The end of WW1 The effects of WW1 Europe had been devastated by fighting. Millions of soldiers had been killed. The victorious powers were exhausted. The USA was in a strong position. The mood in 1919 People in Britain and France thought that Germany was responsible for the war. They felt that Germany should be made to pay reparations. Germany was not invited to the peace talks and were forced to accept the treaty. The Paris Peace Conference This took place in the palace of Versailles. It lasted for 12 months. Non of the defeated nations were invited. All the important decisions were made by President Wilson (USA) Prime Minister David Lloyd Gerorge (Britain) and Prime Minister Clemanceau (France) The leaders did not get on well and relations worsened over time. Woodrow Wilson was very ill during the conference. The Big Three The Terms of the Treaty of Versailles Georges Clemenceau France He wanted a harsh treaty that would punish Germany severely
and cripple it so that it would never be able to threaten France again. Woodrow Wilson USA War casualties for America were low Wilson believed that Germany was to blame for starting the war, but he believed that the treaty with Germany should not be too harsh because this would cause the Germans to seek revenge later. Wilson published the 14 points that would lead to self determination and international co operation. David Lloyd George Britain Lloyd George understood the feelings of the British people but wanted Germany to be justly punished since he believed that a harsh treaty would encourage Germany to seek revenge later. He wanted to begin trading with Germany after the war to help Britain recover from the war. L League of Nations This was seen as an international police force. This was set up to prevent future wars. Germany was not invited to join. A Army weakened - Germany was forced to make cuts in its armed forces. The army was cut to 100,000 men. The Rhineland was demilitarised. Therefore no Germany soldiers were allowed into this land between France and Germany. Anschluss The unification of Germany and Austria Hungary was not allowed. M Money Germany was forced to pay reparations for the cost of the war. B Blame Germany was forced to accept the blame for starting WW1. German reaction to the treaty The German public and government were horrified. They did not believe they had caused
the war. They felt they should have been invited to the peace talks. Germans hated the war guilt clause and they resented loosing their army navy and air force. Germany lost land and this meant a loss of pride. They thought that the 14 points had not been applied fairly. Germany was also insulted by not being allowed to join the league of nations. The impact of the treaty on Germany And the reactions of the British French and the USA Very quickly the treaty caused problems for Germany. The Weimar Republic was very unstable. Lloyd George thought the Germans had been treated Harshly and this would cause another war. In the USA Wilson was not able to get Congress to support the Treaty and so they refused to join the league of nations. In France Clemenceau thought the treaty was not harsh enough. Other Peace Treaties Treaty of St. Germain 1919 Austria This treaty separated Austria from Hungary. It forbade Anschluss between Austria and Germany. It took land from Austria. Treaty of Trianon -1920 Hungary Hungary was reduced in a similar way to Austria.
Treaty of Neuilly 1919- Bulgaria Bulgaria lost land to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia. It lost its access to the sea. Treaty of Sevres 1920- Turkey It lost land and control to the British. The aims of the League of Nations Aims of the league. The League of Nations was set up because President Wilson who wanted a world parliament. (SIDE) S Stop wars I - Improve peoples lives and jobs. He wanted to improve public health, and to end slavery. D - Wilson also hoped that the League would persuade the nations to agree to disarmament to put down their weapons. E - Finally, Wilson thought that the League of Nations could enforce the Treaty of Versailles. The structure of the League Powers of the league 1. Covenant (in the Leagues Covenant, especially Article 10, all members had promised to keep the peace). 2. Condemnation (the League could tell a country it was doing wrong). 3. Arbitration (the League could offer to decide between two countries). 4. Sanctions (stopping trade). Organisation 1. Assembly (the main meeting of the League all members met once a year). Its main problem was that decisions had to be unanimous, which was very difficult to achieve. 2. Council (a small group of the more important nations Britain, France, Italy and Japan plus some other countries met 45 times a year).
3. Agencies (committees of the League): Court of International Justice (for small disputes). Health (to improve world health). International Labour Organisation (to try to get fair wages). Slavery (to end slavery) Refugees. 4. Secretariat (was supposed to organise the League, but failed). Strengths and weaknesses of the league The USA did not join. Russia did not join the league. Germany was not allowed to join. Without these three big powers, the League was weak. Britain and France were the main members, helped by Italy and Japan; they were quite powerful countries. Also, the League had four powers it could use to make countries do as it wanted. Theoretically, the League was allowed to use military force, but the League did not have an army of its own so if a country ignored it, in the end, there was nothing the League could do. The main strength of the League was that it had been set up by the Treaty of Versailles, and agreed by everybody at the conference. The biggest weakness was that the Leagues organisation was a muddle. The different parts of the League were supposed to act together; but in a crisis, no-one could agree. Successes of the league 1920s Weaknesses of the league 1930s Bulgaria, 1925 The Dispute: Some Greek soldiers were killed in a small fight on the border between Greece and Bulgaria. The Greeks were angry. They
invaded Bulgaria. Bulgaria asked the League to help. What the League did: The Council of the League met. It condemned the Geeks, and told them to leave Bulgaria. What happened: The Bulgarian government sent orders to its army not to fight back. The Greeks did as the League said. They left Bulgaria. Corfu, 1923 The Dispute: An Italian general was killed while he was doing some work for the League in Greece. The Italian leader Mussolini was angry with the Greeks. He invaded the Greek island of Corfu. The Greeks asked the League to help. What the League did: The Council of the League met. It condemned Mussolini, and told him to leave Corfu. It told the Greeks to give some money to the League. What happened: Mussolini refused to accept its decision. He refused to leave Corfu. The League changed its decision. It told Greece to apologise to Mussolini, and to pay the money to Italy. The Greeks did as the League said. Then Mussolini gave Corfu back to Greece. Manchuria, 1931 The Dispute: In the 1930s there was a world-wide economic depression. Japan tried to overcome the depression by building up an empire. In 1932, the Japanese army invaded Manchuria, threw out the Chinese, and set up their own government there. China asked the League to help. What the League did: The League sent officials to study the problem (this took a year). In February 1933 it ordered Japan to leave Manchuria. What happened: Japan refused to leave Manchuria. Instead, Japan left the League. Many countries had important trading links with Japan. The League could not agree on sanctions or even a ban on weapons
sales. Britain and France did not want a war, so nothing was done. The Japanese stayed in Manchuria. The League had failed. Weaknesses of the league 1930s Abyssinia, 1935 The Dispute: Mussolini got ready to invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia). He wanted war and glory. Abyssinia asked the League to help. What the League did: The League talked to Mussolini but he used the time to send an army to Africa. The League suggested a plan to give part of Abyssinia to Italy. What happened: Mussolini ignored the League, and invaded Abyssinia. The League banned weapons sales, and put sanctions on rubber and metal. It did nothing else in fact Britain and France secretly agreed to give Abyssinia to Italy. Italy conquered Abyssinia The League had failed. WAS DUMB Weak the Leagues powers were little more than going tut-tut. Sanctions did not work. It had no army. America the strongest nation in the world never joined. Structure the League was muddled, so it took ages to do anything. Members couldnt agree but decisions had to be unanimous. This paralysed the League. Depression the world-wide Depression made countries try to get more land and power. They were worried about themselves, not about world peace. Unsuccessful the more the League failed, the less people trusted it. In the end, everybody just
ignored it. Members the Leagues main members let it down. Italy and Japan betrayed the League. France and Britain did nothing to help it. Big bullies in the 1920s, the League had dealt with weak countries. In the 1930s, powerful countries like Germany, Italy and Japan attacked weaker countries. They were too strong for the League to stop them. Collapse of international order 1930s Long Term Consequences The treaty of Versailles was so hated by the German people it was used effectively by Hitler to help him become German leader in 1933. The T of V made the Weimar Government unstable. Germany had to pay huge reparations and this caused hardship in Germany. Germany lost all of its land and this was seen as humiliating. Germany lost its armed forces and this made Germany appear weak. The Great Depression and 1930s Europe The Wall Street crash in 1929 and the depression that followed had a major effect upon the stability of many nations around the world. As world trade decreased and unemployment rose to record levels, many people began to turn away from the moderate democratic parties to support extreme groups such as the Nazi party in Germany. During the 1930s Italy and Japan had expansionist policies this meant they wanted Empires and land. Britain wanted to appease dictators in the 1930s
and so followed a policy of appeasement. France wanted to protect its frontiers and wanted to avoid war with Germany. Hitlers Foreign Policy By the 1920s Germany was recovering from the war. In 1926 Germany was allowed to join the league of nations. From 1933 Hitler's foreign policy was controlled by Adolf Hitler. His three main aims were: Abolish the Treaty of Versailles Thought it was unjust and humiliating/ didnt like Tiny armed forces, Rhineland demilitarised, Anschluss with Austria forbidden, Germans forced to live in Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) and Poland (including Danzig). Expand German territory To unite Austria with Germany/ To get extra lebensraum [living space] for Germans. Defeat Communism Believed Bolsheviks helped cause German defeat in WW1/ Feared Bolshevik takeover. HITLER'S STEPS TO WAR CRAMCUP
Conscription & Rearmament Began in secret/ Took Germany out of League of Nations. Rhineland 7 March 1936: moved troops in, Breaking Treaty of Versailles and Locarno Treaty/ Justified it by claiming that USSR + France agreement threatened Germany/ Anschluss 1934: Failed attempt/ Feb 1938: Hitler encouraged Austrian Nazis to stir up trouble, help, but was refused/ 9 March 1938: Schuschnigg called for a plebiscite on union/ 11 March 1938: Hitler sent in troops, then held a plebsicite/ 10 April 1938: 99.7% voted for union. Munich 30 September: Chamberlain calls Munich: Peace for our time. Czechoslovakia 15 March 1939: German troops took over the rest of the country. No Czech resistance. Britain and France abandoned appeasement. USSR/ Nazi Germany Pact 23 August 1939, Nazi-Soviet Pact shocked world; frees Hitler to attack Poland. Poland 1 Sept 1939 Hitler invaded Poland Britain and France declared war on Germany. The outbreak of war Hitler believed that Britain and France would not go to war over countries such as Poland. If war came Hitler believed it would be over very quickly and he had achieved his objectives.
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