Corynebacterium Erysipelothrix & Listeria Pathogenic Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli

Corynebacterium Erysipelothrix & Listeria Pathogenic Anaerobic Gram-Positive  Bacilli

Corynebacterium Erysipelothrix & Listeria Pathogenic Anaerobic Gram-Positive

Bacilli Corynebacteria (Genus Corynebacterium) Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic Small, pleomorphic (club-shaped), gram-positive bacilli that appear in short chains (V or Y configurations) or in clumps resembling Chinese

letters Cells contain metachromatic granules (visualize with methylene blue stain) Lipid-rich cell wall contains meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabino-galactan polymers, and short-chain mycolic acids Lysogenic bacteriophage encodes for potent

exotoxin in virulent strains Distinguishing Features of CMN Group Corynebacterium

Mycobacterium Nocardia

Pathogenic Corynebacterial Species Corynebacterium diphtheriae Corynebacterium jeikeium Corynebacterium urealyticum

Corynebacterium urealyticum Urinary tract infections (UTIs); rare but important Urease hydrolyzes urea; release of NH4+, increase in pH, alkaline urine, renal stones Corynebacterium jeikeium Opportunistic infections in immunocompromised

(e.g., patients with blood disorders, bone marrow transplants, intravenous catheters) Multiple antibiotic resistance common (MDR) Carriage on skin of up to 40% of hospitalized patients (e.g., marrow t-plants) Corynebacterium jeikeium Carriers

Percentage of Individuals Colonized Corynebacterium diphtheriae Respiratory diphtheria (pseudomembrane on pharynx) and cutaneous diphtheria Prototype A-B exotoxin acts systemically

Toxoid in DPT and TD vaccines Diphtheria toxin encoded by tox gene introduced by lysogenic bacteriophage (prophage) Selective media: cysteine-tellurite; serum tellurite; Loefflers Gravis, intermedius, and mitis colonial morphology

Epidemiology of Diphtheria Incidence of Diphtheria in the USA Incidence of Diphtheria in

Former Soviet Union Virulence Factors in Corynebacterium Species Diphtheria tox Gene in Beta

Bacteriophage and Prophage See Handout on Exotoxins Mechanism of Action of Diphtheria Toxin: Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

Molecular Structure of Diphtheria Toxin Catalytic Region A Subunit B Subunit

Translocation Region Receptor-Binding Region Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor on heart & nerve surfaces Diagnostic Schick Skin Test

Immune Status to C. diphtheriae and Sensitivity to Diphtheria Toxoid TOXIN TOXOID In vivo Detection

of Diphtheria Exotoxin Listeria monocytogenes Gram-positive beta-hemolytic bacillus Multiply at refrigerator temperatures (4oC) Tumbling motility at room temperature CAMP Test positive (like Group B Streptococcus)

Where do we find Listeria? Intestinal tract of mammals & birds (especially chickens) Persists in soil Soft cheeses & unwashed raw vegetables Raw or undercooked food of animal origin Luncheon meats

Hot dogs Large scale food recalls have become common Epidemiology of Listeriosis

Epidemiology of Listeria Infections Natural Reservoirs Common Routes for Human Exposure

Population at Greatest Risk Listeriosis Neonates, elderly & immunocompromised Granulomatosis infantiseptica

Transmitted to fetus transplacentally Early septicemic form: 1-5 days post-partum Delayed meningitic form: 10-20 days following birth Intracellular pathogen Cell-mediated and humoral immunity develop Only cell-mediated immunity is protective

Methods That Circumvent Phagocytic Killing See Chpt. 19 Intracellular Survival & Replication of Listeria

Phagocytosis Macrophage Listeriolysin O? Macrophage

Intracellular Replication Actin Filaments

Erysipelothrix rhusopathiae Gram-positive non-motile bacillus; forms filaments Occupational disease of meat and fish handlers, hunters, veterinarians Preventable with protective gloves & clothing Erysipeloid in humans; erysipelas in swine & turkeys Organisms enter through break in skin

Nonsuppurative, self-limiting skin lesions with erythema and eruption Peripheral spread may lead to generalized infection, septicemia and/or endocarditis Organisms can be isolated from skin biopsy Epidemiology

of Erysipelothrix Infection REVIEW Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Respiratory diphtheria (pseudomembrane on pharynx) and cutaneous diphtheria Prototype A-B exotoxin acts systemically Toxoid in DPT and TD vaccines Diphtheria toxin encoded by tox gene introduced by lysogenic bacteriophage (prophage) Selective media: cysteine-tellurite; serum

tellurite; Loefflers Gravis, intermedius, and mitis colonial morphology REVIEW Diphtheria tox Gene in Beta Bacteriophage

and Prophage REVIEW See Handout on Exotoxins REVIEW

Mechanism of Action of Diphtheria Toxin: Inhibition of Protein Synthesis REVIEW Corynebacterium jeikeium

Opportunistic infections in immunocompromised (e.g., patients with blood disorders, bone marrow transplants, intravenous catheters) Multiple antibiotic resistance common (MDR) Carriage on skin of up to 40% of hospitalized patients (e.g., marrow t-plants)

REVIEW Corynebacterium urealyticum Urinary tract infections (UTIs); rare but important Urease hydrolyzes urea; release of NH4+, increase in pH, alkaline urine, renal stones

REVIEW Listeria monocytogenes Gram-positive beta-hemolytic bacillus Multiply at refrigerator temperatures (4oC) Tumbling motility at room temperature CAMP Test positive (like Group B Streptococcus)

REVIEW Epidemiology of Listeria Infections Natural Reservoirs

Common Routes for Human Exposure Population at Greatest Risk REVIEW

Listeriosis Neonates, elderly & immunocompromised Granulomatosis infantiseptica Transmitted to fetus transplacentally Early septicemic form: 1-5 days post-partum Delayed meningitic form: 10-20 days following birth

Intracellular pathogen Cell-mediated and humoral immunity develop Only cell-mediated immunity is protective REVIEW

Intracellular Survival & Replication of Listeria Phagocytosis Macrophage Listeriolysin O?

Macrophage Intracellular Replication Actin Filaments

REVIEW Erysipelothrix rhusopathiae Gram-positive non-motile bacillus; forms filaments Occupational disease of meat and fish handlers, hunters, veterinarians

Preventable with protective gloves & clothing Erysipeloid in humans; erysipelas in swine & turkeys Organisms enter through break in skin Nonsuppurative, self-limiting skin lesions with erythema and eruption Peripheral spread may lead to generalized infection, septicemia and/or endocarditis

Organisms can be isolated from skin biopsy REVIEW

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • SGLT-2 Inhibitors and DKA Date: 3rd April 2019

    SGLT-2 Inhibitors and DKA Date: 3rd April 2019

    DKA protocol commenced. Yes. Usual Regimen. Metformin, Sitagliptin, Canagliflozin, Pioglitazone. Plan. SGLT2i and Pioglitazone stopped, Humulin M3 commenced. Duration of diabetes. 20 years. Assessed for LADA. No. Where was SGLT-2i commenced or by whom/ sick day rules provided. Unsure where...
  • Clicker Questions Chapter 19 Barbara Mowery York College

    Clicker Questions Chapter 19 Barbara Mowery York College

    Which is not a standard condition for reporting Standard Free Energy values?. is 0 for pure liquids and solids, regardless of their state. is reported for solutions at 1 M. is reported for gases at 1 atm. is 0 for...
  • APLS - gokin.be

    APLS - gokin.be

    For a full AVPU assessment, a response to pain must be undertaken (unless there is a response to voice). Discuss assessing pain - methods of producing a painful stimulus, and what response might be seen: motor, verbal, eyes. This can...
  • The Terrestrial Planets - Duplin County Schools

    The Terrestrial Planets - Duplin County Schools

    The Terrestrial Planets. Much of what we learn about the planets has been gathered by rovers, such as Spirit, or space probes that travel to the far reaches of the solar system, such as Voyager. In this section, we'll explore...
  • Selected and Differential Media - Collin College

    Selected and Differential Media - Collin College

    Selected and Differential Media Define Selective Media Differential Media Enriched Media Blood Agar Plate (BAP) Differential Enriched Use Growth Hemolysis Alpha Beta Gamma C-CNA Selective Differential Results Gram (+) Colistin Naldixic acid Blood Hemolysis MSA Selective Differential Results Halotolerant (7.5%...
  • Issue Y2K The Great War for Talent!

    Issue Y2K The Great War for Talent!

    HRmaster Tom Peters/HR.com/10.26.2004
  • Op Art 1960-1965 Op art (Optical art) is

    Op Art 1960-1965 Op art (Optical art) is

    Vega - Victor Vasarely 1957 . Acrylic on canvas 195x130cm. Vega, named after the brightest star in the . constellation Lyra, is a checkerboard made up. of squares. As the lines bend the squares become distorted causing the surface to...
  • Kein Folientitel - MIT Media Lab

    Kein Folientitel - MIT Media Lab

    => vascular plant, tracheophyte -- (green plant having a vascular system: ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms) => woody plant, ligneous plant -- (a plant having hard lignified tissues or woody parts esp. stems) => shrub, bush -- (a low woody perennial plant...