The Latest and the Greatest! Joseph Torgesen Florida

The Latest and the Greatest! Joseph Torgesen Florida

The Latest and the Greatest! Joseph Torgesen Florida Center for Reading Research Coaches Conference, Orlando, 2004 Something Great about our work in Florida From Mastering Reading and Mathematics in the Early Grades Southern Regional Education Board As a state we have set very high standards in reading, and we are making steady progress toward achieving those standards Something Great about our work in

Florida Percent of 4th grade students meeting standard State standard NAEP standard Florida 60 63 Georgia 80 59

Texas 85 59 Mississippi 87 49 South Carolina 76 59 Something Great about our work in

Florida Growth in percent of 4th Grade students meeting Basic standard on NAEP from 1992-2003 Florida +10 Texas +2 Georgia +2 Tennessee +0 Alabama South Carolina +1 +6 The ultimate goal of our work within Just Read, Florida! initiative is to :

Steadily increase the percentage with grade level reading skills at each grade level from K to 12. Within the Reading First part of Just Read, Florida! we are focused on increasing, every year, the percentage of students with grade level skills in K- So, how did we do last year on this goal? The only test we can really compare outcomes on from 2003 to 2004 is the FCAT, and that only assesses work done with third grade children this past year. Change from 2003 to 2004 on FCAT RF Schools All Schools % at level 1

2 3> 2003 23 15 62 2004 change 22 -1 13

-2 65 +3 % at level 1 2 3> 2003 31 18 51

2004 change 28 -3 16 -2 56 +5 In Florida, our effectiveness will ultimately be judged by the improvements our students make on the FCAT Which is an excellent, but very demanding test of reading comprehension

Lets take a brief detour to understand a little more about what is being measured by the The Florida Center for Reading Research recently conducted a study of the FCAT to answer several important questions: Among the most important questions were these: What are the reading, language, and cognitive abilities that are most important in explaining individual differences in performance on the FCAT at 3rd, 7th, and 10th grades? What kinds of skills and knowledge are particularly low in students who struggle on the FCAT? The FCAT has some important characteristics It was specifically created to place high

demands on vocabulary and reasoning/inferential skills FCAT demands an in-depth understanding and application of information that is not typical of most standardized tests. (Lessons Learned, 2002) Design specifications call for application of skills in cognitively challenging situations. Proportion of questions requiring higher order thinking skills increases from 30% in grade three to 70% in grade 10 The FCAT has some important characteristics The FCAT may also place special demands on reading fluency, as opposed to labored accuracy Passage length at different levels 3rd grade 325 words 7th grade 816 words

10th grade 1008 words How the study was conducted: Gave 2 hour battery of language, reading, nonverbal reasoning, and memory tests to approximately 200 children in each grade at 3 locations in the state Language Wisc Vocab and Similarities passage Reading Listening comprehension with FCAT Oral reading fluency, TOWRE, Gray Oral Reading Test NV Reasoning Wisc Matrix Reasoning, Block Design

Working Memory Listening span, Reading Span Percent of variance accounted for 60 50 Fluency Verbal Non Verbal Memory 55 47 40 3rd Grade 30

23 20 10 12 Fluency Verbal Non Verbal Memory Percent of variance accounted for 60 51 50 43 40 7th Grade

30 22 20 10 5 Fluency Verbal Non Verbal Memory Percent of variance accounted for 60 52 50 40 30

10th Grade 32 28 20 10 5 What skills are particularly deficient in level 1 and level 2 readers in 3rd grade? Skill/ability FCAT Performance Level 1 2 3 4

5 WPM on FCAT 54 92 102 119 148 WPM on DIBELS 61 96

111 132 155 Fluency percentile 6th 32th 56th 78th 93rd Phonemic decoding

25th 45th 59th 74th 91st Verbal knowledge/ reasoning 42nd 59th 72nd 91st

98th SAT9 percentile 31st 45th 69th 87th 95th Paths to 6th percentile performance in reading fluency in 3rd grade 1. Dont learn phonetic decoding strategies very well at all. That way, you will remain an inaccurate reader, and you wont read independently because

there are too many words you cant decode on your own. 2. Wait until mid second grade or early third grade to learn to use phonemic decoding strategies that way you will miss out on 1 or 2 years of productive reading practice. 3. Go ahead and learn phonemic decoding skills early and well, but dont read very much. That way you wont have the opportunity to learn to recognize 1000s of words at a single glance. Important Conclusions from the Study for RF schools 1. The most important reading and language factors that explain individual differences in performance on the FCAT in 3rd grade are reading fluency and vocabulary/verbal reasoning 2. The most direct way to reduce the number of students reading at level 1 is to insure that all children become fluent and accurate readers by

the end of third grade. 3. At the same time, we must work to support growth of vocabulary, conceptual knowledge, and reasoning because they are also important at third grade, and become increasingly important at later grades. So, how did the students in our Reading First Schools do this year in Reading Fluency and Vocabulary? Lets look at some graphs WPM = 72 35th percentile WPM = 105 35th percentile 4000

Ave. WPM = 105 35th percentile 3000 29,475 students 2000 23% high risk 1000 Std. Dev = 36.87 Mean = 105.3 0 N = 29745.00 4 ORF Fluency Assess4, Third Grade OralAssess

Reading 3000 Ave percentile = 34th 29,466 students 2000 1000 31% high risk Std. Dev = 26.72 Mean = 39.0 0 N = 29466.00

Assess 4Picture OLV Percentile Peabody Vocabulary, Third Grade Percentile on test of Oral Vocab. 60 Percentile scores on Peabody 50 Average Percentile 40 34 34

30 32 20 Average verbal score of level 1 students in FCAT study was 42nd % 10 Kinder. 32 1st 2nd

3rd Percent of students below 20th and 40th Percentile Performance on SAT 10 & GMRV 60 50 SAT10 45 GMRV 46 40 40 44

40 30 20 10 1st 2nd 3rd Implications of these outcome data 1. We must find a way to insure that the number of students in the high risk category for oral reading fluency is drastically reduced over the next five years. 2. We must find a way to meet the challenge of the vocabulary gap for students in reading first schools. This may be a major limiting factor in

performance on the FCAT in 3rd grade for students in Reading First schools, and it will have an even greater impact on FCAT performance in the later grades. More outcome data: 1. Our ultimate goal is to improve, over time, in the percent of students reading at grade level at the end of each grade 2. Since a large percentage of students in RF schools begin school (and each subsequent grade) already below grade level, our instruction must accelerate their growth if they are to catch up to grade level standards. 3. Most students in RF schools must make more than a years growth in each school year if they are to close the gap by third grade. 4. So, how did we do this past year in closing the gap at each grade level?

How did we do at increasing the percentage of students at grade level (the category called initial in the PMRN) 70 60 Percent grade level = 30.6 50 40 School level data-about 320 schools in the graph

30 20 Std. Dev = 10.02 10 Mean = 30.6 N = 320.00 0 Assessment 1-- Kindergarten ASSESS1 PERCENT INITIAL for Grade k 70 60

50 40 Percent grade level = 56.7 Increased Students at grade level by 26.1% 30 20 Std. Dev = 15.62 10 Mean = 56.7 N = 320.00

0 Assessment 4 -- Kindergarten ASSESS4 PERCENT INITIAL for Grade K 49th percentile 60 50 Percent at grade level = 61.8 % 40 30

20 10 Std. Dev = 14.27 Mean = 61.8 N = 322.00 0 Assessment 1 First Grade ASSESS1 PERCENT INITIAL for Grade 1 60 50 Percent at grade

level = 41.6 % 40 30 Decreased Students at grade level by 20.2% 20 10 Std. Dev = 13.35 Mean = 41.6 N = 322.00 0 Assessment 4 First Grade

ASSESS4 PERCENT INITIAL for Grade 1 31st percentile 44th percentile Achieved benchmark late 80 70 Percent at grade level = 47.7 % 60 50

40 30 20 Std. Dev = 12.46 10 Mean = 47.7 N = 323.00 0 ASSESS1 PERCENT INITIAL for Grade 2 Assessment 1 Second Grade 80 70 Percent at grade

level = 37.1% 60 50 40 Decreased Students at grade level by 10.6% 30 20 Std. Dev = 11.38 10 Mean = 37.1 N = 323.00 0

ASSESS4 PERCENT INITIAL for Grade 2 Assessment 4 Second Grade 40th percentile 30th percentile 70 60 Percent at grade level = 39.5 % 50 40

30 20 Std. Dev = 11.75 10 Mean = 39.5 N = 324.00 0 ASSESS1 PERCENT INITIAL for Grade 3 Assessment 1 Third Grade 70 60

Percent at grade level = 42.3 % 50 40 Increased Students at grade level by 2.8% 30 20 Std. Dev = 11.56 10 Mean = 42.3 N = 324.00

0 ASSESS4 PERCENT INITIAL for Grade 3 Assessment 4 Third Grade Summary of Instructional Effects in Grades K-3 % Intensive % on grade level Kindergarten reduced 4.3 increased 26.1 1st Grade

increased 6.0 decreased 20.2 2nd Grade increased 17.4 decreased 10.6 3rd Grade decreased 7.1 increased 2.8 Lessons learned: doing even better next year 1. At every grade (K-3), we need to strengthen the quality and increase the intensity of instruction in

vocabulary Bringing Words to Life Isabel Beck M. McKeown L. Kucan Guilford Press Big ideas from Bringing Words to Life First-grade children from higher SES groups know about twice as many words as lower SES children Poor children, who enter school with vocabulary deficiencies have a particularly difficult time learning words from context Research has discovered much more powerful ways of teaching vocabulary than are typically used in classrooms generalization to reading comprehension A robust approach to vocabulary instruction

involves directly explaining the meanings of words along with thought-provoking, playful, interactive follow-up. Four Critical Elements for More Robust Vocabulary Instruction Select the right words to teach Tier 2 words Develop child-friendly definitions for these words Engage children in interesting, challenging, playful activities in which they learn to access the meanings of words in multiple contexts Find a way to devote more time during the day to vocabulary instruction An anecdote from a friend.. While teaching a learning support lesson to my 6 grade struggling th readers, the word carpenter was used. I ask my students to tell me

what a carpenter did. They said, "A person who lays carpet." This happened in more than one class. These same students are being ask to learn primogeniture, degenerate, and omnipotent in their regular 6th grade Language Arts class. Wow! This is a tough situation. I work with my students to learn these required words so that they can pass their language arts class but what a waste of good learning time. When I returned today, not one of the students in my second period class remembered what a carpenter did. I got the correct answer in my third period class. Hurray! How long do you think they will remember their regular language arts words? Noreen Beattie, 6th grade learning support, Tallahassee, FL Remember what reading becomes as children move through elementary and into middle and high school Reading Comprehension is: thinking guided by print Perfetti, 1985

Lessons learned: doing even better next year 1. At every grade (K-3), we need to strengthen the quality and increase the intensity of instruction in vocabulary 2. Provide special support to teachers in 1st and 2nd grades to improve the growth of their students in two critical areas In first grade, more powerful instruction and interventions for phonemic decoding skills and reading fluency In second grade, more work to stimulate and support growth of reading fluency. There are still too many students in second grade who have not achieved basic benchmarks in phonemic decoding efficiency At the beginning of 2nd grade, most of our students had not achieved the 1st grade

benchmark for phonemic decoding At the end of second grade, we still have more than 20% of our students who have not achieved the first grade benchmark in phonemic decoding Doing Better: A summary 1. Robust Vocabulary Instruction for all 2. Stronger support for 1st and 2nd grade 3. Stronger interventions for alphabetic reading skills (phonemic decoding) in 1st grade 4. Stronger interventions for fluency in

2nd and 3rd grade 5. And remember, reading becomes thinking guided by print Will it be easy? How strongly to we feel about it? It will involve: Continued professional development for teachers Continued school reorganizations Continuing with careful student assessments And a relentless focus on the needs of every child But, its not the most difficult thing we could be faced with Thank You www.fcrr.org Science of reading

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