Exam Papers START By John Healy Search Engine

Exam Papers START By John Healy Search Engine

Exam Papers START By John Healy Search Engine Question Trends Higher Level Construction Studies Exam papers 1985-2012 Year 12 Q2, Q3, Q6,Q1 Planning/Sustainability and 0 Environmental Impact

11 10 O9 O8 O7 O6 O5 O4 O3 O2

O1 OO Q3, Q6, Q10 Q2, Q6, Q10 Q6, Q10 Q6, Q10 Q6, Q10

Q3, Q6, Q10 Q2, Q10 Q2, Q10 Q2, Q10 Q10 Q2, Q10 Q10,

Q5 Q1 Q5 Q1 Q1, Q4 Q5 Q4 Q7 Q8 Foundations/Floor/Walls/ Openings

Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1, Q2 Heat/U-value Calculations Q5 Q5 Q5 Q5 Q2

Roofs Q1, Q1, Q4, Q7 Q4, Q7 Q7, Q9 Q1, Q7 Q5 Q7 Q5 Q5 Q5 Q1 Q3, Q7

Q5 Q1, Q8 Q3 Q3 Q3, Q10 Q5 Q5 Q3 Conservation/Restoration Heatloss/Insulation Drainage

Q5 Q4 Glazing/Windows Hot water/Spaced Heating Q8 Sound Q4 Q3 Q5, Q7 Q3

Q5 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q8 Q8 Q8 Q3 Q5 Q7

Q7 Q8 Q8 Q8 Q4 Wood/Dry Rot/Wet Rot/Ventilation Q2 Site Safety Q7 Stairs Q2

Q7 Q8 Q1 Q4 Q7 Q7 Q1 Q3 Q1 Q2 Q6

Q5 94 Q4 Q4 Q5 93 92 Q1 Q5 Q3 Q4

Q7, Q10 Q10 Q9 90 89 Q9 Q10 Q1 88 87

Q4 Q8 Q8 Q3 Q7 Q3 Q8 Q8 Q1 Q5

Q2 Q1 Q1, Q5 Q8 Q2 Q8 Q3 Q3 Q2 Q2

Q7 Q6 Q7 Q3 Q8 Q9 Q4 Q8 Q6 Q10

Q8 Q3 Q9 Q2 Q7 Q6 Q8 Q6 Q3 Q8 Q8

Q5 Q2 Q3 Q2 Q3, Q8 Q4 Q10 Q9 Q2 Q4

Q7 Q8 Q5 Q4 Q6 Q6 Q8 Q7 Q1 Q6 Q1

Q3 Q5 Q2 Q1 Q5 Q8 Q6 Q2 Q5 Q9 Q3

Q8 Q9 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q9 Q4 Q7 Q7 Q3 Q9

Q7 Q9 Q5 Q9 Q9 Q5 Q6 Q9 Q2 Q6 Q2 Q7

Q4 Q8 Q6 Q6 Q4 Q5 Q9 Q3 Q4 Q9

Q5 Q7 Q9 Q9 Q6 Q5 Q3 Q3 Q6 Arches Q7 Computers Q10

Q6 Q9 Q10 Q10 Q2 Q1 Q9 Q9,Q1 0 85 Q2

Q1 Q4 Q8 Q3 Q9 86 Q10 Q4 Q4, Q10 Q7

Q9 Finance/Mortgages Construction Projects 91 Q7 Q7 Q6 Q9 Fire Prevention Water Supply

Q1 Q8 Q5 Terms Air Tightness Q1 Q7 Q6 Q3 Light

Q1 Q1 Finishes/Plaster Q8 Q7 Q3 Siteworks/Site Investigation Electrical Q2 Q9 Q6

Concrete Q7, Q10 Q2, Q8 Q8 Q4 Q7 Q10 95 Q2 Partitions/Load bearing Walls

Fireplace/Chimney Q5 Q5 Q6 Q4, Q9 96 Q8 Q7 Q7 Q7 97

Q4 Q7 Q9 98 Q7 Q8, Q10 Q9 Q5 Q9 Condensation Doors

Q6 Q4 Q9 Q8 99 Q10 Q10 Q10 Q10 Q1 Q9

Q8 HOME Planning Sustainability Section Details U-Values Roofs Conservation Restoration Insulation Drainage

Hot Water Space Heating Sound Dry/Wet Rot Condensation Site Safety Stairs Partitions/ Load baring walls Fireplace Chimney

Concrete Doors Siteworks/ Investigation Finishes/ Plaster Electricity Light Terms Fire Prevention Air

Finance Mortgages Water Supply Arches Computer Project Windows HOME TOPIC U-Values Select a year

2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003

2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993

1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1986 1985 HOME TOPIC Finance Mortgages Select a year

2000 HOME TOPIC Fire Prevention Select a year 2006 HOME TOPIC Site Safety Select a year 2008 2007

2006 HOME TOPIC Heatloss/ Insulation Select a year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2004 2003

2002 1997 HOME TOPIC Air Select a year 2012 2010 2009 HOME TOPIC

Conservation/ Restoration Select a year 2007 2005 1994 1990 2004 2003 2001 2000 1999

1995 HOME TOPIC Wood/ Dry Rot/ Wet Rot/ Ventilation Select a year 2004 2003 2002 1999 1991 1990

1987 1985 1998 1997 1994 1992 HOME TOPIC Partitions/ Load Baring Walls Select a year 2005

2004 2002 1999 1996 1995 HOME TOPIC Concrete Select a year 2006 2002

1995 1992 1991 1988 1987 1986 HOME TOPIC Arches Select a year 1991

HOME TOPIC Electrical Select a year 2012 1988 2008 2001 1998 1996 1995 1992

1990 HOME TOPIC Computers Select a year 1994 1993 1992 HOME TOPIC Construction Projects

Select a year 1998 1993 1992 1991 1990 1988 1987 HOME TOPIC Terms

Select a year 2001 2000 1998 1987 1986 1985 1996 1993 1992 1990

1989 HOME TOPIC Stairs Select a year 2010 2008 2003 2001 1997 1991

1989 1986 HOME TOPIC Condensation Select a year 2011 2005 2002 1989 1986

1985 1999 1998 1995 1994 HOME TOPIC Finishes/Plaster Select a year 2004 2000

1997 1988 1987 1985 HOME TOPIC Roofs Select a year 2011 2009 2007

2006 2005 2004 2002 1997 1993 1991 1990 1989 1988

1987 1999 HOME TOPIC Fireplace/ Chimney Select a year 2011 2008 2003 2002 1997

1995 1992 1990 HOME TOPIC Doors Select a year 2012 2007 2003 1996

1992 1989 HOME TOPIC Windows Select a year 2010 2009 2008 1998 1993

1986 2006 2005 2003 2001 2000 HOME TOPIC Siteworks/ Site Investigation Select a year 2002

2000 1996 1989 1987 1985 HOME TOPIC Foundations/Floor/Walls/Openings Select a year 2012 2011

2010 2009 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000

1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1992 1990 1988 1986

HOME TOPIC Planning & Sustainability Select a year 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006

2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1998 1997 1996 1993

1990 1989 HOME TOPIC Light Select a year 2010 2003 1987 1985 2000

1998 1994 1993 1991 1989 HOME TOPIC Sound Select a year 2011 2007

2005 2004 2002 2001 1995 1992 1990 1988 1986 1985

1999 1996 HOME TOPIC Drainage Select a year 2012 2010 2009 2008 2006

2005 2004 2002 2000 1999 1998 1996 1994 1993 1992

1991 1988 1986 1985 HOME TOPIC Hot Water/Space Heating Select a year 2011 2009 2008

2007 2004 2003 2001 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993

1988 1986 1985 HOME TOPIC Water Supply Select a year 2005 1999 1993 1991

1989 1987 Sections HOME TOPIC YEAR 1986 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 To a scale of 1 : 5, draw a vertical section through: (i) the threshold under a 50mm thick external door; (ii) the verge to an 'A' type roof covered with 610 x 305 asbestos/cement slates, showing bargeboard, two rafters, top of gable cavity wall and 200 wide soffit with supports etc.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 To a scale of 1 :5 draw annotated sections through three types of foundation that could be used for a single storey or two storey dwelling. Describe briefly how they transfer building loads to the soil and the conditions under which they should be used. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1990 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 To a convenient scale draw a detailed section through a 300 mm concrete block cavity wall from the bottom of the concrete strip foundation to above floor level. Include constructional details of a suspended timber ground floor. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 To a scale of 1:5 draw a vertical section through the junction of a timber ground floor and a rendered external cavity wall showing all component sizes and finishes. The drawing should include the foundation of the wall and the subfloor and it should extend past the mid-span of the joists.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1994 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 To a scale of 1 : 5 draw annotated sections through three types of foundations suitable for use with a single or two storey house. Describe the conditions under which each type should be used and for each type state how it transmits the building loads to the soil. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1995 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 On the ground floor of a house a solid concrete floor abuts a suspended timber floor. Draw to a scale of 1:10 the construction for both and explain the method of cross ventilating the timber floor through the adjacent concrete floor. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1996 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 A timber window frame with outward opening single glazed sash is fixed in a 300mm insulated cavity wall which has external rendering and hard-wall plaster inside. Draw, to a scale of 1:5, a vertical section through the head and sill showing all relevant construction details and surrounding structure.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1997 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 An external timber door of a house has a glazed upper panel and the door. frame is fixed in a 300 mm cavity wall. Draw, to a scale of 1:5, a vertical section showing constructional details from 200 mm above the head of the door frame to 100 mm below the top of the double glazing. Give suitable sizes for all components. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1998 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 To a scale of 1:20 draw a vertical section through a traditional timber roof from facia board to 100 mm beyond the ridge board. The section should show details at the eaves and at the top of the 300 mm cavity wall and should also include the first three rows of slates and the top 300 mm of the supporting wall. The span between the wall plates is 7.50 m. Give suitable sizes for all components. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1999 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 An external timber door, with glazed upper panel and solid lower panel, is to be fixed in a 300

mm insulated cavity wall which is rendered externally and has hardwall plaster inside. Draw, to a scale of 1:5, a vertical section through the door from 300 mm above the doorhead to 500 mm below the threshold showing all relevant construction details and surrounding structure. HOME TOPIC 2000 Higher Level YEAR Q1 Q4 HOME TOPIC

YEAR Q4 2000 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 A pitched roof of a house is covered with concrete roof tiles and is supported on a 300mm insulated cavity wall. The wall includes an opening for a window. To a scale of 1:5 draw a vertical section through the wall and eaves. The section should show all the detail from window lintels to eaves and include four courses of tiles HOME TOPIC YEAR Q1

2000 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 A dwelling has a suspended timber first floor consisting of tongued and grooved flooring boards on wooden joists with a plasterboard ceiling underneath. A room in the house, 4.20m long by 3.60m wide, has a stairwell measuring 3.00m long and 1.00m wide centrally placed along one of the long walls. a) Using sketches, show the layout of the joists at the stairwell. Name the various joists, state their size and show clearly a method of jointing the joists at the stairwell. b) Using sketches, show a method of bridging/strutting the joist and give reasons why bridging/ strutting in necessary c) Using notes and sketches, show two methods of supporting the ends of the joists at an external cavity block wall. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2001 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 A single-storey dwelling house has a 300mm external concrete block wall with insulated cavity, which includes an opening for a window. The dwelling has a suspended timber floor. To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the wall and floor showing all the details from the bottom of the foundation to the top of the concrete cill. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 Trial holes indicate that the site, on which a house is to be built, has a loose gravel subsoil. (a) Discuss in detail the considerations governing the choice of foundation for this house. (b) Describe, with the aid of notes and detailed sketches, two types of foundation that would be

suitable for the house. (c) In the case of each type of foundation selected, state clearly two reasons why it is considered suitable. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2003 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 An external wooden door with four panels is shown in the accompanying sketch. The upper panels are glazed and the lower panels are solid. The door opening is located in a standard 300mm external concrete block wall with an insulated cavity. The house has a solid concrete ground floor. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the external wall and door, showing clearly the threshold, the door and the doorframe.

The section should show all the constructional details from 300mm below the bottom of the door to 300mm above the top of the doorframe. (b) Indicate on the drawing two design details that ensure that moisture does not penetrate to the inner surfaces surrounding the door. HOME TOPIC 2004 Higher Level YEAR Q1 Q7 HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q7 2004 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 A small porch, which projects 1.7m from a house, is shown in the accompanying sketch. The lean-to roof is slated and has a pitch of 30 degrees. The house and porch are constructed of standard 300mm concrete block walls with insulated cavity. The porch has a level plasterboard ceiling. (a) To a scale of 1:5 draw a vertical section through the porch showing the roof and wall of the house. The section should show all the construction details from 400mm

below the bottom of the ceiling joists to 300mm above the abutment of the roof and wall of the house. (b) Indicate on your drawing two design details that ensure moisture does not penetrate at the abutment of the roof and wall of the house. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q1 2004 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A dwelling house has a standard 300mm concrete block external wall with insulated cavity. Poor design detailing can result in the penetration of moisture to the inner leaf of the wall. (a) Using notes and neat freehand sketches, show three locations where moisture may

penetrate. (b) For each location selected show, using notes and neat freehand sketches, the correct design detailing that would ensure that moisture does not reach the inner leaf. (c) List two materials used to prevent the penetration of dampness in buildings. In the case of each material listed, state a location where it may be used and explain why the material is particularly suited for use in the location outlined. HOME TOPIC 2005 Higher Level YEAR Q1 Q7 Q9

HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions Q1 The sketch shows a combined kitchen and dining space in a single storey dwelling house. The external wall is a standard 300mm concrete block wall with an insulated cavity. The kitchen space has a solid concrete floor with a tiled finish and the dining space has a suspended timber floor. (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the external wall and ground floor of the house showing both floor constructions. The section should show all the constructional details from the bottom of the foundation to 400mm above finished floor level and include the abutment of both floors.

(For the purposes of this drawing, show a minimum 1.5 metres width for each floor type) (b) Indicate on the drawing a design detail to show the cross ventilation of the suspended timber floor through the solid concrete floor. 2005 Higher Level Question 1 HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions 2005 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A storm proof casement window, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is

made from softwood and has a double-glazed outward opening sash. The window is one metre in height and is fixed in a standard 300mm external concrete block wall with insulated cavity. The wall is plastered on both sides. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the window frame and opening sash. Show all the constructional details from 300mm below the concrete cill to 200mm above the top of the window frame. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show the design details necessary to prevent the formation of condensation on the inner wall surfaces surrounding the window. HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions

2005 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Timber frame construction is now widely used for domestic dwellings in Ireland. (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the external wall and ground floor of a house of timber frame construction. The top of a window cill is positioned 900mm above floor level, the external leaf is of standard concrete block construction with a rendered finish and the ground floor is a solid concrete floor with 20mm quarry tile finish. Show all the constructional details from the bottom of the foundation to the top of the concrete cill. (b) Discuss in detail two advantages of timber frame construction and two advantages of standard concrete block wall construction and recommend a preferred wall type for a new house. HOME TOPIC 2006 Higher Level YEAR

Q1 Q4 Q7 HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions 2006 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 The main entrance to a dwelling house, as shown in the accompanying sketch, provides access for a person in a wheelchair. The door opening is located in a 300mm external block wall with an insulated cavity and the door is a solid wooden door. The house has a solid concrete ground

floor with a 20mm quarry tile finish. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the external wall and door, showing clearly the threshold and the door. The section should show all the constructional details from the bottom of the foundation to 300mm above finished floor level. (b) Indicate on the drawing the specific design detailing that ensures that rainwater is removed from the threshold area and does not penetrate to the inner surfaces surrounding the door. HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions 2006 Higher Level Question 4 Q4

Investigations indicate that a site on which a house is to be built has a moderately firm clay subsoil. Consideration is being given to using either a traditional strip foundation or a raft foundation. (a) Show, with the aid of notes and freehand sketches, the design detailing for each type of foundation listed above. Indicate typical dimensions for each foundation. (b) Recommend one of the above foundation types for the house and give two reasons in support of your recommendation. (c) Identify two factors that could adversely affect the strength of concrete in a foundation. HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions Q7 (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the window, the external wall and the roof of a timber-framed house, as

shown in the sketch. The external leaf is of concrete block construction with a rendered finish. The roof has prefabricated trussed rafters, is slated and has a pitch of 45 degrees. Show all the constructional details from 300mm below the window head, through the eaves and include three courses of slate. (b) On the drawing, label and indicate the typical dimensions of four main structural members. 2006 Higher Level Question 7 HOME TOPIC 2007 Higher Level YEAR Q4

Q7 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q7 2007 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 A suspended timber ground floor abuts a 300 mm concrete block external wall of a dwelling house. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches show the construction details of the wall and the suspended timber ground floor from foundation to finished floor level. Indicate clearly the position of a radon barrier and give typical sizes and materials of the floor components.

(b) Discuss in detail two functional requirements of a suspended timber ground floor for a domestic dwelling. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q4 2007 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A four-panel wooden door is fixed in the external wall of a two storey timber-frame house, as shown in the sketch. The external wall, which supports the first floor joists, has a concrete block outer leaf with a rendered finish. (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the external wall, door and floor joists. The section should show the typical construction details from 400 mm below the head of

the door frame to 400 mm above the first floor joists. Show clearly the external wall, the door, door frame and the first floor joists. Indicate the typical dimensions of four main structural members. (b) On the drawing, show clearly how the first floor joists are supported at the timber-frame inner leaf of the external wall. HOME TOPIC 2009 Higher Level YEAR Q1 Q2 HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q2 2009 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 An insulated suspended timber ground floor abuts the external wall of a dwelling house, as shown in the accompanying sketch. The external wall is a 350 mm concrete block wall with a 150 mm cavity. Rigid insulation board is fixed in the cavity. The suspended timber floor has a 25 mm tongued and grooved hardwood finish. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the external wall and the suspended timber ground floor. The section should show All the construction details from the bottom of the foundation to 400 mm above finished floor level. Include four typical dimensions

on your drawing. (b) Indicate clearly the position of a barrier that would prevent radon gas entering the dwelling. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q1 2009 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 (a) Discuss in detail two functional requirements of a foundation for a dwelling house. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches show three different foundation types suitable for a dwelling house. Show the position of the reinforcing and indicate typical dimensions of each foundation type. (c) Discuss two factors that must be taken into account to ensure the maximum strength of

concrete in a foundation. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2010 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 The sketch shows portion of an external wall, roof and a window of a dwelling house. The external wall is a 350 mm concrete block wall with an insulated cavity. The roof has prefabricated trussed rafters, it is slated and has a pitch of 30 degrees. The house has an internal span of 6.0 metres. The window is an outward opening triple-glazed wooden casement window and is 600 mm in height. The fixed frame of the window is 150 mm 80 mm. (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the external wall, window and roof structure. The section should show the typical construction details from 300 mm below the concrete cill, through the fixed frame of the window and include the roof to the

level of the ridge. Include four typical dimensions of the roof structure. (b) Indicate clearly on the drawing how the cavity is closed at Wall plate level. Note: Show the details for one external wall, one half of the roof from eaves to ridge level and include three courses of slate at eaves. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2011 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 The main external doorway of a dwelling house is designed to facilitate access for everyone, including a person with reduced mobility, as shown in the sketch. The door is a framed wooden door with 12 mm thick vertical sheeting on both sides. The doorframe is 150 mm 70 mm and is fixed in a 350 mm external concrete block wall with an insulated cavity. The house has an

insulated solid concrete ground floor with a 20 mm quarry tile finish. (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the centre of the door. The section should show the typical construction details from 500 mm below finished floor level, through the threshold, the door, the doorframe and the external wall to a level 300 mm above the concrete lintels over the doorframe. (b) Show on the drawing the design detailing that ensures that rainwater is removed from the threshold area. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2012 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 A triple-glazed bay window projects 1.5 metres from the external wall of a dwelling house, as

shown in the accompanying sketch. The external wall is a 350 mm concrete block wall with an insulated cavity. The lean-to roof is an insulated slated roof and has a pitch of 30. Insulated plasterboard is fixed to the underside of the rafters to form a sloped ceiling. (a)To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the window, roof and front wall of the house. The section should show the typical construction details from 400 mm below the concrete lintels of the bay window, through the fixed frame of the window, wall plate and rafter to a level 400 mm above the abutment of the lean-to roof and the front wall of the house. (b) Indicate on your drawing the design detailing that ensures moisture does not penetrate at the abutment of the roof and the wall of the house. SITEWORKS HOME TOPIC

YEAR Q6 (a) Describe processes for: (i) Site clearance and stripping of top soil. (ii) excavating shallow trenches. (b) Discuss briefly: (i) Angle of repose. (ii) Trial holes. (iii) The problem of water in foundations. 1985 Higher Level Question 6 HOME TOPIC YEAR 1987 Higher Level Question 8

Q8 Before development work can begin on a building site sanction has to be received from the local Planning Authority. Describe how sanction may be obtained and list the documents required. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1989 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Explain and where suitable, illustrate with neat sketches the following: site datum; ordnance bench mark; water table; boning rods;

profile. HOME TOPIC 1996 Higher Level Question 5 YEAR Q5 With the aid of neat sketches explain the procedure and method you would use when setting out a foundation for a garden wall to be built at right angles to the back wall of a dwelling. OR Write short notes on the following in terms in structural design (a) strength (b) stiffness (c) stability (d) imposed loads; (e) dead loads.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 2000 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 a) Outline five main considerations in choosing a site for a dwelling house. b) Discuss the importance of each consideration you have listed at (a). c) Discuss in detail two ways in witch a new house can be made to harmonise with the surrounding landscape HOME TOPIC YEAR

2002 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 Trial holes indicate that the site, on which a house is to be built, has a loose gravel subsoil. (a) Discuss in detail the considerations governing the choice of foundation for this house. (b) Describe, with the aid of notes and detailed sketches, two types of foundation that would be suitable for the house. (c) In the case of each type of foundation selected, state clearly two reasons why it is considered suitable. windows HOME TOPIC YEAR 1986 Higher Level Question 6

Q6 (a) Describe in detail the sequence of operations and list the materials for preparing and glazing: (i) softwood window sashes; (ii) galvanised steel windows. (b) List the materials required for glazing an external hardwood door and give reasons for your choice of materials. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1993 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 Draw to a scale 1:5 a vertical section through the head and sill of a timber casement window in an opening in an external load bearing cavity wall. Show also details of the concrete sill and lintel.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 (a) To a scale of 1:5 draw or sketch a vertical section through the head of a timber window. Include details at the head and sash. (b) Average daylight illumination in a room in a house in Ireland is to be increased from 90 to 150 lux by fitting new windows on one of the long walls. Calculate, using the degree of efficiency method or any suitable method, the total area of windows required given that the room is 5.00 m long by 3.60 m wide. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2000 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 (a) Determine by degree of efficiently method, or by other suitable method, the approximate size of a vertical window suitable for a kitchen 4.80m long by 3.60m wide requiring an average illumination of 150 lux on the working plane. Assume an unobstructed view and the illumination of a standard overcast sky to be 5000 lux (b) Select two materials commonly used in the manufacture of window frames and discuss in detail the advantages and disadvantages of each material for window frame manufacture. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2001 Higher Level Question 7

Q7 In a dwelling house it is proposed to replace the existing 4mm single glazing with double glazed units. The double glazed units consist of two 4mm panes of glass with a 12mm air space. (a) Using the data given below calculate: (i) The U value of the single glazing. (ii) The U value of the double-glazing. Data: Thickness of Glass 4mm Conductivity of Glass 1.02 W/m C Resistance of 12mm air space 0.17m C/W Internal surface resistance 0.12m C/W External surface resistance 0.08m C/W (iii) If the dwelling house has 20m2 window area and the average air temperature difference across the windows is 8C, calculate the daily savings in fuel costs resulting from the installation of double glazing, given the following:

Calorific Value of Oil 37350 kj per Litre Cost of Oil 40p per Litre (b) Discuss in detail the merits of installing double glazing in a dwelling house. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2003 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 A storm proof casement window made from softwood is located in an external wall and provides natural lighting to a kitchen area. (a) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, two design details that ensure that the window is weather proof. (b) Discuss two advantages and two disadvantages of using softwood in the manufacture of

windows. (c) An illuminance of 300 lux is required on a working plane in the kitchen. The daylight factor at a point on the working plane in the kitchen is 5%. Show by calculation if the illuminance is sufficient, assuming an unobstructed view and the illuminance of a standard overcast sky to be 5000 lux. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A storm proof casement window, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is made from softwood and has a double-glazed outward opening sash. The window is one metre in height and is fixed in a standard 300mm external concrete block wall with insulated cavity. The wall is plastered on both sides.

(a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the window frame and opening sash. Show all the constructional details from 300mm below the concrete cill to 200mm above the top of the window frame. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show the design details necessary to prevent the formation of condensation on the inner wall surfaces surrounding the window. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q7 (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the window, the external wall and the roof of a timber-framed house, as shown in the sketch. The external leaf is of concrete block construction with a rendered finish. The roof has prefabricated trussed rafters, is slated and has a pitch of 45 degrees.

Show all the constructional details from 300mm below the window head, through the eaves and include three courses of slate. (b) On the drawing, label and indicate the typical dimensions of four main structural members. 2006 Higher Level Question 7 HOME TOPIC YEAR 2008 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 It is proposed to replace the single glazing in a dwelling house with double glazing. (a) Using the following data, calculate the U-value of the: (i) single glazing;

(ii) standard double glazing. Glass: single glazing thickness 5 mm Glass: double glazing thickness 4 mm Space between panes width 12 mm Thermal data of glazing: Conductivity of glass (k) 1.020 W/m C Resistance of space between panes (R) 0.170 m2 C/W Resistance of internal surface (R) 0.122 m2 C/W Resistance of external surface (R) 0.080 m2 C/W HOME TOPIC YEAR

2009 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches as appropriate, two functional requirements of a contemporary glazing system for a modern dwelling house. (b) The sketch shows a portion of a high performance wooden window with an aluminium external cladding. Discuss the design of the window with reference to: environmental considerations thermal properties. (c) Recommend a preferred window frame and glazing system for a new house and give two reasons in support of your recommendations. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2010 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (b) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, two design considerations for a contemporary window frame and glazing system that will ensure the high thermal performance of both: the window frame and the glazing system. (c) Outline two environmental considerations that should be taken into account when recommending a preferred material for the window frame. Doors HOME TOPIC YEAR 1989 Higher Level Question 1

Q1 The external timber door of a house is to have a glazed upper panel and a solid lower panel and it is to be set in a 300 mm thick cavity wall. Draw to a scale of 1:5 a vertical section through the door, doorhead and threshold showing constructional details from 500 mm above the top of the door to 500 mm below the bottom of the door. Give suitable sizes for all the components. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 Compare, with the aid of sketches, the design and construction of a timber door for external use with that of a timber door for internal use. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1996 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Prepare a cutting list for an external framed, braced and sheeted door 2000 high by 900 wide and describe, with the aid of sketches, how the door should be constructed. Suggest a preservative and also decorative finishes for the door, both inside and outside, and ,give reasons for your choices. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2003 Higher Level Question 1

Q1 An external wooden door with four panels is shown in the accompanying sketch. The upper panels are glazed and the lower panels are solid. The door opening is located in a standard 300mm external concrete block wall with an insulated cavity. The house has a solid concrete ground floor. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the external wall and door, showing clearly the threshold, the door and the doorframe. The section should show all the constructional details from 300mm below the bottom of the door to 300mm above the top of the doorframe. (b) Indicate on the drawing two design details that ensure that moisture does not penetrate to the inner surfaces surrounding the door. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2007 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A four-panel wooden door is fixed in the external wall of a two storey timber-frame house, as shown in the sketch. The external wall, which supports the first floor joists, has a concrete block outer leaf with a rendered finish. (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the external wall, door and floor joists. The section should show the typical construction details from 400 mm below the head of the door frame to 400 mm above the first floor joists. Show clearly the external wall, the door, door frame and the first floor joists. Indicate the typical dimensions of four main structural members. (b) On the drawing, show clearly how the first floor joists are supported at the timber-frame inner leaf of the external wall. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2012 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 The main entrance door to a two storey dwelling house is a four-panel solid wooden door. The external wall in which the door is fitted is of timber frame construction with a rendered concrete block outer leaf. This wall supports the first floor joists, as shown in the accompanying outline drawing. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through a portion of the external wall, doorframe, door and first floor joists. The section should show the typical construction details from 400 mm below the top of the door to a level 500 mm above the first floor joists. Include typical dimensions. (b) Show clearly on your drawing the position of the

vapour control layer to ensure an airtight structure. Fireplaces HOME TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 To a scale of 1:10 sketch a vertical section through an open fireplace on the ground floor of a house. Describe the important features which contribute to the safe burning of solid fuels and the efficient flow of smoke. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 Describe, with the aid of sketches, the design and construction of (a) a modern domestic fireplace and (b) the associated chimney from fireplace to chimney pot. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1995 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 To a scale of 1:5 draw a vertical section through an open fireplace in a ground-floor room with a

suspended timber floor. Show all constructional features and give sizes of all component parts of the fireplace and the floor. Explain briefly the reasons why a chimney might not efficiently remove the smoke from such a fireplace. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1997 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 A concrete block chimney, rendered on all sides, will pass through a med roof of 30 degree pitch. Discuss with the aid of sketches how the roof can be made watertight. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 An open fireplace in a single storey dwelling is located on a 300mm external concrete block wall with an insulated cavity. The house has a solid concrete floor. (a) To a scale of 1:5 draw a vertical section through the wall and fireplace. The section should show all the constructional details from bottom of the foundation to the top of the first flue. (b) Note on the drawing two design details that ensure the efficient functioning of the fireplace. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q6 A concrete block chimney stack with a sand/cement rendering passes through a pitched slated roof, as shown in the sketch.

(a) Using notes and freehand sketches, show the design details necessary to prevent the penetration of water between the chimney stack and the adjoining roof surfaces. (b) Poor design detailing may result in the occurrence of a down draught in a chimney. Outline one situation in which a down draught might occur and using notes and freehand sketches, show the design detailing that would prevent the occurrence of such a down draught. 2003 Higher Level Question 6 HOME TOPIC YEAR 2008 Higher Level Question 1

Q1 An open fireplace is located on the party wall between two semi-detached houses, as shown in the accompanying sketch. The party wall is a 300 mm solid block wall and the ground floor is a concrete floor with a 25 mm woodblock finish. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the ground floor, hearth and fireplace. The section should show all the construction details from the bottom of the foundation to the top of the second flue liner. Include four typical dimensions on your drawing. (b) Indicate clearly on the drawing how the flue liners are joined to ensure the safe removal of smoke and gasses from the fireplace. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2011 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A concrete block chimney stack with a sand/cement render passes through a cut roof which is slated and is pitched at 45, as shown in the sketch. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the chimney stack and roof, showing the typical details of the chimney stack, flue, chimney capping and portion of the roof structure. Show clearly the design details necessary to prevent the penetration of water between the chimney stack and the adjoining roof surface. (b) On your drawing, show two design details that will help prevent the occurrence of a downdraught in a chimney as shown. Include dimensions as appropriate. Roof HOME

TOPIC 1987 Higher Level YEAR Q1 Q5 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q5 1987 Higher Level Question 1

Q1 To a scale of 1 : 20, draw a little more than half the elevation of a traditional raftered roof supported on a brick cavity wall and having a total unsupported span of 8 m. Include 225 soffit and three courses of slates. Typical dimensions should be noted. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q1 1987 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 Trace with the aid of sketches the evolution of the hip-roof from the earliest pitched roof constructions to the present day. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 To a scale of 1 : 5, draw a vertical section through one of the following in cavity wall construction: (a) Eaves of a house with a flat roof at rainwater gutter side. or (b) Eaves of a house with a pitched roof and either tiles or slates for roof cover. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1989 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 By means of sketches to a scale of 1 : 20, show the construction of: (i) a lean-to roof spanning 3 m between the top of a 225 mm solid concrete block wall and the side of a 300 mm thick two leaf house wall; (ii) a trussed rafter roof of span 6 m supported on 300 mm thick walls of cavity construction. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 Prefabricated timber roof trusses are used on houses as an alternative to 'traditional roof

construction. To a scale of 1 : 10 draw an elevation showing typical dimensions of a trussed rafter suitable for a span of 7.5m at 30 degree pitch and specify its essential features paying particular attention to the arrangements at the supports. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 A house with cavity wall construction has a pitched roof covered with slates. To a scale of I :5, draw a vertical section through the eaves of the roof. Name and give the sizes of all components. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 1993 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 (a) List the most common defects found in flat roofs. (b) Explain with the aid of sketches how to avoid these defects in respect to timber flat roofs with felt or asphalt finishes. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1997 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Describe, with the aid of sketches, the method of construction and weatherproofing you would use for a 30 degree pitched roof spanning seven metres. Give reasons for your choice.

OR Nature, and humankind, have found three different ways of building: (a) with an external structure; (b) with an internal structure; (c) without any firm structure. Discuss, with the aid of sketches, and give examples. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1999 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Describe, with the aid of sketches, the method of construction and waterproofing you would use for a flat roof spanning five meters. Give reasons for your choice. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 It is proposed to extend the kitchen area of an existing two-storey house. This requires the construction of a timber flat roof to the extension. The external wall of the house is a 300mm insulated cavity wall. (a) To a scale of 1:5, show the design details of the roof construction at: (i) eaves level, showing how the rainwater is to be removed. (ii) the abutment of the flat roof with the wall of the existing house. (b) Using notes and sketches show two design considerations in the roof construction which prevent the occurrence of: (i) Condensation within the roof structure; (ii) Decay of the roof timbers. HOME

TOPIC 2004 Higher Level YEAR Q1 Q8 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q8 2004 Higher Level Question 1

Q1 A small porch, which projects 1.7m from a house, is shown in the accompanying sketch. The lean-to roof is slated and has a pitch of 30 degrees. The house and porch are constructed of standard 300mm concrete block walls with insulated cavity. The porch has a level plasterboard ceiling. (a) To a scale of 1:5 draw a vertical section through the porch showing the roof and wall of the house. The section should show all the construction details from 400mm below the bottom of the ceiling joists to 300mm above the abutment of the roof and wall of the house. (b) Indicate on your drawing two design details that ensure moisture does not penetrate at the abutment of the roof and wall of the house. HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q1 2004 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 The sketch shows a new dwelling house with a slated roof pitched at 45 degrees. The roof is a traditional cut roof and is designed to incorporate bedroom accommodation within the attic space. The house has an internal width of 7.0 metres. The external walls supporting the flooring joists are standard 300mm concrete block walls with insulated cavity. The joists are also supported internally on a centrally located load bearing concrete block wall. (a)To a scale of 1:20 draw a vertical section through the roof structure. Show the constructional details from the bottom of the wall plates to the top of the ridge board. (It is not necessary to show slating or window details) (b) To provide natural light to the bedrooms in the attic

space, a choice must be made to fit either pitched dormer windows or roof light windows. State two arguments in favour of fitting dormer windows and two arguments in favour of fitting roof light windows. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (b)Outline two design considerations that must be taken into account in the design of a roof for a domestic dwelling and describe, with the aid of notes and freehand sketches, the design detailing for each consideration outlined. HOME

TOPIC 2006 Higher Level YEAR Q3 Q7 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q7 2006 Higher Level Question 3

Q3 It is proposed to provide bedroom accommodation in the attic space of a new house. The house has an internal width of 6.5 metres and the flooring joists are supported internally on a centrally located load-bearing wall. The roof is a traditional cut roof, is slated and has a pitch of 45 degrees. (a) Using notes and detailed freehand sketches, show the constructional details of the roof structure to facilitate bedroom accommodation in the attic space. Indicate clearly the ventilation and insulation detailing of the roof structure. (b) The accompanying sketch shows a terrace of townhouses. The dormer windows have been developed in an uncoordinated manner over a number of years. Using notes and freehand sketches, suggest a revised design for the dormer windows that would improve the visual appearance of the houses and enhance the character of the terrace. HOME TOPIC

YEAR Q3 Q7 (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the window, the external wall and the roof of a timber-framed house, as shown in the sketch. The external leaf is of concrete block construction with a rendered finish. The roof has prefabricated trussed rafters, is slated and has a pitch of 45 degrees. Show all the constructional details from 300mm below the window head, through the eaves and include three courses of slate. (b) On the drawing, label and indicate the typical dimensions of four main structural members. 2006 Higher Level Question 7 HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2007 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 The sketch shows portion of a single storey dwelling house having a 300 mm concrete block external wall with insulated cavity. The house has an internal span of 5.0 metres. The window shown is an outward opening double-glazed wooden casement window 1.2 metres in height. The roof, which is slated, is a traditional cut roof pitched at 30 degrees and the ceiling joists are supported centrally on a load-bearing concrete block wall. (a) To a scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the External wall, window and roof structure. The section should show the typical construction details from 300 mm below the concrete cill, through the fixed frame of the window and include the roof. Show three courses of slate at Eaves. Note: Show the details for one external wall and half the roof including the ridge. (b) Indicate on the drawing the design detailing which ensures that moisture does not penetrate

to the inner wall at the window head. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2009 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A new house with an internal width of 7.0 metres, has a traditional cut roof which is slated and has a pitch of 45 degrees, as shown in the accompanying sketch. The roof is designed to incorporate bedroom accommodation in the attic space. The external wall supporting the floor joists of the attic is of timber frame construction with a concrete block outer leaf. The floor joists are supported internally on a centrally located load-bearing wall. (a) To a scale of 1:10 draw a vertical section through one half of the roof structure from eaves to ridge, showing one external wall and one rafter length. Show all the construction details from

400 mm below the floor joists to the ridge and include three courses of slate at eaves. Include four typical dimensions of the roof structure. (b) Indicate clearly on the drawing the design detailing to show the continuity of insulation from the wall to the roof structure. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2011 Higher Level Question 2 Q4 (a) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, three functional requirements of a roof suitable for a dwelling house. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two different types of pitched roof structure suitable for a dwelling house having an internal

span of 6.0 metres and one internal load-bearing wall. For each roof type, indicate the design detailing that ensures the structural stability of the roof and include the typical dimensions of three structural members. (c) Recommend a preferred roof structure for a dwelling house and give two reasons in support of your recommendation. Hot water HOME TOPIC YEAR 1985 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 The main sources of heating for a dwelling is a boiler that provides hot water for an indirect cylinder and four radiators. With the aid of a comprehensive sketch, explain the complete layout

of hot and cold services, indicating a secondary circulation loop and pipe and storage cistern sizes. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1986 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a) By means of a sketch indicate fully the layout of a secondary circulation loop in a domestic hot water system and explain its purposes. (b)(i) Explain the use, function and design of thermostatic radiator valves. (ii) Manual controls to radiators are to be replaced with thermostatic radiator valves at a cost of IR30 per radiator and an annual fuel saving of IR5. Using the graph supplied, decide if this energy conservation measure would be worthwhile, assuming an inflation rate of 10% and a discount rate of 15% and give reasons for your answer.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Sketch the following types of small bore oil fired central heating systems, each to serve at least two radiators. Typical fittings and dimensions should be noted: (a) one pipe system; (b) two pipe system. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1993 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Discuss the relative merits of : (a) (i) direct hot water supply; (ii) indirect hot water supply. (b) List the piping materials and jointing methods used for hot and cold water distribution in a dwelling. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1994 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Sketch the following types of small bore oil fired central heating systems, each to serve at least two radiators:

(a) one pipe system; (b) two pipe system. Include typical fittings and dimensions. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1995 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Describe the small-bore system of central heating and show by means of an annotated isometric sketch how the system may be installed in a house having three radiators on the first floor and four radiators on the ground floor. Show on the sketch the method of providing domestic hot water. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1996 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Sketch a central heating installation suitable for a three bedroomed bungalow and describe the functions of the principal components in the system. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1997 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 Alternative methods of providing heat in dwellings are currently available. Describe, with

illustrations or diagrams, ONE method of house heating, both space and water heating, supplied by any of the following heat sources: (i) oil; (ii) solid smokeless fuel; (iii) gas (L.P.G.). In the example chosen explain how the building structure and fuel storage requirements are affected by the choice of method. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Heating in a small bungalow is provided by four radiators supplied from a central heating -boiler. Domestic hot water is heated by the same boiler through an indirect cylinder. Using a detailed sketch, show the layout of the central heating system and the hot and cold water supply system. Name and give suitable dimensions for all component parts.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 2001 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (a) Using a neat single line diagrammatic sketch, show the layout of the pipework necessary for the installation of a domestic central heating system to serve at least three radiators. Show the location of all the necessary valves. (b) Using notes and sketches, indicate three features that could be incorporated into the design of a central heating system for a two-storey house to improve its efficiency and ensure the economical use of fuel. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2003 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 An oil-fired boiler is used as the heat source to provide central heating and hot water for a domestic dwelling. (a) Using a single-line diagram, show a design layout for the heating and domestic hot water system. Include three radiators in the proposed layout and indicate suitable dimensions for all pipework. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show three design details that should be incorporated into the proposed layout to ensure the continuous safe operation of the heating system. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2004 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 An oil-fired boiler is used as a heat source to provide central heating and hot water in a twostorey dwelling house. (a) Using a single line diagram, show a design layout for the heating and domestic hot water system. Include three radiators on the ground floor and three radiators on the first floor. (b) Using notes and sketches describe three safety features that are incorporated into the design of an oil-fired boiler to ensure its safe functioning. (c) Many modern heating systems are designed to allow independent control of different heating zones within a house. Discuss, in detail, three advantages of installing a zoned heating system. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2007 Higher Level Question 8

Q8 (a) Using notes and a single-line diagram, show a typical layout of an oil-fired central heating and hot water system for a two storey dwelling house. Show three radiators on each floor, indicate the necessary valves and give typical sizes of the pipework. (b) On the diagram, show two features that ensure the safe functioning of the heating system. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two details that should be incorporated into the design of the central heating system to ensure the economical use of oil. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2008 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) An oil-fired central heating and hot water system for a two storey dwelling house is designed to provide independent control of hot water and space heating. Using notes and a single-line

diagram, show a typical layout for such a system. Show three radiators on each floor, indicate the necessary control valves and give the typical sizes of the pipework. (b) On a separate diagram show an alternative system for providing domestic hot water which is not dependent on fossil fuels. Discuss two advantages of the proposed system. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2009 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) An oil-fired boiler is used to heat two independently controlled heating zones, one on each floor, in a two storey dwelling house. Using notes and a single-line diagram, show a design layout for the pipe work necessary for each zone. Show three radiators on each floor, indicate the control

valves and give the typical sizes of the pipework. (b) A roof mounted solar collector, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is to be connected to the system at 8(a) above, to heat domestic hot water only. Show the pipework necessary to connect the solar collector to the above system. Outline two advantages of connecting a solar collector to the system. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2011 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) A wood burning stove, as shown in the sketch, is used to heat two independently controlled heating zones, one on each floor, in a two storey dwelling house. Using notes and a single-line diagram, show a typical design layout

for the pipework necessary to independently heat each zone. Show three radiators on each floor, indicate the control valves and give the typical sizes of the pipework. (b) It is proposed to connect a solar collector, as shown in the sketch below, to the system at 8(a) above to heat domestic water. Show a design layout for the pipework necessary to connect the solar collector to the existing system and outline the modifications required to the existing system to accommodate the solar collector. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches, show a preferred location for the solar collector and discuss in detail two factors that influenced your choice of location. Light HOME TOPIC YEAR 1985 Higher Level Question 1

Q1 A room 3 m x 4 m with an unobstructed view required an average illumination of 100 lux. (a) Determine, by means of the degree of efficiency method, or any other method, the approximate size of the single vertical window. (b) Draw to a scale of 1 : 5 a section through the jamb of this timber casement window, showing the frame and sash and their position in the cavity wall. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1987 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a) The average daylight illumination in a room is to be increased from 90 to 150 lux by enlarging the existing vertical windows. Determine, by means of the degree of efficiency method, or any other method, the approximate area of windows required when the room is 3800 wide x 4800

long and there is an unobstructed view. (b) Draw, to a scale of 1 : 5 a vertical section through the head of a window, showing the head and sash and their position in the cavity wall. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1989 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Explain the following terms associated with illumination in buildings: (i) units of illumination; (ii) evenness of illumination; (iii) standard overcast sky; (iv) daylight factor and its components. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 (a) Using the method of average efficiency or any other method, find the size of window required to give an average horizontal illumination of 100 lux in a room 4m x 3m. (Assume an unobstructed view and an illumination out of doors of 5000 lux.) (b) To a scale of 1 : 5 draw a horizontal section through the window jamb showing its position in an insulated cavity wall. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1993 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 An architects office requires an average daylight illumination of750 lux on the working plane. If the drawing office is 28.8 m long by 7.2 m wide, calculate, using the degree of efficiency method or any other method the area of glazing required to provide this level of illumination. Assume: (i) an unobstructed view; (ii) a standard overcast sky of 5000 lux; (iii) 60% of incident light is reflected or absorbed by the glass and by dirt on the glass. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1994 Higher Level Question 9 Q9

Explain the following terms which relate to the illumination of buildings. (a) Standard overcast sky; (b) Daylight factor and-its components; (c) Units of illumination; (d) Evenness of illumination. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 (a) To a scale of 1:5 draw or sketch a vertical section through the head of a timber window. Include details at the head and sash. (b) Average daylight illumination in a room in a house in Ireland is to be increased from 90 to 150 lux by fitting new windows on one of the long walls. Calculate, using the degree of efficiency method or any suitable method, the total area of windows required given that the room is 5.00

m long by 3.60 m wide. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2000 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 (a) Determine by degree of efficiently method, or by other suitable method, the approximate size of a vertical window suitable for a kitchen 4.80m long by 3.60m wide requiring an average illumination of 150 lux on the working plane. Assume an unobstructed view and the illumination of a standard overcast sky to be 5000 lux (b) Select two materials commonly used in the manufacture of window frames and discuss in detail the advantages and disadvantages of each material for window frame manufacture. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2003 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 A storm proof casement window made from softwood is located in an external wall and provides natural lighting to a kitchen area. (a) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, two design details that ensure that the window is weather proof. (b) Discuss two advantages and two disadvantages of using softwood in the manufacture of windows. (c) An illuminance of 300 lux is required on a working plane in the kitchen. The daylight factor at a point on the working plane in the kitchen is 5%. Show by calculation if the illuminance is sufficient, assuming an unobstructed view and the illuminance of a standard overcast sky to be 5000 lux. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2010 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) Determine by degree of efficiency method, or by any other suitable method, the approximate size of a vertical window for a living room 5.0 metres long by 3.8 metres wide requiring an average illumination of 150 lux on the working plane. Assume an unobstructed view and the illumination of a standard overcast sky to be 5000 lux. Sound HOME TOPIC YEAR

Q10 (a) Explain, with the aid of sketches if necessary, factors influencing the reduction of airborne sounds in dwellings. (b) The sound reduction value of a brick wall weighing 48Q kglm2 is 50 dB Using the graph supplied obtain the effect, if any, of including a heavy door of area 2 m2, with threshold well sealed and having a sound reduction value of 30 dB, in the above brick wall of 25 m2. 1985 Higher Level Question 10 HOME TOPIC YEAR

1986 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 With the aid of sketches, show the construction of a non-load bearing timber stud partition supported on a suspended timber floor. The partition is to be constructed to impede the transmission of impact and airborne sound. HOME TOPIC 1988 Higher Level YEAR Q3 Q8 HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q8 Q3 Write detailed notes on three of the following: (a) decibel (dB); (b) Inverse Square Law; (c) reverberation time; (d) the nature and propagation of sound waves. 1988 Higher Level Question 3 HOME TOPIC

YEAR Q3 1988 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (b) Distinguish between airborne and impact noise and give a brief account of the sound insulating properties of materials used to increase airborne and impact sound insulation and state where they might be used. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 8 Q8

(a) Explain the meaning of "sound intensity", state the units in which it is usually measured and explain their significance. (b) Write a brief note on sound-absorbent materials and their acoustic properties. (c) How does distance affect the intensity of sound transmitted in air? HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Describe, with examples, the principal mechanisms by which sound is transmitted through a building. (b) Outline the construction strategy you would adopt to provide the best acoustic environment in a new semi-detached house in an urban setting. HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q8 (a) Discuss the sound insulating properties of materials (b) Write notes on THREE of the following: (i) sound waves; (ii) reverberation time; (iii) impact noise insulation; (iv) airborne noise insulation. 1995 Higher Level Question 8 HOME TOPIC 1996 Higher Level Question 10

YEAR Q10 (a) Give an outline description of the human hearing system and its response to sound intensities and frequencies (b) Explain the meaning of the decibel scale of sound levels, OR Modern buildings of lightweight construction emphasise the problems of sound insulation. Discuss this statement and describe, with the aid of sketches where appropriate, methods of improving sound insulation in such buildings HOME TOPIC YEAR 1999 Higher Level Question 4

Q4 (a) Explain, with the aid of sketches where necessary, factors which influence the reduction of airborne sound and structure-borne sound in buildings. (b) Write notes on TWO of the following: i. resonance; ii. reverberation; iii. sound waves. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2001 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Using notes and sketches, explain the following: (i) Sound Absorption; (ii) Sound Reflection;

(iii) Reverberation Time. (b) An upstairs bedroom equipped with a music system is being renovated. Using notes and sketches, show three design details that would improve the sound insulation properties of this room. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Discuss sound insulation in buildings with reference to each of the following: (i) Mass; (ii) Completeness; (iii) Isolation. (b) A living room is located on the first floor of a new house, directly above a bedroom. The floor consists of tongued and grooved flooring boards on wooden joists with a plasterboard ceiling

beneath. Using notes and sketches, show two design details that will increase the sound insulation HOME TOPIC YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 It is proposed to install a music system in the living room of a single storey dwelling house. The house has a concrete floor and the living room is separated from an adjacent bedroom by a standard stud partition. The walls and ceilings have a smooth hardwall plaster finish. It is proposed to carry out renovations to improve sound insulation. (a) Using neat freehand sketches show two design details that would increase the sound insulation properties of the stud partition. (b) Explain in detail two sound insulation principles which would influence the design of the stud partition.

(c) Using notes and sketches suggest two modifications which would improve the acoustic properties of the living room. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 A new two-storey house has load-bearing and non load-bearing timber stud partitions. The house has a solid concrete ground floor and a suspended timber first floor. (a) Using notes and detailed freehand sketches, compare the design detailing for the construction of each of the following: (i) a load-bearing partition to support the first floor joists; (ii) a non load-bearing partition on the first floor. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two design details that ensure that the transmission of sound is reduced through the stud partition constructed on the first floor.

HOME TOPIC YEAR Q9 The accompanying sketch shows two semi-detached houses. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two design details that reduce the transmittance of sound between the two houses and explain the sound insulation principles associated with each design detail. (b) The first floor consists of tongued and grooved softwood flooring on timber joists with a plasterboard ceiling beneath. Using notes and freehand sketches, show two design details that would increase the sound insulation properties of the first floor in order to

minimise the transmittance of sound. 2007 Higher Level Question 9 HOME TOPIC YEAR 2011 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 (a) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, the importance of each of the following in reducing the transmittance of sound in a dwelling house: mass completeness isolation. (b) The party wall between the two semi-detached houses shown in the sketch is of concrete block construction. The occupants of

one house can hear everyday sounds from the adjoining house. Discuss two possible reasons why sound is transmitted between the houses, and using notes and freehand sketches, show the revised design detailing that would improve the sound insulation properties of the party wall between both houses. (c) To reduce the transmittance of sound through a timber stud partition between two adjoining bedrooms on the first floor in one of the houses, it has been decided to redesign the partition. Show, using notes and freehand sketches, a revised design for the stud partition and outline the sound insulation principles associated with the each design detail. Specify the materials used and give their typical dimensions. Finishes HOME TOPIC YEAR Q4

Explain the application of and the reasons for paintwork to: (i) Sand, lime and Portland cement external rendering. (ii) Ceilings composed of Gyplath slabs and skimmed in Gyplite. (iii) External doors made of softwood. 1985 Higher Level Question 4 HOME TOPIC YEAR 1987 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Write detailed notes on the uses, advantages and disadvantages of lime, gypsum and ordinary Portland cement in plasterwork. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 "I do not like pipes, I do not like ducts, I hate them really thoroughly but because I hate them so thoroughly I feel that they have to be given their place. If I just hated then and took no care I think they would invade the building and completely destroy it. L. Khan Architect. Comment briefly on this statement and describe, with the aid of sketches, two methods used to provide for and protect services in a dwelling. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1997 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Discuss the factors that would influence you in the selection of materials for the interior finishes (including the floor, walls, worktops etc.) of a domestic kitchen. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2000 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Using notes sketches, describe the application of : i. A smooth plaster finish to an external block wall; ii. A gypsum-based finish to an internal block wall; iii. A gypsum-based finish to an internal stud partition wall.

Given details of materials, thickness, mix proportions and sequence of undercoats for each finish HOME TOPIC YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, describe the application of an external render to the walls a new house of concrete block construction. Give details of materials, mix proportions and sequence of coats required. (b) The original external render of an old house is to be removed to reveal solid stone walls of random rubble construction, as shown on the sketch. The owner has the option of either leaving the external stonework exposed or of replastering the walls.

Outline two reasons in favour of each option listed above. Recommend a preferred option and give two reasons to support your recommendation. (c) If the house is to be replastered, a 1 lime : 3 sand mix is recommended for the external render. Give two reasons why such a mix is recommended for this house. Planning HOME TOPIC YEAR 1989 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 "With their passing something of the old world passes away, for the older type of house was in right harmony with its surroundings, while these high bare structures (modern houses) stand

in a perpetual contradiction of the whole environment of hill and sea and sky in which they are so violently set down." Robin Flower, "The Western isle". Discuss briefly the validity of this statement and give a short illustrated account of one type of traditional thatched house, explaining how the visual design reflects the properties of the materials from which it is constructed. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Explain and give a brief account of the functions of the following occupations associated with building: (a) Carpenter; (b) Contractor;

(c) Clerk of Works; (d) Architect; (e) Engineer; (f) Quantity Surveyor. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1993 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 By means of annotated sketches, illustrate all of the constructional details of a suspended timber ground floor arid include the timber floor construction around the hearth . OR Structural forms are built to provide shelter, protection, enclose space, bridge voids, etc. 'Many such forms are modelled on ones that occur in nature, yet they remain sharply differentiated from the world of natural forms. Discuss some of the principal differences.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1996 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Explain: (a) how you would seek planning approval from your local planning authority for an extension to a dwelling; (b) the procedure for making an appeal against a decision of your local planning authority. HOME TOPIC 1997 Higher Level

YEAR Q7 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10 1997 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Describe, with the aid of sketches, the method of construction and weatherproofing you would use for a 30 degree pitched roof spanning seven metres. Give reasons for your choice.

OR Nature, and humankind, have found three different ways of building: (a) with an external structure; (b) with an internal structure; (c) without any firm structure. Discuss, with the aid of sketches, and give examples. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q7 1997 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 Outline, with the aid of diagrams, the principal stages in the construction of a two-storey house and indicate the particular stages at which inspection is desirable.

OR You have been invited to be a member of an interview board to appoint a Clerk of Works for the construction of a large two-storey dwelling. What would you look for in the candidate? HOME TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (a) Explain how you would seek planning approval from your local planning authority for the erection of a dwelling. (b) Explain the purpose of each of TWO of the following building contract documents: (I) Specification; (II) Bills of Quantities; (III) Contract drawings.

HOME TOPIC 2000 Higher Level YEAR Q10 Q5 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q5

2000 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 Domestic architecture often combines one or two styles, or is varied or adapted locally depending on the climate, location, materials available, the skills of the builder and works, economic status, lifestyle, social concerns or restraints and fashion Hearthstone (1993) Caneta S Hankins Discuss. OR A disused church, situated in an urban area, in threatened with demolition and is to be replaced with an office block. What arguments might be presented: (a) In favour of construction the office block; (b) In favour of the preservation of the church? HOME TOPIC YEAR

Q10 2000 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 a) Outline five main considerations in choosing a site for a dwelling house. b) Discuss the importance of each consideration you have listed at (a). c) Discuss in detail two ways in witch a new house can be made to harmonise with the surrounding landscape HOME TOPIC 2001 Higher Level YEAR Q2

Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10 2001 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Preliminary design sketches of a house show the locations of the main living, dining, sleeping and circulation areas. (a) Draw a neat single line diagram of the plan of a single storey dwelling showing the location of the entrance, living area, kitchen and dining room, bedrooms, bathroom and other areas. Indicate on the diagram the position of the windows and doors. Dimensioning of spaces is not necessary. (b) Explain in detail the design considerations that influence the choice of location of each area

indicated on the diagram. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2001 Higher Level Question 10 Q2 Q10 Our countryside buildings should not be taken for granted. They deserve far more study and their appropriate use of materials, their sympathy for the landscape and their human scale deserve appreciation, for they are distinctively Irish and a significant part of our architectural and cultural heritage. .

Irish Countryside Buildings (1985) : P & M Shaffrey Discuss. OR A listed building of unique architectural importance which was subject to a preservation order, has been demolished. The owner has offered to reconstruct the building as close as possible to the original, using some materials salvaged from the demolition. What arguments might be presented: (a) in favour of the reconstruction of the building (b) in favour of an alternative approach, not involving the reconstruction of the building? HOME TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 10 Q10

In recent years the increase in the building of individual houses in the countryside is causing some debate. (a) What arguments might be presented by: (i) a person who wants to live in the country and is seeking to build a one-off house in the countryside and (ii) a person who is objecting to the building of one-off housing and is seeking to maintain the traditional appearance of the countryside. (b) Evaluate the arguments presented at (a) and (b) above and make a recommendation. OR Good builders were very conscious of the outward appearance of their work and took care to improve and enhance it, while the use of purely local materials always ensured that the finished structure fitted smoothly into its environment, and did not shock it or do violence, as do some misguided efforts of modern fashion in building. Irish Country Households (1985) : Kevin Danaher Discuss. HOME TOPIC

2003 Higher Level YEAR Q2 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10 2003 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 A proposed combined kitchen and dining space in a new house is 6m long by 4.5m wide and has

two adjoining external walls. This space is to be user friendly for a person in a wheelchair. (a) Using a well-proportioned line diagram or freehand sketch, propose a design layout for the space, indicating the positions you would choose for the following: Doors Windows Sink Work surfaces Storage Fridge Electric cooker Dining table (b) Using notes and detailed freehand sketches, outline two specific design considerations that would make the proposed layout suitable for a person in a wheelchair. (c) Discuss in detail three other design considerations that influenced the proposed layout. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2003 Higher Level Question 10 Q2 Q10 A detached single-storey house is situated adjacent to a main road on the outskirts of a large town and is within easy reach of the town centre. Planning permission is being sought to demolish this house and to erect a four-storey apartment block on the site. (a) What arguments might be presented: (i) In support of the erection of the apartment block; (ii) In support of the retention of the existing house? (b) Make a recommendation to the planning authority on this proposal and give three reasons in support of your recommendation. OR HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q2 Q10 Vernacular styles of buildings exist all over the world. These styles are characterised by their simplicity, by their use of local materials and by the ease with which they can be constructed. The knowledge required for the creation of such buildings was long regarded as common knowledge and freely available to all. The decline of the vernacular tradition with its simple forms and its accessibility to people has resulted in the loss of the knowledge and skills needed to design and construct small buildings, especially the buildings in which people live their homes. Be Your Own Architect (1992) : Peter Cowman. Discuss.

2003 Higher Level Question 10 HOME TOPIC 2004 Higher Level YEAR Q2 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR

Q10 2004 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 A bathroom in a new single storey dwelling house measures 3m x 2.5m and has two adjacent external walls. The bathroom is to be suitable for a person in a wheelchair. (a) Using a well-proportioned line diagram or freehand sketch, propose a design layout for this space, indicating the location you would choose for each of the following: Door Window Water closet (WC) Wash hand basin Bath or shower facility (b) In the case of each item listed above, discuss in detail two reasons for the chosen location. (c) Using notes and detailed freehand sketches, outline two other design considerations that would make the bathroom space user friendly for a person in a wheelchair. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 10 Q2 Q10 A suburban dwelling house, built over one hundred years ago, has a large rear garden with mature trees and shrubs. A roadway provides access to the rear garden, as shown in the sketch. Planning permission is being sought to divide the rear garden as shown and to erect two townhouses in the divided garden. (a) What arguments might be presented: (i) In support of the erection of the townhouses; (ii) In support of the retention of the property in its original state? (b) Make a recommendation to the planning authority on this proposal and discuss in detail

Three reasons in support of your recommendation. OR HOME TOPIC YEAR Q2 2004 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 The suburban spread of settlements is wasteful both in terms of its impact on existing fabric and infrastructure of towns, and in terms of the continual erosion of the landscape. If this trend is to be reversed, the built fabric of towns and villages will need to be renewed, and dwellings and related facilities provided which will attract families back to them Developing a Government Policy on Architecture (1996). Discuss.

HOME TOPIC 2005 Higher Level YEAR Q2 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10

2005 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Current building regulations require that new dwelling houses be suitable for all, including wheelchair users. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, outline three areas in a dwelling house that need specific consideration to ensure that the house is suitable for a person in a wheelchair. (b) Select one of the areas outlined at (a) above and using notes and detailed freehand sketches, show three specific design considerations that ensure that the space selected is suitable for a wheelchair user. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 10

Q2 Q10 The accompanying sketch shows a house with a sunspace included as shown. (a) Discuss three advantages of including a sunspace, such as that shown in the sketch, in the design layout of a house. (b) Using notes and sketches, show your preferred orientation for the house and sunspace shown. Outline two reasons to support your choice of orientation. (Indicate clearly the direction of North on your sketch). (c) Using notes and sketches, outline two design considerations to ensure that optimum thermal benefit is gained from the inclusion of a sunspace. OR HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q2 2005 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 The centres of cities and towns have been subject to depopulation, with a consequent fraying of the urban fabric. The trend towards less intensive urban patterns together with the increasing separation between home, work and town centre have exacerbated the growth in private car transport. This has led to increased energy use and emissions of air pollutants and has militated against the effectiveness of public transport networks. Irelands Environment 2004 Environmental Protection Agency (epa); Discuss the above statement and outline three recommendations to the planning authorities which would aid the renewal of the centres of cities and towns. HOME

TOPIC 2006 Higher Level YEAR Q3 Q6 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions

2006 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 It is proposed to provide bedroom accommodation in the attic space of a new house. The house has an internal width of 6.5 metres and the flooring joists are supported internally on a centrally located load-bearing wall. The roof is a traditional cut roof, is slated and has a pitch of 45 degrees. (a) Using notes and detailed freehand sketches, show the constructional details of the roof structure to facilitate bedroom accommodation in the attic space. Indicate clearly the ventilation and insulation detailing of the roof structure. (b) The accompanying sketch shows a terrace of townhouses. The dormer windows have been developed in an uncoordinated manner over a number of years. Using notes and freehand sketches, suggest a revised design for the dormer windows that would improve the visual appearance of the houses and enhance the character of the terrace. HOME

TOPIC YEAR Questions 2006 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Many local planning authorities provide guidelines outlining good practice to be followed when locating a dwelling house in the countryside. (a) Discuss in detail three planning guidelines that you consider should be observed when locating a dwelling house in the countryside. (b) The accompanying sketch shows a newly built house in a rural setting. Using notes and freehand sketches, outline in detail two proposals that would minimise the visual impact of the newly built house and

thus help integrate the house into the landscape. HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions Q10 In order to maximise passive solar gain, a fully-glazed sunspace is included in the design of the house shown in the accompanying sketch. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, outline two considerations that should be taken into account when incorporating a fully glazed sunspace into a dwelling house. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show your

preferred orientation for the house and sunspace shown. Outline two reasons to support your choice of orientation. (Indicate clearly the direction of North). (c) Using notes and freehand sketches, outline two considerations in the design of the house that would OR help maximise the solar gain from such a sunspace. 2006 Higher Level Question 10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions 2006 Higher Level Question 10

Q10 The sustainable neighbourhood is, in many respects, based on the traditional urban neighbourhoods common in cities over many centuries. The pattern has numerous advantages over that of suburban sprawl. It involves much less car dependence for daily tasks and can be much more easily served by effective public transport. Housing in Ireland: Performance and Policy National and Economic Social Council (NESC) Discuss the above statement in detail and outline three recommendations to the planning authorities which would create better planned urban neighbourhoods and reduce dependency on the private car. HOME TOPIC 2007 Higher Level YEAR

Q6 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10 2007 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, discuss in detail three planning guidelines that should be observed when sitting a new house in a rural area to ensure that the house is integrated sensitively into the landscape. (b) The accompanying drawing shows a house based on the traditional Irish cottage. The house is designed to have low environmental impact.

Using notes and freehand sketches, outline two features in the design of the house that reflect a traditional cottage and discuss in detail how each feature contributes to reducing the environmental impact of the house. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2007 Higher Level Question 10 Q6 Q10

A house with an integrated sunspace is shown in the accompanying sketch. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, show the preferred orientation for the house and sunspace relative to the path of the sun. (Indicate clearly the direction of North). (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, propose a layout for the rooms adjoining the sunspace and show how the proposed layout would maximise the benefit of the solar gain from the sunspace. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches, outline two design details for the building fabric that would help store the heat gained from the sunspace. OR HOME TOPIC YEAR

Q6 2007 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 Developing the sustainable neighbourhood is, by its very nature, about much more than higher densities and the choice of a few eco-friendly materials. It involves the integration of economic, community and social sustainability objectives with the physical planning of the neighbourhood. It requires casting these - along with energy use, public transport, recycling, active green space, the hierarchy of streets etc. - into a comprehensive neighbourhood plan. The Sustainable Neighbourhood: by Brian Brennan in The New Housing: The Royal Institute of Architects of Ireland Discuss the above statement in detail and outline three recommendations to the planning authorities that would help create better planned sustainable neighbourhoods. HOME TOPIC 2008 Higher Level

YEAR Q6 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10 2008 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, discuss the importance of each of the following when sitting a house sensitively in a rural landscape:

location of house in the landscape; scale of house; form of house; choice of materials. (b) The accompanying drawing shows the elevation and ground floor plan of a house designed to have low environmental impact. The house has three bedrooms and a bathroom in the attic space. Using notes and freehand sketches, discuss in detail three features in the design that contribute to reducing the environmental impact of the house. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q6

2008 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 The following considerations are important in passive solar design: insulation; orientation and shade; energy efficient glazing and frames. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, discuss in detail the importance of each of the above in the design of a passive solar house. (b) The accompanying sketch shows a dwelling house with an attached sunspace. Using notes and freehand sketches, propose a design layout for the rooms adjoining the sunspace that would maximise the passive solar heat gain from the sunspace. (c) Give two reasons for the proposed room OR layout adjoining the sunspace.

HOME TOPIC YEAR Q6 2008 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 All we really ask of our houses is that they keep us warm and dry and protect us from intruders. At the moment we achieve this with huge wastage of energy and material. Our simple demands should be obtainable through passive means utilizing only local materials in all but the least hospitable landscapes. Over the last century using fossil fuel reserves has made us lazy in this regard, because in fact, like the houses of animals, our architectural heritage of vernacular buildings were simple, smart and easy to construct. Rural: by Dominic Stevens. mermaid turbulence, cloone, leitrim, ireland. (2007) Discuss in detail the above statement and outline three recommendations to the planning

authorities that would help create sustainable housing development. HOME TOPIC 2009 Higher Level YEAR Q6 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR

Q10 2009 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Discuss in detail three advantages of designing a house to have low environmental impact. (b) The accompanying drawing shows the elevation and ground floor plan of a house. The house has two additional bedrooms and a bathroom in the attic space. With reference to the design shown, discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, the importance of each of the following in ensuring that the house has low environmental impact: scale and layout Selection of materials energy requirements. HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q6 2009 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 (a) Using notes and freehand sketches discuss in detail the importance of any two of the following in the design of a passive solar house: insulated building envelope controlled air changes optimum benefit from passive solar gain. (b) The accompanying sketch shows a terrace of houses with fully glazed faades. Using notes and freehand sketches show the preferred orientation of the houses to maximise passive solar gain. Justify your choice of orientation. (c) Overheating may occur in summer as a result of

glazing the full faade as shown. Using notes and freehand sketches show, for one of the houses, two design details that would help prevent such OR overheating. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q6 2009 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 I think the next challenge for Ireland is not about house building but about remedying a lot of mistakes made at all scales, from regional planning down to house design. Architects should be leading the way and demonstrating how the green agenda can become a very attractive way of

thinking about architecture. If we stick to the elements of architecture light, form and space and look to the sun as a planet that almost gives life, we can find very interesting ways of using light. You can argue that the bulk of housing stock in Ireland took no cognition of orientation; where the kitchen area was facing - simple things like that coincide with architecture and green design. A lot of these things were forgotten and not questioned, probably because we got used to the idea of being able to cancel out poor orientation with heating. Extract from interview with Sen Laoire, President RIAI in: House (2008). Nova Publishing Ltd, 9 Sandyford Office Park, Sandyford, Dublin18. Discuss the above statement in detail and propose three guidelines that would help create more environmentally sustainable housing in Ireland. HOME TOPIC 2010 Higher Level YEAR Q2

Q6 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions Q2 The accompanying diagram shows an open-plan living, dining and kitchen space suitable for a person in a wheelchair. The floor is an insulated solid concrete ground floor. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches show the design detailing at the entrance door to ensure that rainwater is removed from the threshold area and that the entrance is suitable for a person in a wheelchair.

(b) From the given diagram, select any two areas that need specific consideration to ensure suitability for a person in a wheelchair. For each area selected, using notes and freehand sketches, show the specific design detailing that ensures ease of use for a person in a wheelchair. Indicate on your design sketches typical dimensions as appropriate. 2010 Higher Level Question 2 HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions 2010 Higher Level Question 6

Q6 The drawing shows the design of a timber frame house with an external wooden cladding and a flat roof. The house is designed to have low environmental impact. (a) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, three design features that contribute to reducing the environmental impact of the house shown. (b) Discuss in detail the importance of each of the following when choosing materials for an environmentally sustainable house: Renewable Durable locally sourced. HOME TOPIC

YEAR Questions 2010 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 In the increasingly urbanised world of the 21st century, a major challenge is to find solutions to the problems facing our towns and cities the control of sprawl, sustainable growth, integrated transport systems and better-quality urban environments and public realms. Cities and towns that are diverse, varied in use, walkable, human scaled and identifiable by the high quality of their public realm can contribute to the process of creating sustainable urbanism. The challenge for all citizens is to make our towns and cities viable in the long term, environmentally and socially, as well as economically. There will be no sustainable world and no sustainable country without sustainable cities and towns. Sustainable Urbanism: creating communities for the knowledge economy: by Anthony Reddy in The New Housing 2, Royal Institute of Architects of Ireland 2009. Discuss the above statement in detail and propose three guidelines that would help create environmentally sustainable urban development in Ireland.

HOME TOPIC 2011 Higher Level YEAR Q3 Q6 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR

Questions 2011 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 The plan and elevation of a house built thirty years ago are shown in the accompanying drawing. The house is of traditional construction with a slated cut roof and a 300 mm external cavity wall of concrete block construction. The internal walls are of 100 mm solid block construction and the internal wall A-A is a load bearing wall. The front elevation is south facing. It has been decided to renovate the house to improve its thermal performance by: redesigning the external envelope to allow the increased penetration of sunlight into the interior of the house and redesigning the layout of the interior to optimise solar gain. (a) For each of the above, show using notes and freehand sketches, a revised design detailing that will improve the thermal performance of the dwelling house.

(b) For each of the above, discuss in detail the reasons for your proposed design choices when redesigning the house shown. HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions 2011 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 The elevation and ground floor plan of a house are shown. The house has two additional bedrooms and a bathroom upstairs. The external leaf is of concrete block and cedar cladding construction, as shown. The house is designed to have low environmental impact. (a) With reference to the design shown, discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, three features of the design that ensure the house has low

environmental impact. (b) Discuss in detail the importance of each of the following when designing environmentally sustainable housing: form of the house materials and labour design for lifetime use. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2011 Higher Level Question 10 Questions Q10 (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, discuss in detail the importance of any two

of the following in the design of a Passive House: foundations suitable for a Passive House airtight building envelope windows and glazing. (b) A Mechanical Heat Recovery with Ventilation (MHRV) system for a Passive House is shown in the accompanying sketch. Using notes and freehand sketches, describe how such a system operates. (c) Discuss in detail two advantages and two disadvantages of using a Mechanical Heat Recovery with Ventilation system in a domestic dwelling. OR HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions

2011 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 A good neighbourhood is one where people can easily satisfy daily needs whilst feeling safe to do so. The most successful neighbourhoods are well connected to employment centres, or places where people spend their leisure time. They are places where people can live at any stage of their lives regardless of physical ability or social status. Successful neighbourhoods also tend to have a wide variety of things to do within them and have a strong connection to the area in which they sit be it historical, cultural or visual. Urban Design Manual A Best Practice Guide (2009). Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government.. Discuss the above statement in detail and propose three guidelines for best practice that would help create sustainable urban neighbourhoods. HOME TOPIC

2012 Higher Level YEAR Q2 Q3 Q6 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions

2012 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 (a) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, two functional requirements of a dwelling house designed for lifetime use. Refer in particular to the: main entrance and internal corridor layout. (b) The layout of a bedroom and an adjoining bathroom, which is 2.3 m 2.9 m, is shown in the accompanying drawing. The hot press is also shown. Using notes and freehand sketches, show a preferred layout for the bathroom space to ensure that it is suitable for a person in a wheelchair. Indicate in your design sketches the location of the following: window, shower area, toilet, wash hand basin and grab rails. Include three typical dimensions. (c) Discuss your preferred location for the bathroom items listed at 2(b) above. HOME

TOPIC YEAR Questions 2012 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 The drawing shows the elevation and plan of a semi-detached house with an adjoining storeroom. All external walls are of single leaf 215 mm hollow block construction and all roofs are slated. All internal walls are of solid block construction and the internal wall A-A is load-bearing. The storeroom wall B-B is south facing. It has been decided to convert the storeroom in order to enlarge the living space. In the conversion, you need to give consideration to: redesigning the ground floor layout to allow increased penetration of sunlight to the interior and upgrading the thermal properties of the external walls.

(a) Show, using notes and freehand sketches, a revised design detailing for the dwelling house. (b) For each of the above, discuss in detail the reasons for your proposed design choices. HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions 2012 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 The elevation and ground floor plan of a house are shown. The house has a study / office as shown and also has three bedrooms and a bathroom upstairs. The external wall is of timber frame construction with a concrete block outer leaf. The house is designed to have low environmental impact, reflecting the sustainable ideal of doing more

with less for longer. (a) With reference to the design shown, discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, three features of the design that reflect the sustainable ideal of doing more with less for longer. (b) Discuss in detail the importance of each of the following when designing an environmentally sustainable dwelling house: orientation of house flexibility of design sourcing of materials. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2012 Higher Level Question 10

Questions Q10(a) Using notes and freehand sketches as appropriate, discuss in detail the importance of any two of the following in the design of a Passive House: building form indoor environment energy performance. (b) It is proposed to install a Mechanical Heat Recovery with Ventilation (MHRV) system for a Passive House, as shown in the drawing. The location of the MHRV unit - M - in the utility room is shown. Draw a single line diagram of the given plan and show a typical design layout for the ducting to such a unit. Indicate clearly the direction of airflow in all the ducts and describe how a Mechanical Heat Recovery with Ventilation (MHRV) system works. Note: While a plan of the room layout is required, it is not necessary to show the furniture. (c) Discuss in detail two advantages and two disadvantages of Passive House construction.

OR HOME TOPIC YEAR Questions 2012 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 A sustainable ethos in building will require the consideration of environmental implications associated with design, construction and operation of buildings and neighbourhoods; and greater emphasis on the improvement of existing buildings. Most buildings are used for several decades, and many survive for centuries. As the communitys principal physical asset, getting good value requires that the buildings full life cycle be considered, avoiding short-sighted attempts to merely

minimise initial cost. THE GREEN VITRUVIUS PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (2011) by Vivienne Brophy and J Owen Lewis (UCD). - Earthscan Ltd, 14a St Cross Street, London ECIN 8XA, UK Discuss the above statement in detail and propose three guidelines that would promote the development of environmentally sustainable housing in Ireland. Condensation HOME TOPIC YEAR 1985 Higher Level Question 5 Q5

(a) What is a vapour barrier? (b) Explain fully the terms, relative humidity and dew point with reference to condensation in a kitchen and suggest methods to eliminate it. HOME TOPIC YEAR Graph 1986 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 The temperature of the air in a building is 22.5 degrees C and the relative humidity of the air is 70%. From the psychometric chart determine the temperature at which condensation will occur on the internal surfaces of the external walls. (b) Using this result determine by means of the graph supplied, the most economic U-valve for these external walls if condensation is to be avoided when the outside/inside air temperature

difference is 19.8 degrees C. HOME TOPIC YEAR Question 1986 Higher Level Question 5 HOME TOPIC YEAR 1989 Higher Level Question 8

Q8 (a) What are the common causes and cures for condensation in a modern house? (b) Describe the measures that should be taken, at the design stage, to reduce the risk of condensation. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1994 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 (a) Discuss the main factors which cause condensation in a building and explain the precautions you would recommend to eliminate the problem. (b) Explain why condensation is more of a problem in modern dwellings than in those built over 30 years ago. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1995 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 (a) Explain how damp penetration can damage the building fabric. (b) Draw freehand sketches showing details of five different kinds of places where damp-proof courses should be located in a two storey house. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 3

Q3 (a)Show, with the aid of sketches, two different methods of fixing dry linings to the inside of an external block concrete wall. Pay particular attention to the top and bottom of the linings where they meet ceiling and floor respectively. (b) Select one method of dry lining and explain the advantages and disadvantages it may have compared to traditional plastered wall finishes. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1999 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a)Explain how damp penetration occurs and discuss ways by which it can damage the fabric of a building. (b)With the aid of neat freehand sketches show FOUR different places where damp-proof courses should be located in a two-storey dwelling.

HOME TOPIC 2002 Higher Level YEAR Q2 Q8 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q8

2002 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Poor design detailing can result in condensation occurring on the inner surfaces of external cavity walls, particularly at (i) wallplate level and (ii) the wall surrounding window and door openings. (a) Discuss how condensation might occur at locations listed above and using notes and freehand sketches show the correct design details that would prevent the condensation occurring at (i) and (ii) above. (b) Condensation may also occur on the internal surfaces of the walls of an old house. Discuss two possible reasons for its occurrence and using notes and freehand sketches, show two means by which its occurrence might be eliminated. HOME TOPIC YEAR

Q2 2002 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 It is proposed to extend the kitchen area of an existing two-storey house. This requires the construction of a timber flat roof to the extension. The external wall of the house is a 300mm insulated cavity wall. (a) To a scale of 1:5, show the design details of the roof construction at: (i) eaves level, showing how the rainwater is to be removed. (ii) the abutment of the flat roof with the wall of the existing house. (b) Using notes and sketches show two design considerations in the roof construction which prevent the occurrence of: (i) Condensation within the roof structure; (ii) Decay of the roof timbers. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A storm proof casement window, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is made from softwood and has a double-glazed outward opening sash. The window is one metre in height and is fixed in a standard 300mm external concrete block wall with insulated cavity. The wall is plastered on both sides. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the window frame and opening sash. Show all the constructional details from 300mm below the concrete cill to 200mm above the top of the window frame. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show the design details necessary to prevent the formation of condensation on the inner wall surfaces surrounding the window. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2011 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Careful design detailing is necessary in order to design a building envelope which is free of thermal/cold bridges. The drawing shows an outline section through a single storey house having a 350 mm external concrete block wall with an insulated cavity. The ground floor is an insulated solid concrete floor. (a) Select any three locations from those circled on the sketch, and show clearly, using notes and annotated freehand sketches, the typical design detailing which will prevent the formation of thermal bridges at each location selected. (b) Discuss in detail two advantages of designing a building envelope which is free of thermal bridges. Stairs

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1986 Higher Level Question 1 Q1 (a) Calculate the rise and going of steps in a domestic stairs; located in a open well, where the distance from the ground floor to the first floor is 2720. (b) To the scale of 1:10, draw a vertical section through the bottom three steps of this closed string stairs constructed in timber. Include Balusters, handrail and newel post. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1989 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 The illustration drawn to a scale of 1 : 50, shows a section through a straight flight stairs. Draw, to a scale of 1 : 5, construction details of the encircled portions A and B, adding notes where required for clarification. The staircase may be assumed to be supported in any way that is considered feasible, and the answer may be presented as sectional drawings, or in the form of sketches approximately to scale. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Draw, to a scale of 1 : 5, a section through a timber stair. Show the newel post and construction

of the first four steps. (Going of each step = 225 mm, rise of each step = 175 mm.) HOME TOPIC YEAR 1997 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Calculate a rise and going for the step of a flight of stairs to span between two floors which are 2660 mm. apart. The steps must comply with the requirements of the Building Regulations for domestic stairs. (b) Sketch to a suitable scale a vertical section through the bottom three steps of this closed string timber staircase. Include, in your sketch, the newel post and handrail. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2001 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the bottom three steps of a closed-string timber stairs suitable for a domestic dwelling. Show the newel, handrail and balusters. (b) Indicate, using notes and freehand sketches, three design considerations that would ensure that a stairs is safe for all users. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q8 A closed string timber stairs leads to a first floor landing, as

shown in the sketch. The landing has a suspended timber floor with tongued and grooved flooring boards on timber joists and a plasterboard ceiling beneath. (a) To a scale of 1:5 draw a vertical section through the top three steps of the stairs and the landing. Show the newel, balusters and handrail of the stairs. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches show the design details necessary to support the stairs at the abutment of the stairs and landing. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches show two design details that ensure that the landing is safe for all users. 2003 Higher Level Question 8 HOME TOPIC YEAR

2008 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A cut-string timber stairs suitable for a domestic dwelling is shown in the accompanying sketch. (a) To a scale of 1:5, draw a vertical section through the bottom four steps of the stairs. Include the newel post and balustrade and show the typical dimensions of four main structural members of the stairs. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches show two design features that ensure that the stairs is safe for all users. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2010 Higher Level Question 7

Q7 The top portion of an open riser timber stairs is shown in the accompanying sketch. The first floor landing has a suspended timber floor with 25 mm hardwood flooring on timber joists and a plasterboard ceiling beneath. The newel post is 100 mm 100 mm. (a) To a scale of 1:5 draw a vertical section through the top three steps of the stairs and landing. Show the newel post, balusters and handrail of the stairs. Indicate on the drawing the: handrail height to stairs handrail height to landing spacing between balusters. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two safety features in the design of an open riser stairs to ensure that the stairs is safe for all users. Terms HOME TOPIC

YEAR 1985 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Write a brief note to explain the following terms associated with building: (a) dB; (b) wall plug; (c) luminous flux; (d) glare; (e) roof verge; (f) resistivity. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1986 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Explain and give a brief account of the following terms associated with building: (i) Expanded polystyrene; (ii) reverberation time; (iii) daylight factor; (iv) vermiculite plaster; (v) newel post; (vi) window mullion. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1987 Higher Level Question 7 Q7

Explain and give a brief account of the following words and terms associated with building: (i) Transorne; (ii) bulldog connector; (iii) profiles; (iv) threshold; (v) conductivity (k); (vi) floating floor. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1989 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 Describe and where appropriate, illustrate with sketches any five of the following: (i) secret nailing; (ii) sleeper wall or dwarf wall;

(iii) boot lintel; (iv) eave of a pitched roof; (v) verge of a pitched roof; (vi) trimming; (vii) strutting. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 Explain what any five of the following are and where they might by suitably used. Where appropriate, illustrate your answer with sketches. (i) Heel block or spud block; (ii) boning rod; (iii) stepped foundation;

(iv) secondary circulation loop; (v) Deep seal trap; (vi) timber angle fillet and tilting fillet; (vii) common rafter. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Explain, with the aid of sketches, what any five of the following are and state where they might be suitably used: (i) Vapour barrier; (ii) Damp proof course; (iii) prestressed concrete lintel; (iv) stop cock;

(v) ball valve; (vi) compression joint. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q9 Explain briefly the purpose and nature of any five of the following: (a) vapour barrier; (d) purlin; (g) riser; (b) hardcore; (e) trimmer joist; (h) going. (c) strutting; (f) trimmed joist; 1993 Higher Level Question 9 HOME

TOPIC 1996 Higher Level Question 5 YEAR Q5 With the aid of neat sketches explain the procedure and method you would use when setting out a foundation for a garden wall to be built at right angles to the back wall of a dwelling. OR Write short notes on the following in terms in structural design (a) strength (b) stiffness (c) stability (d) imposed loads; (e) dead loads. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Explain briefly, with the aid of sketches where necessary, the purpose and nature of any FIVE of the following: (a) damp-proof membranes (D.P.M's); (b) vapour barriers; (e) hardcore; (d) lightweight aggregates; (e) concrete screeds; (f) rafters; (g) purlins; HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2000 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 Explain the importance of each of the following to ensure the production of good quality concrete: i. Aggregates; ii. Batching; iii. Water/cement ratio; iv. Placing; v. Compacting; vi. Curing. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2001 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 Explain in detail, using notes and where necessary sketches, each of the following terms as they apply to building technology: (i) Interstitial Condensation; (ii) Dew Point; (iii) Relative Humidity; (iv) Cavity Insulation; (v) Cold Bridge; (vi) Vapour Barrier. Water supply HOME TOPIC YEAR

1987 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A cold-water storage cistern is to be fitted above the ceiling of a pitched-roof dwelling. Draw to a scale of 1 : 10 a vertical section through this cistern showing tank supports, insulation and service pipes, stop cocks and ball valve. Typical dimensions should be noted. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1989 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 Draw a single line diagram of a typical cold water distribution system for a two-storey dwelling. Your diagram should be taken from the point of entry and show the supply to the sink, bath, basin and W.C. Name the components and fittings and give typical sizes for each section of pipework.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 With the aid of neat sketches, explain the difference between a direct and an indirect domestic hot water system. Give reasons why an indirect system is preferable to a direct system. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1993 Higher Level Question 3

Q3 A ball valve is constantly leaking. Give two reasons why this might occur and in each case explain how it might be remedied. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1999 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Draw, to a scale of 1:10, a vertical section through a cold water cistern placed above a ceiling in a pitched roof bungalow. Show details of tank supports, service pipes, ball valve, control valves and appropriate insulation. (Bungalow roof details are not required.) HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Draw a single line diagrammatic sketch of the cold water distribution system for a two-storey house. The diagram should show all the design details from the mains supply and include the distribution to the kitchen sink and bathroom. The bathroom includes: (i) water closet (WC); (ii) wash hand basin; (iii) bath. (b) Include in the proposed layout all the necessary valves and suggest suitable dimensions for all pipework. (c) Using notes and detailed freehand sketches, show two design details that regulate the level of water in the storage tank and explain the design principles of each. project

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1987 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 Write a brief essay on points of special interest noted by you in relation to your Construction Studies project, with particular reference to planning and conclusions. Freehand diagrams or sketches should be made. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 10

Q10 With the aid of sketches, describe briefly your Construction Studies project, with particular reference 'to planning and experiments. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 "When the main access to a people is through what they made rather than what they wrote, they become more real - closer, warm. They become simple, profound: contact with them is direct .... sincere ..." Frank Delaney, "The Celts". Discuss in relation to your Construction Studies project.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 " A bee puts to shame many an architect in the construction of her cells but what distinguishes the worst of architects from the best of bees is this, that the architect raises the structure in imagination before it is raised in reality." Karl Marx, "Das Capital. " Discuss in relation to your Construction Studies project. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1992 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 "All the clues necessary for building sensitively in the landscape are to be found in the many building traditions within an area These (building traditions) all have in common a timeless quality, an inevitability and sense of belonging which gives them presence and permanence in the landscape." Bord Faille An Taisce, "Building Sensitively in Ireland's Landscapes. " Discuss the above extract with reference to the external appearance of buildings OR, if appropriate in relation to your Construction Studies project. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1993 Higher Level Question 10

Q10 "Part of the art of dealing with wicked problems is in the art of not knowing too early which type of solution to apply." Ritter and Webel, "Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning. " Discuss in relation to your Construction Studies project. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 The designer works with four main elements: materials which are modified by processes. according to formal concepts. To fulfill specific purposes. Discuss in relation to your Construction Studies Project. Computers

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 (a) With the aid of sketches describe the main features of a computer system. (b) Recount the procedure required to enter and run a technical program you have used and outline what is happening at each stage. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1993 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Answer THREE of the following: (a) Explain briefly the difference between ROM and RAM. (b) Describe the following components of a computer system: (i) Memory; (ii) Disk drive (iii) Terminal. (c) Write brief notes on : (i) Operating system; (ii) Compiler; (iii) Editor. (d) Why is it important to improve a program's readability and how is it done? HOME TOPIC YEAR

1994 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 (a) Computing applications have currently reached an advanced state of development. Discuss the areas in which the Irish Construction Industry can make best use of modem computer facilities. (b) What are the benefits to the industry and to society of using these computer facilities? Electrical HOME TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 Describe and sketch the principal components of a typical domestic consumers electrical control

unit required by the Electrical Supply Board at the intake position. Include in your answer the various outgoing distribution circuits and discuss briefly, overload and fault conditions in a domestic systems. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Describe and illustrate a ring-main power circuit supplying socket outlets in a dwelling house HOME TOPIC YEAR

1992 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 (a) Write brief notes on electrical safety in the home. (b) Find the cost of electricity used in seven hours by four 100W lamps, a 3 KW immersion heater and a 120W television set when the cost of electricity is 7.5p per Unit (1 Unit = 1KW hour). (c) Recommend fuse sizes for the circuits supplying the above appliances and give reasons for your choice. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1995 Higher Level Question 5 Q5

(a) Sketch a typical ring main power electric circuit supplying socket outlets in a small single storey dwelling. (b) Define carefully what is meant by: (i) electrical voltage, current and power. (ii) overload and fault conditions in electrical systems. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1996 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 (a)Sketch a domestic ring main system of electrical wiring. (b)Discuss the precepts that govern the safety of ring mains in dwellings. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 With the aid of sketches, describe the principal components in a typical domestic consumer's electrical control unit at the intake position. The consumer wishes to have provision made for storage heating and for cooking as well as for all the normal household requirements. Explain the precepts that govern the safe distribution of electricity and with the aid of n at sketches describe three different outgoing distribution circuits. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2001 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 (a) Using notes and sketches, show the correct wiring for two sockets in a ring main circuit of a domestic electrical installation. (b) Describe, using notes and sketches, the principles of earthing in a domestic electrical installation. (c) List and explain three safety procedures regarding the use of electrical power tools out-of-doors. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2008 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, show the electrical wiring layout for two lights and two

switches in a radial circuit of a dwelling house. Indicate on the sketch the typical sizes and colour coding of the electric cables. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two safety features in the design of the lighting circuit that ensure that it is safe for all users. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two features that should be incorporated into the design of the lighting system of a dwelling house to ensure the economical use of electricity. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2012 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) Show, using notes and freehand sketches, the correct wiring layout for two electrical sockets in a ring mains circuit for a domestic electrical installation. Indicate on your sketch the sizes and the colour coding of all electrical cables used in the circuit.

(b) Show, using notes and freehand sketches, two safety features that should be incorporated into the design of the above circuit to ensure that the circuit is safe for all users. (c) Discuss in detail two strategies that would ensure the economical use of electricity in the home. Arches HOME TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) Describe, with the aid of sketches, two types of small span brick arches that might be used in a dwelling and state where each might be used. (b) Sketch a method of supporting one type of arch while it is being built.

Concrete HOME TOPIC YEAR Q2 In relation to concrete production explain in detail: (i) Water cement/ratio and its effects; (ii) graded aggregates; (iii) workability; (tv) standard field test for workability. 1986 Higher Level Question 2 HOME TOPIC

YEAR 1987 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Write detailed notes on the materials and methods of application for three types of concrete screed which may be applied to solid floors. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Concreting operations could be classified under the following headings: (a) Batching;

(b) mixing; (c) transportation; (d) placing; (e) compaction; (f) curing. Describe briefly how each of these operations should be carried out to ensure that the finished concrete is of high quality with regard to strength, appearance and resistance to frost. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Write brief notes on the following structural matters seen in the context or a domestic dwelling: (a) The principle of prestressing in concrete beams; (b) The cantilever;

(c) The middle-third rule; Include sketches as appropriate. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Stating clearly your assumptions derive from first principles an expression for the Moment of Resistance of a rectangular timber beam. Sketch the Bending Stress Diagram for the beam and indicate clearly the shape of the compression and tension zones and the location of the neutral axis. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 1995 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Draw a sketch of any type of crane or fork-lift truck you have seen on a construction site. Describe in outline how it functions and illustrate carefully the means by which the loads are transmitted through the machine to the earth. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a) Discuss the importance of the use of steel in the manufacture of reinforced concrete, with

reference to the: (i) strength properties of both materials; (ii) design considerations to avoid deterioration over time. (b) Describe in detail, using sketches and notes, three methods of combining concrete and steel in the manufacture of concrete lintels. (c) List one advantage of each method described (b). HOME TOPIC YEAR 2006 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 Investigations indicate that a site on which a house is to be built has a moderately firm clay subsoil. Consideration is being given to using either a traditional strip foundation or a raft foundation. (a) Show, with the aid of notes and freehand sketches, the design detailing for each type of

foundation listed above. Indicate typical dimensions for each foundation. (b) Recommend one of the above foundation types for the house and give two reasons in support of your recommendation. (c) Identify two factors that could adversely affect the strength of concrete in a foundation. Partitions HOME TOPIC YEAR 1995 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Compare an internal non-load bearing stud partition with a solid concrete block non-load bearing partition, with plaster finish to both. Refer to the general construction involved, from ground floor to first floor level, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type of

partition. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1996 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Draw, to a scale of 1 : 10, a longitudinal section to show the constructional details of a nonIoadbearing stud partition, 4.20m long by 2.40m high to be constructed up-stairs between a bedroom and a bathroom. Name, and give suitable dimensions for, all component parts and suggest suitable coverings for the partition giving reasons for your choices. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1999 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Discuss typical functional requirements of stud partitions suitable for a dwelling and indicate how these requirements are met. Illustrate your answer with examples of stud partition construction. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 2 Q9 A loadbearing, timber stud partition with a plaster finish separates a dining room and a living room in the ground floor of a two storey house. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, describe in detail, the construction of the partition.

(b) Show clearly the design details necessary to accommodate a standard flush panel door. (c) Label and give the sizes of each of the components of the partition. (d) Discuss in detail the advantages and disadvantages of using either a timber stud partition or a concrete block partition wall. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 The sketch shows a new dwelling house with a slated roof pitched at 45 degrees. The roof is a traditional cut roof and is designed to incorporate bedroom accommodation within the attic space. The house has an internal width of 7.0 metres. The external walls supporting the flooring joists

are standard 300mm concrete block walls with insulated cavity. The joists are also supported internally on a centrally located load bearing concrete block wall. (a) To a scale of 1:20 draw a vertical section through the roof structure. Show the constructional details from the bottom of the wall plates to the top of the ridge board. (It is not necessary to show slating or window details) (b) To provide natural light to the bedrooms in the attic space, a choice must be made to fit either pitched dormer windows or roof light windows. State two arguments in favour of fitting dormer windows and two arguments in favour of fitting roof light windows. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 A new two-storey house has load-bearing and non load-bearing timber stud partitions. The

house has a solid concrete ground floor and a suspended timber first floor. (a) Using notes and detailed freehand sketches, compare the design detailing for the construction of each of the following: (i) a load-bearing partition to support the first floor joists; (ii) a non load-bearing partition on the first floor. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two design details that ensure that the transmission of sound is reduced through the stud partition constructed on the first floor. Wood HOME TOPIC YEAR 1985 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Explain fully three methods of preserving softwoods for use in dwellings. Discuss the advantages

and disadvantages of each and list the chemicals employed. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q4 Describe: (i) three main causes of decay in softwoods used in (ii) how this decay can be prevented. 1987 Higher Level Question 4 dwellings; HOME TOPIC

YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 A timber ground floor in a terrace house has been affected by dry rot. Describe: (i) the procedures necessary to make good the floor; (ii) the remedial work necessary to prevent a recurrence of the problem. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (a) Describe, with sketches if required, the process of seasoning and the methods of conversion of timber.

(b) Discuss the common diseases and defects which occur in timber. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 List the most common defects found in (a) timber and (b) concrete flat roofs and describe with the aid of sketches how they may be avoided. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1994 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a) Describe three causes of decay in softwoods used in buildings and the conditions likely in each case to lead to the development of decay. (b) Describe in detail two methods of treating timber with preservative and comment on the protection they give. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1997 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 In one and two storey domestic construction timber may be used in many parts of the building. Select TWO elements of house construction, one external and one internal, where timber is used and describe the measures that should be taken in each case to prevent premature

deterioration. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Describe, with the aid of sketches, the separate and combined underground drainage systems. Discuss briefly the advantage and disadvantages of each system. OR Describe, with the aid of sketches, TWO methods of treating softwood timber so as to prevent its decay when it is used in building construction. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each method. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1999 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) Discuss the problem of condensation in modern houses. What causes it and how can it be cured? (b) Describe measures that can be taken at the design stage to reduce the risk of condensation. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 8 Q8

It is proposed to extend the kitchen area of an existing two-storey house. This requires the construction of a timber flat roof to the extension. The external wall of the house is a 300mm insulated cavity wall. (a) To a scale of 1:5, show the design details of the roof construction at: (i) eaves level, showing how the rainwater is to be removed. (ii) the abutment of the flat roof with the wall of the existing house. (b) Using notes and sketches show two design considerations in the roof construction which prevent the occurrence of: (i) Condensation within the roof structure; (ii) Decay of the roof timbers. HOME TOPIC 2003 Higher Level YEAR Q4

Q9 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q9 2003 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 Poor design detailing may result in the occurrence of both dry rot and wet rot in a domestic dwelling. (a) Outline the conditions necessary for the development of each type of rot. (b) Select one location in a domestic dwelling where dry rot may occur and, using notes and sketches, show how the rot may be eliminated. (c) Using notes and sketches, show the design detailing that would prevent the occurrence of

dry rot at the selected location. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q4 2003 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 A storm proof casement window made from softwood is located in an external wall and provides natural lighting to a kitchen area. (a) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, two design details that ensure that the window is weather proof. (b) Discuss two advantages and two disadvantages of using softwood in the manufacture of windows.

(c) An illuminance of 300 lux is required on a working plane in the kitchen. The daylight factor at a point on the working plane in the kitchen is 5%. Show by calculation if the illuminance is sufficient, assuming an unobstructed view and the illuminance of a standard overcast sky to be 5000 lux. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 The roof of a domestic dwelling house built in the 1970s is insulated with a 100mm glass fibre quilt placed between the ceiling joists. It has been decided to increase the level of insulation in the roof to achieve a Uvalue of 0.16 W/m2 C. This U value may be achieved by either: (i) increasing the thickness of glass fibre or (ii) using urethane board. Thermal data:

U-value of the existing roof 0.35 W/m2 C. Conductivity of glass fibre quilt (k) 0.04 W/m C. Conductivity of urethane board (k) 0.023 W/m C. (a) Calculate the thickness of the (i) glass fibre quilt and (ii) urethane board required to achieve the U-value of 0.16 W/m2 C. (b) Evaluate both methods of insulation listed at (i) and (ii) above. Based on this evaluation recommend a preferred method of insulation. (c) Using notes and sketches, show two design details that ensure adequate ventilation of the roof space is maintained when the additional insulation is put in place. Drainage HOME TOPIC YEAR 1985 Higher Level Question 9

Q9 Sketch the single-stack system of above ground drainage and describe its operation. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1986 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) With the aid of a comprehensive sketch or vertical section, show the design and operation of a separate foul drainage system for a single dwelling from the manhole at the septic tank up to the ventilation pipe. The system is to serve a two-storey dwelling that has a W.C., bath and wash-basin on the first floor and a sink and washbasin on the ground floor. (b) Explain: (i) induced siphonage;

(ii) back pressure. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Describe how syphonage may occur in above ground drainage systems. Illustrate your answer with reference to the single stack system of above ground drainage HOME TOPIC YEAR

1991 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Sketch a piping lay-out suitable for a single-stack system of above-ground drainage in a domestic dwelling. Describe the operation of the system. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Sketch a system of rainwater disposal from a slated pitched roof and make a list of the component parts of the system. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1993 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 Sketch a longitudinal section through a septic tank to serve a domestic installation for four people. Give the dimensions of the tank, the materials of construction and brief details of how the tank works. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1994 Higher Level Question 8 Q8

(a) Describe, using sketches, the principles which govern the design of a single stack system of drainage. (b) Comment specifically on two problems which may be encountered in such a system. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1996 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 The following are considered to be essential requirements for a satisfactory underground drainage installation: (a) watertightness; (b) durability; (c) non-blocking; (d) ease of maintenance. Discuss each in turn and state how these desirable characteristics can be achieved in below

ground drainage design and installation. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Describe, with the aid of sketches, the separate and combined underground drainage systems. Discuss briefly the advantage and disadvantages of each system. OR Describe, with the aid of sketches, TWO methods of treating softwood timber so as to prevent its decay when it is used in building construction. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each method. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1999 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 Draw or sketch, to a scale of 1:10, a plan and longitudinal section through an inspection chamber/manhole. The internal size is 900 mm x 900 mm and the depth from the top of the cover to the invert level is 1500 mm. Show a 150 mm diameter channel through the chamber and one 100 mm branch entering from one side. All pipes are uPVC. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2000 Higher Level Question 2

Q2 (a)Draw a plan of the layout of a bathroom showing the position of the following appliances and the associated pipework for the disposal of waste: (i) Water closet (WC); (ii) Wash hand basin; (iii) Bath. (b) Indicate on you r drawing the location of a door and window and give reasons for your choice of location. (c) Using notes and sketches, describe the design details that ensure the safe disposal of waste from each of the appliances listed at (a) HOME TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Sewage treatment and disposal are to be provided for a new house, situated in a rural area.

(a) Discuss in detail four considerations that must be fulfilled to ensure that the site is suitable for the location of a sewage treatment unit. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, explain in detail three considerations in the design of a septic tank system that ensure the safe processing and disposal of waste. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 Inadequate treatment and disposal of sewage creates environmental and health hazards. (a) Describe three hazards that could occur in a sewage treatment and disposal system of an individual house, situated in a rural area, if the system is not properly designed. (b) Using notes and sketches show how proper design detailing would prevent each of the hazards described at (a) above. (c) Outline three considerations to be taken into account when selecting a site for a house in a

rural area to ensure that the site is suitable for the proper treatment and disposal of sewage. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 A properly designed and constructed sewerage system is essential for the safe removal of waste from a domestic dwelling. (a) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, three necessary considerations in the design and installation of a sewerage system from a domestic dwelling to either the main sewer or septic tank. (b) The accompanying sketch shows a house situated on a sloping site. When designing the sewerage system a backdrop manhole is

necessary to achieve the correct gradient. To a scale of 1:10, draw a sectional elevation through the backdrop manhole. The depth from the top of the manhole to the invert level is 1800mm. Show and label all necessary design details. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2006 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 A single stack system is commonly used to discharge soil and waste from a domestic dwelling. (a) Show, with the aid of notes and detailed sketches, a typical layout of a single stack system for a bathroom, situated at first floor level of a dwelling house. Show two design considerations relating to the location of the bathroom fittings and include the typical sizes of all waste pipes.

(b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two design details that ensure the pipework in an underground drainage system is watertight. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches, outline one test that may be carried out on an underground drainage system to determine if the pipework is watertight. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2008 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 A main bathroom, as shown in the sketch, is located on the first floor of a dwelling house. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches show two design considerations that should be taken into account when locating the bathroom on the first floor of a dwelling house. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches show the

above-ground pipework necessary for the safe discharge of waste from the following fittings: wash hand basin bath. Include in your sketch typical sizes of the waste pipe for each fitting. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches show the design detailing necessary to prevent the penetration of sewer gases into the bathroom at the W.C. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2009 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 (a) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, three functional requirements of a wastewater treatment system suitable for the on-site treatment of sewage from a single house.

(b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show the plan of a typical on-site wastewater treatment system for a single house. Include three main dimensions in your sketch. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches, describe one test that is carried out to determine if a site is suitable for an on-site treatment system. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2010 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 (a) Discuss, using notes and freehand sketches, three functional requirements of a below ground drainage system to ensure the safe removal of sewage from a domestic dwelling. (b) The accompanying sketch shows the location of a manhole at the intersection of a branch drain and a main drain in a below ground drainage system for a domestic dwelling. Using notes and freehand

sketches, show the typical construction details through the manhole from the foundation to the manhole cover. Indicate on the sketch the typical dimensions. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches, describe in detail one test that may be carried out to ensure that the below ground drainage system is watertight. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2012 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 The typical layout of an on-site wastewater treatment system suitable for a single house is shown in the accompanying drawing. (a) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, the operating principles of a conventional septic tank system.

(b) Show, using notes and freehand sketches, the typical design detailing for the percolation area to ensure the safe treatment of waste from the septic tank. Include dimensions as appropriate. (c) Discuss in detail three reasons why a proposed site for a dwelling house may be unsuitable for a conventional septic tank wastewater treatment system. Restoration HOME TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 2

Q2 Describe how you would undertake a condition survey of a two-storey house. List the headings under which the building should be examined and indicate where you would expect problems to occur. HOME TOPIC 1994 Higher Level YEAR Q4 Q10 HOME TOPIC

YEAR Q10 1994 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 Make a list of twenty or more relevant headings under which a 70 year old two storey house should be surveyed to establish its overall condition. Discuss the major defects you might expect to find. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q4

1994 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 A building of architectural merit is threatened with destruction by motorway construction. What arguments might be presented: (a) against its preservation; (b) in favour of its preservation? HOME TOPIC 1995 Higher Level YEAR Q7 Q10 HOME

TOPIC YEAR Q10 1995 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Describe the changes in external appearance likely to occur in a building over a period of years and give examples of various causes of change. Assess how far regular maintenance and cleaning can modify such changes in appearance. OR Describe the characteristic stages in a general process of 'design'. How can this process be applied to the solution of building problems? HOME TOPIC

YEAR Q7 1995 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 "Iron is the most precious of all the metals and civilised mankind would probably feel its absence more than that of all the so-called precious metals. Comment on this statement with particular reference to the use of iron and iron products in the building industry. HOME TOPIC 1999 Higher Level Question 10 YEAR Q10

"The form. material and construction methods of older buildings illustrate the ecological adaptation of rural society to its varied environments and closely reflect traditional economic and social structures. Newer buildings reflect the rapid pace of recent social change in the countryside, many showing a sharp break with earlier forms and building materials and lacking regional distinctiveness." "Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape." Discuss. OR "Nature, time, incompetence, human folly and greed conspire to tear down structures mankind has spent so much time, love, thought and energy to put up." Levy and Salvadori, "Why Buildings Fall Down". Discuss. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2000 Higher Level Question 10 Q10 Domestic architecture often combines one or two styles, or is varied or adapted locally depending on the climate, location, materials available, the skills of the builder and works, economic status, lifestyle, social concerns or restraints and fashion Hearthstone (1993) Caneta S Hankins Discuss. OR A disused church, situated in an urban area, in threatened with demolition and is to be replaced with an office block. What arguments might be presented: (a) In favour of construction the office block; (b) In favour of the preservation of the church? HOME TOPIC 2001 Higher Level

YEAR Q8 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10 2001 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 A single-storey traditional dwelling house, over 100 years old, has thick stone walls, a slate roof, wooden doors and windows and solid floors. The house is in need of repair and it has been decided to undertake essential renovations.

(a) Make a checklist of four renovations you expect would be needed in a house of this age. (b) Describe, using notes and sketches, how each of these renovations could be carried out in a manner which would respect the age and character of the original house. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2001 Higher Level Question 10 Q8 Q10 Our countryside buildings should not be taken for granted. They deserve far more study and their appropriate use of materials, their sympathy for the landscape and their human scale deserve appreciation, for they are distinctively Irish and a significant part of our architectural and cultural heritage.

. Irish Countryside Buildings (1985) : P & M Shaffrey Discuss. OR A listed building of unique architectural importance which was subject to a preservation order, has been demolished. The owner has offered to reconstruct the building as close as possible to the original, using some materials salvaged from the demolition. What arguments might be presented: (a) in favour of the reconstruction of the building (b) in favour of an alternative approach, not involving the reconstruction of the building? HOME TOPIC 1994 Higher Level YEAR

Q3 Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10 2003 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 The sketch shows a terrace of townhouses built over one hundred years ago. It has been decided to carry out essential repairs to one of the houses. A survey of the house reveals: (i) Original natural slate and rafters; (ii) Softwood fascia and soffit;

(iii) Original cast-iron rainwater gutters; (iv) Traditional softwood sliding sash windows; (v) Random rubble stone walls with weathered sand/cement render. (a) Select three areas that may be in need of repair in a house of this age and for each of the areas selected give two reasons why you consider the repairs may be necessary. (b) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, how each of the three repairs could be carried out in a manner that would respect the character of the original terrace and that would also ensure that waste is kept to a minimum. HOME TOPIC YEAR Q3

Q10 Vernacular styles of buildings exist all over the world. These styles are characterised by their simplicity, by their use of local materials and by the ease with which they can be constructed. The knowledge required for the creation of such buildings was long regarded as common knowledge and freely available to all. The decline of the vernacular tradition with its simple forms and its accessibility to people has resulted in the loss of the knowledge and skills needed to design and construct small buildings, especially the buildings in which people live their homes. Be Your Own Architect (1992) : Peter Cowman. Discuss. 2003 Higher Level Question 10 HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, describe the application of an external render to the walls a new house of concrete block construction. Give details of materials, mix proportions and sequence of coats required. (b) The original external render of an old house is to be removed to reveal solid stone walls of random rubble construction, as shown on the sketch. The owner has the option of either leaving the external stonework exposed or of replastering the walls. Outline two reasons in favour of each option listed above. Recommend a preferred option and give two reasons to support your recommendation. (c) If the house is to be replastered, a 1 lime : 3 sand mix is recommended for the external render. Give two reasons why such a mix is recommended for this house.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 A small rural dwelling house in the vernacular tradition, built in the 1950s, is shown in the accompanying sketch. As part of a general restoration of the house it has been decided to renew the roof of the house and to incorporate bedroom accommodation within the attic space. A survey of the house reveals: Traditional cut roof with original natural slate; Softwood fascia and soffit; External uninsulated cavity walls of concrete block construction; Solid block internal walls.

(a) Using notes and detailed freehand sketches, show the constructional details of the roof structure to facilitate bedroom accommodation within the attic space. Indicate sizes for all roofing components. Show details of the insulation requirements for bothwalls and roof. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, outline one method of providing natural light to the bedrooms in the attic space in a manner that will respect the character of the original house. Discuss two advantages of your preferred method of providing natural light to the bedrooms. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2007 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 A house over 100 years old, in the vernacular tradition, is shown. A survey of the house indicates three areas in need of immediate repair: Roof: traditional cut roof with natural slates;

Windows: single-glazed, painted softwood, sliding sash; External walls: thick random rubble stone walls with a lime render. (a) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, how repairs to each area listed above could be carried out in a manner that respects the character of the original house. (b) Describe, using notes and freehand sketches, how repairs to the roof and windows could be carried out in a manner that ensures the reuse of materials so that that waste is kept to a minimum. Air HOME TOPIC YEAR 2009 Higher Level Question 9

Q9 Careful design detailing is required to improve the air-tightness performance of a dwelling house. (a) Identify three possible air leakage routes in a dwelling house and, with the aid of notes and freehand sketches, show clearly the correct design detailing that will improve the air-tightness level at each air leakage route identified. (b) Discuss in detail two advantages of improving the air-tightness performance of a dwelling house. HOME TOPIC 2010 Higher Level YEAR Q9

Q10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q10 Q9 (a) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, three functional requirements of an attic space suitable for use as a living area. (b) The sketch shows the outline of an attic space in a new house. Identify two possible air leakage routes in the attic space. Using notes and freehand sketches, show clearly the correct design detailing that will improve the airtightness level at each air leakage route identified. Specify the materials used to achieve satisfactory airtightness levels.

(c) Discuss two advantages of improved airtightness in the attic space. 2010 Higher Level Question 9 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q9 Q10 (b) The layout of a Mechanical Heat Recovery with Ventilation system (MHRV) for a Passive House is shown in the accompanying sketch. Explain, using notes and freehand sketches, the operating principles of such a system and discuss two advantages of this system for a

Passive House. (c) Show, using notes and freehand sketches, two design details that would help prevent the possible overheating of a Passive House in summer. 2010 Higher Level Question 10 HOME TOPIC YEAR Q9 Designing for airtightness presents one of the most challenging aspects of contemporary house design. (a) Discuss in detail the importance of careful design detailing in improving the airtightness performance of a dwelling house. (b) The drawing shows an outline section through a portion of

a single storey house of timber frame construction. The outer leaf is of rendered concrete block and the ground floor is an insulated solid concrete floor. Select any three locations from those circled on the sketch and show, using notes and freehand sketches, the typical design detailing which will prevent air leakage at each of the locations selected. (c) Discuss the advantages of including a service cavity in an external wall of timber frame construction, as shown in the accompanying sketch. 2012Higher Level Question 9 Insulation HOME TOPIC YEAR

1997 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) What is the function of the thermal insulation? (b) Illustrate the locations where thermal insulation should be provided in a domestic house. Suggest types and thickness of thermal insulation which could successfully be used in each location mentioned and show how the insulation is protected from dampness. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 A house built twenty five years ago has an external cavity wall built to the following specification: Outer Leaf: 100mm concrete block with 19mm cement rendering.

Cavity: 100mm uninsulated Inner Leaf: 100mm concrete block with 16mm plaster finish. Wall data: Thermal conductivity of the rendering and the plaster is 0.46W/m C. Conductivity of the blockwork is 1.44W/m C. Resistance of the external surface is 0.055m C/W. Resistance of the internal surface is 0.123m C/W. Resistance of the cavity is 0.18m C/W. (a) Calculate the U-value of the wall. (b) A proposed extension to the house is to have external walls of similar construction to the original, with the addition of expanded polystyrene insulation in the cavity. Calculate the thickness of insulation needed to achieve the U-value of 0.45W/m C, given the thermal conductivity, (k-value) of expanded polystyrene is 0.033W/m C. (c) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, two methods that might be employed to reduce the thermal transmittance coefficient, U-value, of the existing walls. HOME

TOPIC YEAR Part B 2003 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 A dwelling house built in the 1970s has external walls with uninsulated cavities. The owner has decided to insulate the walls of the house. The external walls have the following specification: Outer leaf: 100mm brick; Cavity: 75mm without insulation; Inner leaf: 100mm concrete block with 16mm plaster finish. Thermal data of wall: Conductivity of brickwork (k) 1.320 W/m C Conductivity of blockwork (k) 1.440 W/m C

Conductivity of plaster (k) 0.430 W/m C Resistance of the external surface (R) 0.048 m2 C/W Resistance of the internal surface (R) 0.122 m2 C/W Resistance of the cavity (R) 0.170 m2 C/W. (a) Calculate the U-value of the wall. HOME TOPIC YEAR Part A 2003 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (b) The owner may choose either of the following methods to increase the insulation properties of the walls: (i) filling the cavity with urea formaldehyde foam or

(ii) fixing insulated plasterboard sheeting to the inside wall surfaces. The insulated sheeting consists of 50mm rigid urethane and 12.5mm plasterboard. Calculate the U-value for each of the above options given the following thermal data: Conductivity of urea formaldehyde foam (k) 0.040 W/m C Conductivity of rigid urethane (k) 0.023 W/m C Conductivity of plasterboard (k) 0.160 W/m C (c) Evaluate both methods of insulation listed at (b) above, recommend a preferred method and give two reasons to support your recommendation. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 5

Q5 The roof of a domestic dwelling house built in the 1970s is insulated with a 100mm glass fibre quilt placed between the ceiling joists. It has been decided to increase the level of insulation in the roof to achieve a Uvalue of 0.16 W/m2 C. This U value may be achieved by either: (i) increasing the thickness of glass fibre or (ii) using urethane board. Thermal data: U-value of the existing roof 0.35 W/m2 C. Conductivity of glass fibre quilt (k) 0.04 W/m C. Conductivity of urethane board (k) 0.023 W/m C. (a) Calculate the thickness of the (i) glass fibre quilt and (ii) urethane board required to achieve the U-value of 0.16 W/m2 C. (b) Evaluate both methods of insulation listed at (i) and (ii) above. Based on this evaluation recommend a preferred method of insulation. (c) Using notes and sketches, show two design details that ensure adequate ventilation of the roof space is maintained when the additional insulation is put in place. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2007 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (b) Using the following data, calculate the cost of the heat lost annually through the un-insulated external wall: Area of external wall 145 m2 Average internal temperature 18 C Average external temperature 5 C U-value of wall as calculated at (a) above Heating period 10 hours per day for 42 weeks per annum Cost of oil

68 cent per litre Calorific value of oil 37350 kj per litre 1000 Watts = 1kj per second. (c) It is proposed to insulate the external walls of the house to improve their U-value. Using notes and freehand sketches, show one method of insulating the external walls to meet the requirements of the current Building Regulations. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2008 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 Poor design detailing or workmanship can result in the formation of thermal (cold) bridges, causing

significant heat loss through the external fabric of a building. (a) Outline three areas in a dwelling house where thermal bridges are likely to occur and using notes and freehand sketches, show the correct design detailing which will prevent the formation of thermal bridges in each location outlined. (b) A house built in the 1980s has 50 mm expanded polystyrene insulation in the cavity of the external wall. Using notes and freehand sketches, show two methods of upgrading the thermal properties of the external envelope of the house to meet the requirements of the current Building Regulations. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2009 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 A new house with an internal width of 7.0 metres, has a traditional cut roof which is slated and

has a pitch of 45 degrees, as shown in the accompanying sketch. The roof is designed to incorporate bedroom accommodation in the attic space. The external wall supporting the floor joists of the attic is of timber frame construction with a concrete block outer leaf. The floor joists are supported internally on a centrally located load-bearing wall. (a) To a scale of 1:10 draw a vertical section through one half of the roof structure from eaves to ridge, showing one external wall and one rafter length. Show all the construction details from 400 mm below the floor joists to the ridge and include three courses of slate at eaves. Include four typical dimensions of the roof structure. (b) Indicate clearly on the drawing the design detailing to show the continuity of insulation from the wall to the roof structure. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2010 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 The external wall of a dwelling house built in the 1970s is a 300 mm concrete block wall with 40 mm expanded polystyrene insulation in the cavity. It has been decided to upgrade the thermal properties of the external wall by using either: an internal insulation system or an external insulation system. (a) For each of the insulation systems outlined above, show using notes and freehand sketches, one method of applying the insulation material. For each insulation system, include the following in your sketches: method of fixing insulation material and its thickness surface finish. (b) Discuss in detail two advantages of each system of insulation and recommend a preferred system of insulation for the house outlined above. Site Safety

HOME TOPIC YEAR 2006 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 (a) Identify two possible risks to personal safety associated with each of the following: (i) Scaffolding; (ii) Deep Excavation; (iii) Use of electrical tools out-of-doors. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches as appropriate, outline two specific safety precautions that demonstrate best practice in order to eliminate each risk identified at (a) above. (c) Under the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Regulations, it is compulsory for employers to have a safety statement. Discuss in detail two benefits of such a safety statement for employees in the construction industry. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2007 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 (a) Identify two possible risks to personal safety associated with each of the following: (i) Slating a steeply pitched roof of a two storey house; (ii) Working around a stairwell prior to having the stairs fitted; (iii) Placing a ladder against a scaffold. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, discuss in detail two safety precautions that should be observed to eliminate each risk outlined at (a) above. (c) Discuss in detail three reasons that make a construction site a high risk area for accidents at work. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 2008 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 (a) Identify two possible risks to personal safety associated with each of the following: (i) fitting a concrete window cill on the second storey of a dwelling house; (ii) laying pipes in a deep trench; (iii) excavating in an area where there are underground electrical cables. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches as appropriate, outline two safety procedures that should be observed to eliminate each risk identified at (a) above. (c) Discuss in detail two reasons why younger workers are more vulnerable to accidents on construction sites and suggest three strategies to encourage a safety culture in younger workers. Fire Prevention HOME TOPIC

YEAR Q9 The accompanying sketch shows two semi-detached houses. (a) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two design details that would help restrict the spread of fire between the houses. (b) Using notes and freehand sketches, show two design details that would facilitate escape from a domestic dwelling in the event of an outbreak of fire. (c) A smoke detection system is compulsory in all new residential dwellings. Outline two considerations to be observed when fitting a smoke detection system in a house. 2006 Higher Level Question 9 Money HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2000 Higher Level Question 9 Q9 (a) Many factors have to be taken into account when borrowing money to purchase an apartment or house. Discuss the importance of each of the following: (i) sources of finance; (ii) deposit; (iii) criteria for qualification for a loan/mortgage; (iv) types of insurance required. (b) Compare the merits of buying a new house with the merits of buying a second-hand house for the first time purchasers. U values HOME TOPIC

YEAR 1985 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 A flat roof consists of 20 mm thick asphalt on 80 mm thick aerated concrete on 140 mm thick concrete slab finished on its soffit with 13 mm thick plaster. Calculate the U-valve for this roof: Resistivity of asphalt 1.2 m degrees C/W aerated concrete 4.1 m degrees C/W concrete 0.714 m degrees C/W Plaster 2.18 m degrees C/W Inside surface resistance 0.11 m2 degrees C/W Outside surface resistance 0.07 m2 degrees CIW

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1986 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 Determine the thermal transmittance value of a 220 thick block wall between a living room and a store. The wall is plastered 13 mm thick on the room side only. The ambient temperature difference is 15 degree C and the resistivities of the materials are: internal surface resistances 0.11 m2 degree C/W plaster 2.200 m degree CIW concrete block 0.715 m degree C/W HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1988 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 Calculate the "U" value of a cavity wall with a 100 mm outer leaf of facing brick, a 50 mm cavity and a 100 mm inner leaf of aerated concrete blocks and 15mm coat lightweight plaster. The wall is finished internally with 1.27 dry lining on 50 x 25 battens with an infilling of 25 mm expanded polystyrene. Facing bricks resistivity 0.714 m degree C/W Aerated concrete block resistivity 4.545 m degree C/W Lightweight plaster resistivity 6.25 m degree C/W

external surface resistance resistance 0.053 m2 degreeC/W internal surface resistance resistance 0.123 m2 degreeC/W Cavity resistance resistance 0.176 W/m degree C. Plasterboard conductivity 0.016 W/m degree C. Expanded polystyrene conductivity 0.033 W/m degree C. Ignore the timber battens. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1989 Higher Level Question 3

Q8 (a) A bungalow which was constructed in 1940 has a pitched roof covered with 20 mm thick concrete roof tiles, with loft space below, and 12.7 mm thick plasterboard ceiling insulated with 100 mm glass wool. Calculate the "U" value using the following data: External surface resistance of tiles 0.053 m 2 degree C/W Internal surface resistance of tiles 0.123 m 2 degree CIW Gross loft space resistance inclusive of all factor 0.176 m 2 degree C/W Concrete tiles conductivity 0.833 W/m degree C Glass wool conductivity 0.033 W/m degree C Plasterboard conductivity 0.160 W/m degree C (b)What thickness of glass wool should be added to the ceiling if a "U" value of 0.2 W/m degree C is required for the roof? HOME

TOPIC YEAR 1990 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 (a) The living room of a house contains a single glazed window 1.65m high x 3.0m long. Calculate: (i) the new U value for the window; (ii) the rate of heat loss through the window when the internal temperature is 20 degrees C and the external temperature is - 1 degree C. (b) If the single glazing is replaced by double glazing using the same type of glass with a 12.7 mm air space between the panes, find: (i) the new U value of the window; '. (ii) the new rate of heat loss assuming the same temperature difference.

Data: Glass (5mm thick) Conductivity = 1.022 W/m degree C Air Conductivity = 0.028 W/m degree C internal surface Resistance = 0.123m2 degree C/W external surface Resistance = 0.053 m2 degree C/W HOME TOPIC YEAR 1991 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 (a) Calculate the "u" value of a cavity wall with a 100mm outer leaf of facing bricks, a 50mm

cavity and a 100mm inner leaf of aerated concrete blocks finished with a 15mm coat of lightweight plaster. (b) If the internal plaster is replaced by a dry lining of 12.7mm foil backed plasterboard bonded directly to the concrete block work wall, what could be the new "u" value of the wall? Data: Facing bricks Conductivity = 1.40 W/m degree C Aerated concrete blocks Conductivity = 0.22 W/m degree C Lightweight plaster Conductivity = 0.16 W/m degree C Internal surface Resistance 0.12 m2 degree C/W External surface Resistance 0.05 m2 degree C/W Cavity Resistance 0.18 m2 degree C/W Foil backed plasterboard Resistance 0.48 m2 degree C/W

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1992 Higher Level Question 3 Q3 (a) A bungalow has an uninsulated timber and felt flat roof 125 sq. m in area. Using the following data, calculate the annual cost of heat loss through the roof. Data: Heating time = 12 hours per day: 7 days per week: 40 weeks per year. Average internal temperature = 18 degrees C Average external temperature = 16 degrees C U value of roof = 1.0 W/m2 degrees C Calorific value of oil = 37350 kJ per litre. Cost of oil = 23p per litre. (1000 Watts = 1 kJ per second) (b) Describe, with the aid of detailed sketches, how heat loss through the roof could be reduced.

HOME TOPIC YEAR 1993 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (a) A flat roof has a 150 mm thick concrete slab finished with 20 mm of asphalt on a 70 mm lightweight concrete screed. The soffit of the slab is plastered 15 mm thick. From the following data calculate the U value of the roof: Asphalt resistivity = 1.20 m degree C/W Lightweight concrete resistivity = 1.96 m degree C/W Concrete slab resistivity = 0.69 m degree C/W Plaster

resistivity = 2.17 m degree C/W Internal surface resistance = 0.104 m2 degree C/W External surface resistance = 0.403 m2 degree C/W (b) Describe briefly, with the aid of sketches, a method of improving the U value of the following existing building structures: (i) a solid brick wall; (ii) a cavity wall. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1994 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 Give an illustrated account of the three principal modes of heat transfer with particular

reference to cavity wall construction. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1995 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 (a) Calculate from the data below the "U" value of an insulated cavity wall consisting of a 100mm lightweight concrete block inner leaf plastered 15 mm thick, a 50mm cavity filled with foam insulation and a 100mm dense concrete block outer leaf with 20mm rendering. Lightweight concrete block resistivity = 4.55m C/W Dense concrete block resistivity = 1.19m C/W Internal plaster resistivity = 6.25m C/W

External rendering resistivity = 2.00m C/W Cavity insulation resistivity = 28.57m C/W Internal surface resistance = O.123m2 C/W External surface resistance = 0.053m 2 C/W (b) Explain carefully the mechanisms by which the internal environment is warmed when the following are used: (i) a traditional electric fire; (ii) a pressed steel central-heating radiator; (iii) solar radiation entering through a window; (iv) a fan-assisted electric heater. HOME TOPIC YEAR

1996 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 (a) Calculate the U value of an external cavity wall which is constructed of 100mm thick brick outer leaf rendered 19mm thick, a 100mm thick concrete block inner leaf plastered 13mm thick and a 100mm wide cavity. Use the following data: External Surface Resistance (R) 0.053 m2 C/W Internal Surface Resistance (R) 0.123 m2 C/W Cavity Resistance (R) 0.176 m2 C/W Conductivity of brick (k) 0.084 W/m C Conductivity of concrete block (k) 1.44 W/m C Conductivity of plaster/render (k) 0.48 W/m C (b) What thickness of expanded polystyrene should be added in order to satisfy Building Regulations

requirements of 0.45 W/m2 C? The resistivity of the expanded polystyrene is 28.6 m C/W. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1997 Higher Level Question 5 (a) Calculate the rate of heat loss per sq.m. through an uninsulated cavity wall of an older house constructed of a 100 mm facing brick outer leaf and a 10Dmm common brick inner leaf plastered 20 mm thick with a 50 mm wide cavity. Use the following data: Internal surface resistance 0.123m2C/W External surface resistance 0. 053m2 C/W Internal temperature 21.0C

External temperature 1.0C Plaster conductivity (k) 0.50 W/m C Facing brick conductivity (k) 1.47 W/C Common brick conductivity (k) 121 W/m C Cavaty resistance (R) 0.176m2CIW (b) Explain three of the following terms relating to thermal insulation calculations. (i) Conductivity. (ii) Resistivity. (iii) Resistance. (iv) Conductance. (v) Transmittance. HOME TOPIC

YEAR 1998 Higher Level Question 6 Q6 (a) From first principles, explain the reasoning behind the Units used to measure each of the following heat properties of building materials: resistivity, resistance, conductivity and U-value (b) Calculate the U-value of a cavity wall which has a 100 mm facing brick outer skin, a 50 mm cavity and a 100 mm lightweight concrete block inner leaf. The wall is finished internally with a 12.7 mm plasterboard on 26 mm thick battens with an infilling of 25 mm expanded polystyrene. Use the following data: Facing brick Resistivity 0.714 mC/W Lightweight concrete block Resistivity 4.545 mC/W External surface resistance Resistance 0.053 m2C/W

Internal surface resistance Resistance 0.123 m2C/W Cavity resistance Resistance 0.176 m2Cm Plasterboard Conductivity 0.016 W/mC Expanded polystyrene Conductivity 0.033 W/mC Ignore the timber battens. HOME TOPIC YEAR 1999 Higher Level Question 2 Q2 (a)Calculate the 'U' value of a cavity wall which has a 100 mm facing brick outer skin, a 100 mm

cavity partially filled with 35 mm thick urethane insulation boards and a 100 mm aerated concrete block inner leaf. The wall is finished internally with lightweight plaster 15 mm thick. Use the following data: Facing brick Conductivity 1.400 W/mC Aerated concrete block Conductivity 0.220 W/mC External surface Resistance 0.053 m2C/W Internal surface Resistance0.123m2C/W Cavity Resistance0.176m2C/W Lightweight plaster Conductivity0.160 W/moc Urethane boards Conductivity1.33 W/moc (b)What will be the effect on the 'U' value of the wall if the urethane insulation board is removed and the cavity is completely filled with blown fiber insulation having a Resistivity of

35.714mC/W? HOME TOPIC YEAR 2000 Higher Level Question 8 Q8 (a) Explain the following terms relating to thermal insulation and state the units commonly used in measuring them: i. Conductivity; ii. Transmittance; iii. Heat flow rate. (b) A double glazed window in a living room 1.50m high by 4.00m wide. The thickness of the glass in 5mm and its conductivity value in 1.02 W/mC. The resistance for the internal surface of the glass in 0.12m2C/W and the resistance for the external surface in 0.08m2C/W.

The resistance for the 10mm air space between the panes of glass is 0.15 0.12m2C/W iv. Calculate the U-value for the window. v. Calculate the rate of heat loss through the window when there is a difference of 20 between the inside and outside temperatures. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2001 Higher Level Question 7 Q7 In a dwelling house it is proposed to replace the existing 4mm single glazing with double glazed units. The double glazed units consist of two 4mm panes of glass with a 12mm air space. (a) Using the data given below calculate: (i) The U value of the single glazing. (ii) The U value of the double-glazing. Data:

Thickness of Glass 4mm Conductivity of Glass 1.02 W/m C Resistance of 12mm air space 0.17m C/W Internal surface resistance 0.12m C/W External surface resistance 0.08m C/W (iii) If the dwelling house has 20m2 window area and the average air temperature difference across the windows is 8C, calculate the daily savings in fuel costs resulting from the installation of double glazing, given the following: Calorific Value of Oil 37350 kj per Litre Cost of Oil 40p per Litre (b) Discuss in detail the merits of installing double glazing in a dwelling house. HOME

TOPIC YEAR 2002 Higher Level Question 4 Q4 A house built twenty five years ago has an external cavity wall built to the following specification: Outer Leaf: 100mm concrete block with 19mm cement rendering. Cavity: 100mm uninsulated Inner Leaf: 100mm concrete block with 16mm plaster finish. Wall data: Thermal conductivity of the rendering and the plaster is 0.46W/m C. Conductivity of the blockwork is 1.44W/m C. Resistance of the external surface is 0.055m C/W. Resistance of the internal surface is 0.123m C/W. Resistance of the cavity is 0.18m C/W.

(a) Calculate the U-value of the wall. (b) A proposed extension to the house is to have external walls of similar construction to the original, with the addition of expanded polystyrene insulation in the cavity. Calculate the thickness of insulation needed to achieve the U-value of 0.45W/m C, given the thermal conductivity, (k-value) of expanded polystyrene is 0.033W/m C. (c) Describe in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, two methods that might be employed to reduce the thermal transmittance coefficient, U-value, of the existing walls. HOME TOPIC YEAR Part B 2003 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 A dwelling house built in the 1970s has external walls with uninsulated cavities. The owner has

decided to insulate the walls of the house. The external walls have the following specification: Outer leaf: 100mm brick; Cavity: 75mm without insulation; Inner leaf: 100mm concrete block with 16mm plaster finish. Thermal data of wall: Conductivity of brickwork (k) 1.320 W/m C Conductivity of blockwork (k) 1.440 W/m C Conductivity of plaster (k) 0.430 W/m C Resistance of the external surface (R) 0.048 m2 C/W Resistance of the internal surface (R) 0.122 m2 C/W Resistance of the cavity (R) 0.170 m2 C/W. (a) Calculate the U-value of the wall. HOME TOPIC

YEAR Part A 2003 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (b) The owner may choose either of the following methods to increase the insulation properties of the walls: (i) filling the cavity with urea formaldehyde foam or (ii) fixing insulated plasterboard sheeting to the inside wall surfaces. The insulated sheeting consists of 50mm rigid urethane and 12.5mm plasterboard. Calculate the U-value for each of the above options given the following thermal data: Conductivity of urea formaldehyde foam (k) 0.040 W/m C Conductivity of rigid urethane (k) 0.023 W/m C Conductivity of plasterboard (k) 0.160 W/m C (c) Evaluate both methods of insulation listed at (b) above, recommend a preferred method and

give two reasons to support your recommendation. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2004 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 The roof of a domestic dwelling house built in the 1970s is insulated with a 100mm glass fibre quilt placed between the ceiling joists. It has been decided to increase the level of insulation in the roof to achieve a Uvalue of 0.16 W/m2 C. This U value may be achieved by either: (i) increasing the thickness of glass fibre or (ii) using urethane board. Thermal data: U-value of the existing roof 0.35 W/m2 C. Conductivity of glass fibre quilt (k) 0.04 W/m C.

Conductivity of urethane board (k) 0.023 W/m C. (a) Calculate the thickness of the (i) glass fibre quilt and (ii) urethane board required to achieve the U-value of 0.16 W/m2 C. (b) Evaluate both methods of insulation listed at (i) and (ii) above. Based on this evaluation recommend a preferred method of insulation. (c) Using notes and sketches, show two design details that ensure adequate ventilation of the roof space is maintained when the additional insulation is put in place. HOME TOPIC YEAR 2005 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 An extension to a dwelling house has a concrete flat roof with an asphalt finish. The total roof surface is 16m2 in area. The roof is constructed to the following specification:

(i) Concrete flat roof slab: Thickness 175mm (ii) Concrete screed: Thickness 60mm (iii) Layer of asphalt: Thickness 20mm (iv) Internal plaster to roof slab: Thickness 15mm Thermal data of roof: Resistivity of asphalt 1.250 m C/W Resistivity of concrete screed 0.710 m C/W Resistivity of concrete roof slab 0.690 m C/W Resistivity of the plaster 2.170 m C/W Resistance of the internal surface (R) 0.104 m2 C/W Resistance of the external surface

(R) 0.413 m2 C/W External temperature 11C Internal temperature 21C. (a) Calculate the U-value of the roof structure and the overall heat loss through the roof. (b) Outline two design considerations that must be taken into account in the design of a roof for a domestic dwelling and describe, with the aid of notes and freehand sketches, the design detailing for each consideration outlined. HOME TOPIC YEAR Part B Q5

The external wall of a timber framed house has the following specification: External Plaster thickness 15 mm Block outer leaf: thickness 100 mm Timber stud inner leaf : thickness 125 mm Urethane board insulation: thickness 100 mm Plasterboard: thickness 12.5 mm Thermal data of outer leaf : Resistance of the external surface (R) 0.048 m2 C/W Resistivity of the external plaster (r) 2.170 m C/W Conductivity of block (k) 1.320 W/m C Thermal data of inner leaf : Conductivity of urethane board (k) 0.023 W/m C Conductivity of plasterboard (k) 0.160 W/m C

Resistance of the internal surface (R) 0.104 m2 C/W Resistance of the cavity (R) 0.170 m2 C/W Ignore the timber studs of inner leaf. (a) Calculate the U-value of the wall. 2006 Higher Level Question 5 HOME TOPIC YEAR Part A 2006 Higher Level Question 5 Q5

(b) Calculate the annual cost of the heat loss through the external wall of the timber framed house outlined above, using the following data: Total external wall area: 125 m2 Average internal temperature: 18 C Average external temperature: 6 C U-value of wall: as calculated at (a) above Heating period: 12 hours per day for 40 weeks per annum Calorific value of oil: 37350 kj per litre Cost of heating oil: 65 cent per litre 1000 Watts = 1 kj per second. (c) Show, with the aid of notes and freehand sketches, a design detail which will prevent moisture reaching the insulation material from inside the building.

HOME TOPIC YEAR Part B 2007 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (a) Using the following data, calculate the U-value for the external wall of a house, built in the 1970s: External plaster thickness 16 mm Block outer leaf thickness 100 mm Cavity (un-insulated) width 100 mm Block inner leaf thickness 100 mm Internal plaster thickness 13 mm Thermal data of external wall :

Conductivity of plaster (k) 0.430 W/m C Conductivity of block work (k) 1.440 W/m C Resistance of external surface (R) 0.048 m2 C/W Resistance of cavity (R) 0.170 m2 C/W Resistance of internal surface (R) 0.122 m2 C/W HOME TOPIC YEAR Part A 2007 Higher Level Question 5

Q5 (b) Using the following data, calculate the cost of the heat lost annually through the un-insulated external wall: Area of external wall 145 m2 Average internal temperature 18 C Average external temperature 5 C U-value of wall as calculated at (a) above Heating period 10 hours per day for 42 weeks per annum Cost of oil 68 cent per litre Calorific value of oil 37350 kj per litre 1000 Watts = 1kj per second.

(c) It is proposed to insulate the external walls of the house to improve their U-value. Using notes and freehand sketches, show one method of insulating the external walls to meet the requirements of the current Building Regulations. HOME TOPIC YEAR Part B 2008 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 It is proposed to replace the single glazing in a dwelling house with double glazing. (a) Using the following data, calculate the U-value of the: (i) single glazing; (ii) standard double glazing. Glass: single glazing thickness 5 mm

Glass: double glazing thickness 4 mm Space between panes width 12 mm Thermal data of glazing: Conductivity of glass (k) 1.020 W/m C Resistance of space between panes (R) 0.170 m2 C/W Resistance of internal surface (R) 0.122 m2 C/W Resistance of external surface (R) 0.080 m2 C/W HOME TOPIC YEAR Part A

2008 Higher Level Question 5 (b) A choice is to be made between the following types of double glazing: standard double glazing; low-emissivity (low-e) double glazing. Using the U-values obtained at (a) above and the following data, calculate the cost of the heat lost annually through each of the following: single glazing; standard double glazing; low-e double glazing. U-value of low-e double glazing: 1.1 W/m2 C Area of glazing: 25 m2 Average internal temperature: 18 C Average external temperature: 5 C Heating period: 11 hours per day for 40 weeks per annum

Cost of oil: 80 cent per litre Calorific value of oil: 37350 kj per litre 1000 Watts: 1kj per second. (c) Using the information obtained at (b) above, recommend a preferred glazing type and give two reasons to support your recommendation. HOME TOPIC YEAR Part B 2009 Higher Level Question 5 Q5

(a) Calculate the U-value of the external wall of a new dwelling house, given the following data: External render thickness 12 mm Concrete block outer leaf thickness 100 mm Cavity width 150 mm Insulation thickness 100 mm Concrete block inner leaf thickness 100 mm Internal plaster thickness 15 mm Thermal data of external wall of new house: Resistance of external surface (R) 0.048 m2 C/W Conductivity of external render (k) 1.430 W/m C Conductivity of concrete blocks (k) 1.440 W/m C Resistance of cavity (R) 0.170 m2 C/W Conductivity of insulation (k) 0.018 W/m C Conductivity of internal plaster (k) 0.430 W/m C Resistance of internal surface (R) 0.122 m2 C/W HOME TOPIC

YEAR Part A 2009 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (b) Using the thermal data below and the U-value obtained at 5(a) above, calculate the cost of the heat lost annually through the walls of: the new house specified at 5(a) and a house built in the 1970s with an external wall U-value of 1.80 W/m2 C. Thermal data: Area of external wall 152 m2 Average internal temperature 17 C Average external temperature 6 C U-value of wall of new house as calculated at 5(a) above

U-value of wall of 1970s house 1.80 W/m2 C Heating period 11 hours per day for 41 weeks per annum Cost of oil 65 cent per litre Calorific value of oil 37350 kJ per litre 1000 watts 1kJ per second. (c) Using notes and freehand sketches show one method of upgrading the thermal properties of the external wall of the house built in the 1970s to meet the requirements of the current Building Regulations. HOME TOPIC YEAR

2010 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 (a) Calculate the U-value of an uninsulated external solid concrete wall of a dwelling house built in the 1950s given the following data: External render thickness 16 mm Solid concrete wall thickness 225 mm Internal plaster thickness 13 mm Thermal data of external wall of house: Resistivity of the solid concrete wall (r) 1.190 m C/W Resistivity of external render (r) 2.170 m C/W Resistivity of internal plaster (r) 6.250 m C/W Resistance of external surface (R) 0.048 m2 C/W Resistance of internal surface (R) 0.122 m2 C/W (b) Phenolic foam insulation is to be fitted to the external surface of the solid concrete wall. Given the conductivity (k) of phenolic foam as 0.025 W/m C, calculate the thickness of phenolic foam required to achieve a U-value of 0.27 W/m2 C. (c) Discuss in detail, using notes and freehand sketches, the importance of thermal mass in improving the thermal performance of a dwelling house.

HOME TOPIC YEAR Part B 2011 Higher Level Question 5 The external wall of a house built in the 1970s is constructed using a single leaf 215 mm hollow concrete block. The wall is rendered externally and plasterboard is fixed to the internal surface using dabs of plaster adhesive, as shown in the accompanying sketch. (a) Calculate the U-value of the external hollow block wall, given the following data: External render thickness 15 mm Concrete hollow block thickness 215 mm Air space between plasterboard and block width 10 mm Internal plasterboard thickness 12 mm Thermal data of external wall of house:

Resistance of external surface (R) 0.048 m2 C/W Resistivity of external render (r) 2.170 m C/W Resistance of hollow block (R) 0.210 m2 C/W Resistance of airspace (R) 0.170 m2 C/W Conductivity of plasterboard (k) 0.160 W/m C Resistance of internal surface (R) 0.104 m2 C/W HOME TOPIC YEAR Part A 2011 Higher Level Question 5 (b) It is proposed to upgrade the thermal properties of the wall by fixing expanded polystyrene to the external surface. Given the thermal conductivity (k) of expanded polystyrene as 0.037 W/m C,

calculate the thickness of expanded polystyrene required to achieve a U-value of 0.27 W/m2 C to meet the requirements of the current Building Regulations. (c) In the past, many dwelling houses were built using hollow concrete blocks, as outlined at 5 (a) above. Discuss two disadvantages of this type of construction, and using notes and freehand sketches, recommend a preferred external wall type suitable for a contemporary house. HOME TOPIC YEAR Part B 2012 Higher Level Question 5 Q5 A house built in the 1970s has an un-insulated solid concrete ground floor with a sand/cement fine screed finish. (a) Calculate the U-value of the concrete ground floor given the following data:

Sand/cement fine screed thickness 60 mm Concrete floor slab thickness 100 mm Damp proof membrane (DPM) thickness 0.25 mm Sand blinding thickness 50 mm Hardcore thickness 225 mm Subsoil thickness 300 mm Thermal data of concrete ground floor: Resistance of internal surface (R) 0.104 m2 C/W Resistivity of fine screed (r) 0.710 m C/W Conductivity of concrete floor slab (k) 0.160 W/m C Conductivity of DPM (k) 0.250 W/m C Conductivity of sand blinding (k) 0.160 W/m C Conductivity of hardcore (k) 1.330 W/m C Conductivity of subsoil (k) 1.800 W/m C HOME TOPIC YEAR

Part A 2012 Higher Level Question 5 (b) Using the U-value of the concrete ground floor obtained at 5(a) above and the following data, calc ulate the cost of heat lost annually through the un-insulated concrete floor slab: Dimensions of floor 9.0 metres 7.0 metres Average internal temperature 20 C Average external temperature of subsoil 5 C Heating period 12 hours per day for 40 weeks per annum Cost of oil 85 cent per litre Calorific value of oil 37350 kJ per litre 1000 Watts 1 kJ per second. (c) An insulated concrete ground floor is designed to prevent the penetration of radon gas through the floor and to meet the Passive House standard. Using notes and freehand sketches, show the typical design detailing for such a floor.

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