Three-Dimensional Science Tasks Analysis and Development Components of
Three-Dimensional Science Tasks Analysis and Development Components of this Module Session A: Using Task Evaluation to Understand Dimensionality Session B: Developing 3-D Tasks 2 Group Norms Presume positive intentions Listen carefully to one another Be open to new ideas
Be open to productive struggle Ask questions Allow a chance for everyone to participate 3 Three-Dimensional Science Tasks Session A: Using Task Evaluation to Understand Dimensionality This session has been modified from professional learning around the Science Task Screeners developed by Achieve
Session Goals Identify what is valued in tasks Use tools to evaluate tasks for key components 5 Why Tasks? 6 3D standards require us to think about assessment differently
DCIs SEPs CCCs Phenomena and problems! 7 3D standards require us to think about assessment differently. Shifting what it means for a student to demonstrate they know science
knowing shifts from recall to using scientific principles, skills, and behaviors to make sense of the world and address real-world problems Application and reasoning shifts from the expectation for some standards, some students, some performances to all standards, all students, all performances DCIs SEPs CCCs
8 Why Tasks? Tasks elicit sense-making and problemsolving by focusing strongly on reasoning through the use of scientific and engineering evidence, models and principles. 9 Common Perspectives As we begin to clarify our thinking about 3D performances, lets explore some common perspectives...
10 Trade-Offs Jack and Jill are discussing new 3D science assessments, and have run into some issues balancing different considerations for their tasks. They disagree about the right trade-offs to make to support all students, although they have a shared overall vision for science education for all students. 11 Thought Experiment #0 Jack
Jill Do you agree with Jack or Jill? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Think. Choose. Write. Share.
Discuss. 12 Thought Experiment #1 Jack I think phenomena are useful for students in instruction, but are not necessary in assessment--they are a nice-tohave not a must-have. Jill Phenomena and problems are essential in 3D assessments.
Do you agree with Jack or Jill? 13 Thought Experiment #2 Jill Jack I care most about whether students learned what they were supposed to, as described by the standards (grade-specified PEs, SEPs, CCCs, DCIs).
I care most about whether students can flexibly make sense of different kinds of phenomena and problems, using the DCIs, SEPs, and CCCs as needed. Do you agree with Jack or Jill? 14 Thought Experiment #3 Jill Jack If we focus on sensemaking in assessments,
the three dimensions will naturally emerge in student performance/responses. Assessments need to be designed to specifically elicit each targeted dimension--the specific CCC, DCI, and SEP elements that we want to surface. Do you agree with Jack or Jill? 15
Thought Experiment #4 Jack It is more important that assessments value student agency, identity, and interest because they will never use the targeted science ideas if learning isnt meaningful to them. Jill It is more important to assess the SEPs, DCIs, and CCCs, even if that means trading off factors like student interest, because
that is how we ensure all students have the tools they need to engage with the world. Do you agree with Jack or Jill? 16 Thought Experiment #5 Jill Jack Its important that every task require students to use science core ideas.
Its important that all tasks happen in a disciplinary context, but its okay if a task only requires students to use practices and crosscutting concepts. Do you agree with Jack or Jill? 17 Thought Experiment #6 Jack A task only counts as assessing the dimensions if
the student understanding elicited is gradeappropriate. Jill The DCI needs to be gradeappropriate, but the other dimensions can be present at lower levels of sophistication. Do you agree with Jack or Jill? 18 Where did we land? There are a range of different perspectives about what is most important to elicit from students.
Some of these perspectives are driven by different assessment purposes. Some of them are grounded in more personal philosophies. In a system of assessments, we can balance these goals. It is important to keep these differences in mind as we are thinking about features of good assessments because these differences can shape the flavor of an assessment. 19 Transfer figuring out
phenomena Solving real world problems engagemen t and decision making Equity three
dimensions flexible, creative reasoning It is important that assessments truly measure what we value in student 20 What features currently drive our
thinking about assessments? You have three tasks. By yourself: Work through each task as a student might For each task, Jot down what you like about the task and what concerns you about the task. Based on your initial evaluation of these tasks, order the tasks Make notes about what patterns in the tasks are driving your decisions.
21 Group Task With your group, construct an argument for the right order of the tasks on chart paper. In your argument, make sure you include: The order your group agreed upon An alternative order you considered Your evidence and reasoning for why the order you agreed on is right Summary of the top 3-5 features that drove your decision making as a group. 22
Share Out What criteria did your group use to order your tasks? 23 Up to This Point Identified what we value in assessments through the Thought Experiments Analyzed tasks to determine what our valued criteria may look like 24
At this stage, dont worry yet about gradeappropriateness This tool is used at the task level. Watch out for red flags! 27 Modeling Felixs Jump 28
Verdict? 29 Next Step? 30 Task Screener Use after a task has been deemed warranting further review. Provides further look around 4 criteria High-quality
scenarios around a phenomenon or problem to solve Sense-making using the 3 dimensions Fairness and equity Support intended targets and purpose
31 Task Screener Using Natural Hazards Each group will focus on one indicator Evaluate the task for your indicator Jigsaw with other groups 32 Verdict? 33
Where to Find these tools? https://www.nextgenscience.org/taskscreene 34 Task Annotation Project https://www.achieve.org/our-initiatives/equip/tools-subject/science/tas k-annotation-project-science 35 In this Session
Weve identified what is valued in tasks Weve used tools to evaluate tasks for key components 36 Three-Dimensional Science Tasks Session B: Developing 3-Dimensional Tasks Modified from Bell, P., & Morrison, D. (2017). How to Craft a Three-Dimensional Classroom Science Assessment. [OER Professional Development Session from the
ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/SessionD 37 Session Goals Develop 3D Learning Performances as lesson-level learning goals related to unitlevel bundles of performance expectations Craft a 3D classroom assessment focused on a specific 3D learning performance for formative use Engage in peer review to study and refine 3dness of our drafted assessments 38
3D Formative Assessment 39 Formative Assessment A planned, ongoing process used by all students and teachers during learning and teaching to elicit and use evidence of student learning to improve student understanding of intended disciplinary learning outcomes and support students to become self-directed learners. Formative Assessment for Students and Teachers (FAST) SCASS, 2017, p. 2 Goes beyond educational standards.
Includes all instructional outcomes. 40 Formative Assessment Examples 41 3D Assessment Tasks Should have multiple components that include connected use of different science and engineering practices focused on application of interconnected disciplinary ideas and crosscutting concepts; Address progressive nature of learning by providing info about where students fall on a continuum between
expected beginning and ending points in a given unit or grade; and Include an interpretive system for evaluating range of student products that are specific enough to be useful for helping teachers understand the range of student responses and provide tools for helping teachers decide on next steps in instruction. 42 The Formative Assessment Process (Adapted by Simpson & McCulloch from Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007)
Clarify Intende d Learnin g Elicit Evidenc e Act on Evidenc e Interpret
Evidenc e 43 Unit Assessment Sequences Diagnostic Pre-Test Formative (e.g., Classroom Conversation) Formative (e.g., Daily
Assessment) Formative (e.g., Small Group Conversations) Formative (e.g., Presentation) Summative End-of-Unit (graded) Background Resource: Seeing Student Learn Science
44 3D Learning Performance Sequence Break down unit 3D learning goals (from a bundle of PEs) into more lesson-level 3D learning performances (LPs) LP LP LP
U P The Bundle Formative Assessment Opportunities LP = Learning Performance (at lesson level) UP = Unit Performances related to the bundled PEs Summative Assessment Background: nextgenscienceassessment.org
45 Discussion How do/might you use sequences of embedded formative assessment opportunitiesof different kindsin your teaching of a unit? 46 Approaching Learning and Teaching from a 3D Perspective 47
Develop a personal 3D learning performance.. Select one of your favorite hobbies & think of a big learning goal that mattersa performance expectation PE: Double-spin juggling of three pins using both hands 1. Unpack the important piece of core knowledge that is needed to do that How hard to flip a juggling pin to get 2 rotations for a given arc 2. Unpack a practice that demonstrates that they know that piece of knowledge (knowledge-in-use) Repeated, single-hand double flipping of a juggling pin 3. Unpack a cross-cutting concept learned as well Hand-eye coordination that relies on peripheral vision & timing
My 3D Learning Performance: The learner is able to 48 Formative Assessment Examples 49 Crafting a 3D Task Product: 3D Task (5-20 min task) Assessment Development Process: 1. Select a target DCI component for a given classroom lesson or
learning experience. 2. Identify SEP component and CCC component to focus on. 3. Define a 3D Learning Performance for a specific classroom lesson or learning experience. 4. Brainstorm and workshop possible scenarios for eliciting student understanding. Select one to use that is fair for nondominant students (e.g., ELLs).
5. Write 2D/3D questions for the selected scenario. 6. Imagine (or collect) student responses (limited, partial, full understanding). 7. Share, review, and revise using workshop approach. 50
STEP 1: Identify a DCI Component Explore the PEs and identify a DCI component (or perhaps two) that is a learning goal for a lesson or activity of interest. Focus on a specific piece of the DCI. Start small. Think about your instructional unit. Pick a conceptual idea (or nugget) that is challenging for students to learn yet crucial. 51
Standard MS-PS1-4 52 STEP 2a: Identify A Component of a Science & Engineering Practice Use science and engineering practices task formats Examine the task formats for your chosen focal practice(s). Choose a specific task format for your question / item. STEMteachingtools.org/brief/30 53 Task Formats for Science
& Engineering Practices 54 STEP 2b: Identify a Crosscutting Concept Component Use crosscutting concept prompts Examine the CCC prompts for your chosen focal CCC(s) Choose a specific prompt for your question/item STEMteachingtools.org/brief/41 55 Prompts for Assessing Cross-Cutting Concepts
56 STEP 3: Define a 3D Learning Performance 57 3D Learning Performances: Lesson-Level Learning Goals How will you know if my students are making progress toward the unit-level bundle of performance expectations? 3D Learning Performances are specific knowledge-in-use statements that include
aspects of a disciplinary core idea, a practice, and a crosscutting concept from the bundle They are smaller in scope than a PE Background: nextgenscienceassessment.org 58 Sample 3D Learning Sample 3D Learning Performances Weather Unit: Students
will analyze climate data to Performances determine the effects of latitude on average temperature. DCI: ESS2.D Practice: Analyze & Interpret Data CCC: Patterns Light Unit: Students will compare two models for how light from light sources makes objects visible to an DCI: PS4.B a claim about observer and use evidence to support Practice: Modeling &
which they think is correct. Argumentation CCC: Structure & Function DCI: LS3.Aa model to Genetics Unit: Students will construct Practice: Model predict the relationship between the genotype and CCC: Structure & Function phenotype of an organism.
59 3D Learning Performance Mad Lib Students will ((science & engineering practice component verb clause)) in order to ((DCI element verb clause)) highlighting that ((cross-cutting concept clause)). Julia Ward, Seattle Public Schools 60
Share Share & Refine & Refine What 3D What 3D Learning learning performance did Performances did you come up with? Can weyou all up with?
Can we all identifycome the three dimensions? identify the three How might we refine them to dimensions? improve them? How might we refine them to improve them? 61
STEP4: Identifying a Scenario We want to identify a scenario to frame the assessment event to students. It needs to fit the intended learning goals and other criteria. There are different kinds of scenarios: everyday situations, science investigations, classroom situations, or hypothetical situations. 62 Keep phenomena central to instruction
Keep and Phenomenon Central assessment. Natural phenomena are observable events that occur in the universe that we can use our science knowledge to explain or predict. http://STEMteachingtools.org/brief/28 http://STEMteachingtools.org/brief/42 63 Reflecting on Phenomena
The most powerful phenomena in instruction are personally relevant or consequential to students. Such phenomena highlight how science ideas help us explain aspects of real world contexts or design solutions to science-related problems that matter to students, their communities and society. The same is true for task scenarios that involve phenomena you want students to reason about. Has that been your experience? 64 STEP 4: Brainstorm Scenarios Criteria for a task scenario
1. It should allow students from non-dominant communities (e.g., ELLs, students from poverty-impacted communities, differently abled) to fully engage with the task. We should design for them first! 2. It should involve a compelling phenomenon related to one or more of the DCIs being assessedand not feel like a test-like task. It should beg for explanation! Make it more like an anchoring phenomenon for an awesome, month-long unit. 3. It should lend itself to a broad range of the science and engineering practices. 4. It must be understandable quickly by students. For this reason, selecting everyday situations can be useful. 65
Sample Scenario Sample Scenario Brainstorm Brainstorm 66 STEP 4: Workshop the Scenarios 1. How do you think the leading scenarios relate to your learning performance? Describe how. 2. Relate the criteria to the leading scenarios. Does it
centrally focus on relevant phenomena? How interesting and relevant might each be to your students? Are there confusing cultural components? After the discussion, select the best scenario and craft student-facing language for it. It should be lean, but clear. Perhaps include a clarifying picture or diagram. 67 Reflection What did you learn about identifying a scenario so that it is relevant, clear and fair?
68 STEP 5: Build 2D or 3D Questions Start with either your selected SEP or CCC. Use science and engineering practices task formats or STEMteachingtools.org/brief/30 crosscutting concept pro mpts
Consider how are you connecting the chosen SEP and/or CCCs to the STEMteachingtools.org/brief/41 69 STEP 6: Imagine Student Responses Read through your drafted question(s) and imagine how students might answer at three levels: (1) limited, (2) partial, and (3) full understanding. For the full understanding response, you should imagine the response an ELL student with deep conceptual understanding would provide.
Think of common facets of student thinking that might result from the cultural and experiential backgrounds of your students. How might revisions to your questions/items: 1. elicit this variation in student thinking? 2. identify linguistic challenges facing students? 70 STEP 7a: Share, Review & Revise Share your 3D classroom assessment with another individual / group and look over theirs to provide 3D feedback. Here are a few
things to consider: What is the 3Dness of the items (or clusters)? Can you identify the focal DCI, SEP, and/or CCC? Are there words that students would find confusing or misinterpret? Would a visual of some kind add clarity? Would the assessment give you actionable
evidence to guide instruction? Is the scenario accessible to all students? 71 STEP 7b: Share, Review & Revise Post your 3D daily classroom assessment around the edge of the room. Take a walk through the gallery of assessment tasks. With your colleagues, discuss specific tasks and reflect on what you learned (or struggled with) as you crafted your 3D classroom assessment. 72
The Formative Assessment Process (Adapted by Simpson & McCulloch from Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2007) Clarify Intende d Learnin g Elicit Evidenc e Act on Evidenc
e Interpret Evidenc e 73 Crafting a 3D Task 1. Select a target DCI component for a given classroom lesson or learning experience. 2.
Identify SEP component and CCC component to focus on. 3. Define a 3D Learning Performance for a specific classroom lesson or learning experience. 4. Brainstorm and workshop possible scenarios for eliciting student understanding. Select one to use that is fair for nondominant students (e.g., ELLs). 5.
Write 2D/3D questions for the selected scenario. 6. Imagine (or collect) student responses (limited, partial, full understanding). 7. Share, review, and revise using workshop approach. 74 Session Reflection
Session Reflection How can 3D Learning Performances help you How can 3D learning performances map out a aseries help you map out seriesof of
formative assessment formative assessment opportunities across a unit that across events a unit that you teach? you teach? After focusing closely on the three dimensions of science learning, what After focusing closely on
implications for your teaching occur the three dimensions of to you? science learning, what 75
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