requiring that meetings of government bodies at all levels of government be open to the general public with some exceptions. Unannounced meetings a violation Open-records laws Laws that require most records kept by government to be open to the public. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 56 BUREAUCRATIC ACCOUNTABILITY

Bureaucratic Accountability (cont.) Whistleblowers and ombudspersons An official who takes, investigates, and mediates complaints about government bureaucrats or policy. Government employees who expose bureaucratic excesses, blunders, corruption, or favoritism are whistleblowers Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 57 TX GOVERNOR RICK PERRY

WILL WORK HARD FOR TEXAS Click picture to view video Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 58 VIDEO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Why do governors call special sessions? Is this a formal or an informal power of the governor? 2. Based on his remarks in the video, would Perry be considered a businessoriented conservative or an ideological conservative?

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 59

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