Geoengineering Methods and Risks Edward P. Richards, JD,
Geoengineering Methods and Risks Edward P. Richards, JD, MPH Clarence W. Edwards Professor of Law LSU Law School, Climate Change Law Project [email protected] Blog - http://sites.law.lsu.edu/coast/ Geoengineering Strategies
Climate Engineering Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Alkalization of the ocean (limestone) Actually adaptation, but considered climate engineering in the literature and research Adaptation
Levees Coastal Restoration Riverine Drainage Projects Water Relocation Projects
Natural Climate Engineering Earth's Future Volume 4, Issue 11, pages 523-531, 24 NOV 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000447 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000447/full#eft2157-fig-0001 Was breaking the taboo on research on climate engineering via albedo modification a moral hazard, or a moral imperative?
Earth's Future 24 FEB 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000463 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000463/full#eft2172-fig-0001 Why the Explosion of Interest? Ramp up of projected risks from warming such as sea level rise. Growing concern with tipping points
Impossibly of creating binding and enforceable international agreements Limits of the Paris agreement Growing subnational resistance in the US Election of Trump E.P.A. Chief rejects consensus view of climate change Climate Engineering Strategies
Vaughan, Naomi E., and Timothy M. Lenton. "A review of climate geoengineering proposals." Climatic change 109.3-4 (2011): 745-790. Research for assessment, not deployment, of Climate Engineering: The German Research Foundation's Priority Program SPP 1689 Earth's Future Volume 5, Issue 1, pages 128-134, 24 JAN 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000446
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000446/full#eft2185-fig-0001 Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering Earth's Future Volume 5, Issue 1, pages 93-106, 24 JAN 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000389 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000389/full#eft2174-fig-0002 Indicators and metrics for the assessment of climate engineering
Earth's Future Volume 5, Issue 1, pages 49-58, 13 JAN 2017 DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000449 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000449/full#eft2165-fig-0001 What are the risks? Vaughan, Naomi E., and Timothy M. Lenton. "A review of climate geoengineering proposals." Climatic change 109.3-4 (2011): 745-790.
What are the Geopolitical Issues? Earth's Future Volume 4, Issue 11, pages 523-531, 24 NOV 2016 DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000447 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000447/full#eft2157-fig-0002 What are the Geopolitical Risks?
Unilateral action What is the appropriate forum for coordinating and disciplining geoengineering strategies with extranational effects? Winners and Losers Is China the best candidate for unilateral action? What if the monsoon fails in India? Capture by the Military Industrial Complex
There are huge contracts at issue The national security card trumps all opposition Geoengineering for Adaptation Types of Projects Protection from climate related extreme weather events
Levees Coastal Restoration Riverine Drainage Projects Water Management Dams and river reengineering Water distribution systems We will focus on geoengineering for extreme
weather events Levees and Riverine Drainage Limited risk envelope of extreme weather to justify the CBA (both money and land use costs) for construction 100/500 year events Limited adjustment for climate and other anthropogenic
risk enhancers Predictable megaproject risks Overstated benefits and understated costs Problems in large scale quality control Extreme difficulty in long term maintenance of performance specifications The Escalator/Levee Effect
Shift from high frequency, low severity flooding to low frequency, high severity flooding. Channel contraction increases height of the flood Channel confinement reduces alterative path flows Adaptation to frequent, low severity flooding Low height building elevation Water resistant construction Low population density
Adaptation to low frequency, high severity flooding High population density No adaptation, leading to catastrophic losses during events. Coastal Restoration Dune Restoration Outer Banks
Living Shoreline - Louisiana Marsh and Land Creation Why is Coastal Restoration Impossible? Coasts retreat inland during sea level rise Deep paleoclimate/geology record Current rates of sea level rise are enough to force retreat,
and projected rates exceed previous natural rates. Deltas follow sea level Retreat inland during rising sea level all are about 6k years old Go to the continental shelf during glacial maximum Coastal restoration denies the effects of climate change.
The Special Problem of Subsidence Deltas subside as part of the natural cycle Dams and levees reduce the sediment to fill the increased accommodation space Faults create hot spots of subsidence, hastening the conversion to open water Ground water pumping exacerbates subsidence
Levees on the delta exacerbate subsidence behind the delta Subsidence increases relative sea level rise to extreme levels. The Risks of Coastal Restoration The escalator effect from creating a false sense of security, especially for wetlands creation, which
does not reduce major storm surge Hastened destruction of the existing ecology systems Huge carbon footprint for dredging projects Most of the cost is fuel All are must be continually repeated Shifts money away from real protection and long term relocation.
very deep vertical overlap - incisal edges of maxillary incisors extend far over the mandibular central incisors - can extend to the gingiva in severe cases. maxillary incisors are over the mandibular incisors far more than the 1/3 overlap.
Tips. Read the questions before reading the paper. Don't worry too much about the numbers / stats, this is a comprehension exercise. KISS: don't use technical jargon (unless you really know what it means, REALLY)
Experiment: Jill G. deVilliers and Peter A. deVilliers Deaf language-delayed children vs. deaf children with immediate language exposure (ages 4-7) Three categories of tests: Non-verbal IQ Language assessments Vocabulary General syntactic comprehension Processing and production of embedded complement clauses using...
Sunken Lesson Classifying Animals Grade 5 How Animals are Classified Key Concepts "Biologists classify organisms based on similarities such as appearance, cell structure, hereditary material, and means of getting food and reproducing. The seven levels of classification are kingdom, phylum,...
The axis of symmetry divides the parabola into two equal parts. So if there is a point on one side, there is a corresponding point on the other side that is the same distance from the axis of symmetry and...
The Nightmarys by Dan Poblocki PowerPoint by Gracie Pillow Summary of the Book The Nightmarys is a horror story written by the Goodreads Author; Dan Poblocki. The main character is a 6th grade boy named Timothy July. When a new...