Chinook Jargon David Hunt LING 455 May 5,

Chinook Jargon David Hunt LING 455 May 5,

Chinook Jargon David Hunt LING 455 May 5, 2006 Development & Adaptation Native Multilingualism Trade (transportation routes) European Introduction

Trade Fur Gold rush Decline: Slavery Economic shifts Reservations Negative stigma Geographic Spread

Present State Attempts at revival Preschool at Twah Sun Chako in Grand Ronde Wikipedia in Chinook Jargon: Courses Lexical Contributors

English mahlie (marry) dolla (dollar) doctin (doctor) kwatah (quarter) shuckwah (sugar)

Nootka saia (far; sky) moolock (elk) French latate (head, top; la tte) lalang (tongue, language; la langue) seapo (hat; le chapeau) lawen (oats; l'avoine) Others kanaka (Hawaiian)

Lexical Contributors Creolization Fort Vancouver Willamette Valley Reservations Never the only L1 Variation

Delate (straight, correct): delet (puget sound) deleyt (2L learners) dret (Grand Ronde) drois (French) Phonological Approximations F,v,r -> p,b,l lacalat (carrot; "la carrotte") dly (dry) lope (rope)

pish (fish) piah (fire) bahn-coo-bah (Vancouver) pit (bit) Diphthong simplification sill (sail) nem (name) shem (shame) Word-final consonants

win (wind) pehpah (paper) livah (river) cole (cold) Phonological Approximations k, kw, q, qw, k, kw, q, qw to k to tl or kl

Structure Negation: wik/hilu nayka nanich wik nayka nanich I (don't) watch" Bareness of forms Tense particles Yes/no particle Prepositions Head initial kopa chek to kopachuck:

at the water Compounding verbs mamuk isik - "to paddle" chako oleman to wear out mamook haul - "to be carried Unneeded to be Til nayka or Nayka til - "I am tired" Talapus yaka or Yaka talapus - "He's a coyote"

Nouns have no s/p distinction Pronoun Usage No conjugations indicate person nayka nesayka mayka mesayka yaka klaska

Nayka mash libal - "I throw a ball" na singular proclitics: ya ma Possession '-s' acceptable whiteman yaka chikchik - "whiteman his wagon"

klootchman yaka man -"woman her man" Bibliography Cash, Phil. Sources for Chinook Jargon, a Pacific Northwest Pidg in. University of Arizona, 2005 Shaw, George, The Chinook Jargon and How to Use It: A Complete and Exhaustive Lexicon of the Oldest Trade Language of the American Continent. Seattle: Rainier Printing Co., 1909 Holton, Jim, Chinook Jargon: The Hidden Language of the Pacific Northwest. San Leandro, California: Wawa Press, 2000 Cleven, Mike, Klahowya kopa Chinook Wawa: Piahtzumwawa Skookumklahwayhut.

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