Chapter 6 Discovering the Internet Complete Concepts and

 Chapter 6 Discovering the Internet Complete Concepts and

Chapter 6 Discovering the Internet Complete Concepts and Techniques, Understanding Internet Second Edition Technologies and Security Discovering the Internet Fourth Edition

Objectives Discuss basic networking technologies Describe the infrastructure of the Internet, including network service providers, the TCP/IP stack, IP addresses, and the Domain Name System (DNS) Discuss GPS and identify wireless location-based services Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 2

Objectives Explain the convergence of the Internet with telephony and conferencing Discuss internal and external network security threats, transactional risks, and virtual private networks Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 3

Networking Basics A computer network connects two or more computers, printers, or other devices together with cables or wireless media allowing users to share Data Peripheral devices An Internet connection Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 4

Networking Basics Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks Modern networks can be categorized by the physical area they cover Local area (home, office, or single building) Metropolitan area (region) Wide area (multiple cities or the world) Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 5

Networking Basics Local Area Networks A local area network (LAN) supports users in a small geographical area Home Office Single building

Several buildings, for example: a college campus Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 6 Networking Basics Local Area Networks (cont'd) LANs are configured in one of two basic structures Peer-to-peer Client/server

Peer-to-peer LAN 10 or fewer personal computers connected One or more of the computers may also have a printer, scanner, or external storage device Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 7 Networking Basics Local Area Networks (cont'd) Peer-to-peer LAN (cont'd)

Each node must have a network interface card (NIC) Each node may be connected to a single cable or may be connected at a common connection point using a hub Does not require a network operating system Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 8 Networking Basics Local Area Networks (cont'd) Peer-to-peer LAN (cont'd)

Users can access files stored on any computer Users can access any peripheral device connected to a computer on the network Attractive networking choice for home, small business, or other organization just getting started with networking Simple to configure Easy to operate Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 9

Networking Basics Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 10 Networking Basics Local Area Networks (cont'd) Client/Server Network Multiple personal computers or workstations (clients) One or more servers Other devices, such as printers

Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 11 Networking Basics Local Area Networks (cont'd) Client/Server Network (cont'd) Uses a network operating system to manage

Data File storage space Peripheral devices Internet connection Examples include Microsoft Windows Server, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, UNIX, and Linux Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security

12 Networking Basics Local Area Networks (cont'd) Client/Server Networks (cont'd) Advantages over a peer-to-peer network Supports shared data storage Provides network maintenance tools Promotes more efficient data backups Disadvantages compared to a peer-to-peer network More expensive More difficult to configure

Requires more technical expertise to manage Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 13 Networking Basics Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 14

Networking Basics Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 15 Networking Basics Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) Connects clients and servers in a region that is larger than a single office

or building Multiple buildings across a city, multiple educational, research, or government facilities across a state Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 16 Networking Basics

Wide Area Networks (WANs) Cover a very wide geographical area Can be a single network or multiple connected LANs located across the country or around the world Most WANs are private, corporately owned networks The Internet is the worlds largest public WAN

Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 17 Networking Basics Network Topologies, Access Methods, and Transmission Media Physical topology the layout in which a networks computers, printers, and other devices are arranged Access method how data is transmitted from one node to another Transmission media physical or wireless

communication media that carry transmissions These three characteristics define the throughput Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 18 Networking Basics Network Topologies, Access Methods, and Transmission Media (cont'd) Three basic LAN physical topologies Bus

Ring Star Many modern LANs use a hybrid physical topology that combines some elements of these three topologies Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 19 Networking Basics

Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 20 Networking Basics Network Topologies, Access Methods, and Transmission Media (cont'd) Access Method Ethernet a node wanting to transmit data first must determine whether or not another node is transmitting If yes waits a short period of time and tests again If no transmits

Networks using a bus or star physical topology commonly use the Ethernet access method Transmits data from 10 Mbps 100 Mbps High-speed networks might use Gigabit Ethernet, which can transmit data at 1, 10, 40, or 100 Gigabits Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 21 Networking Basics Network Topologies, Access Methods, and Transmission Media (cont'd)

Access Method (cont'd) Token ring uses a token-passing method in which the network has a single token that moves in a clockwise circle from node to node Node that has the token can add data and the address of the destination node and then sends token on to the next node Destination node receives the token, accepts the data, and then issues a free (unused) token and sends it on to the next node Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 22

Networking Basics Network Topologies, Access Methods, and Transmission Media (cont'd) Wireless transmission media Infrared (IR) transmissions use line-of-sight infrared lightwave signals Radio frequency (RF) transmissions use broadcast radio waves to transmit data over short distances Bluetooth is a short-range RF technology Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security

23 Networking Basics Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 24 Networking Basics Network Topologies, Access Methods, and Transmission Media

(cont'd) A wireless LAN (WLAN) uses a wireless medium such as radio frequency transmissions to connect computers, printers, and other devices Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 25

Networking Basics Network Topologies, Access Methods, and Transmission Media (cont'd) Transmission Media Physical transmission media Coaxial cable Twisted-pair cable Fiber-optic cable Twisted-pair cable commonly used as a LAN transmission medium Fiber-optic cable commonly used as a MAN or WAN transmission medium

Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 26 Networking Basics Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 27 Networking Basics

Connectivity Hardware and Software Hardware connectivity devices connect nodes on the same network, network segments, or multiple networks Hubs Bridges Data switches Routers

Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 28 Networking Basics Connectivity Hardware and Software (cont'd) Hubs, Bridges, and Data Switches Hubs inexpensive hardware device used to connect nodes on the same network Bridges connects two segments on the same LAN or two LANs Data switches intelligent device that filters and forwards

data packets to network segments Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 29 Networking Basics Connectivity Hardware and Software (cont'd) Routers Specialized computers that connect LAN segments, two LANs, or multiple LANs on a WAN Determines the best route for packets

Internet routers are complex, fast devices that send packets from one router to another in a series of hops until they reach their destination network Use the Tracert utility to trace router hops Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 30 Networking Basics Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and

Security 31 Networking Basics Connectivity Hardware and Software (cont'd) Gateways Hardware or software used to connect two or more networks or network segments that use different packet formatting, communication protocols, and access methods Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security

32 Networking Basics Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 33 Internet Infrastructure

Network service providers (NSPs) TCP/IP stack IP addresses Domain Name System (DNS) Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 34

Internet Infrastructure Network Service Providers Provide the public and private network infrastructure for the Internet Verizon, AT&T, Sprint, and others An Internet exchange point (IXP) is a physical infrastructure that enables ISPs to communicate among their networks, which limits the upstream traffic an ISP must handle MAE a specific type of high-speed Ethernet connection within a metropolitan area Peering the exchange of Internet traffic and router

information between NSPs and ISPs at an exchange point Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 35 Internet Infrastructure Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 36

Internet Infrastructure TCP/IP Stack TCP/IP Stack de facto set of standard Internet protocols for network communications TCP, IP, UDP, ARP, RARP, ICMP, DHCP, HTTP, POP3, SMTP, IMAP4, FTP, and Telnet IP Addresses The unique address of each node on a network The current IP standard, IPv6, lengthens IP addresses from 32 bits to 128 bits Contains eight 8-bit numbers Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and

Security 37 Internet Infrastructure Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 38 Internet Infrastructure Classless Routing System

CIDR allows network administrators to expand the number of network nodes assigned to an IP address Used extensively on the Internet Used in large private networks Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 39 Internet Infrastructure Domain Name System The DNS is a hierarchy of name servers used to resolve

a registered and easy-to-remember text domain name with its equivalent IP address Twelve different organizations, such as VeriSign, NASA, the University of Maryland, and the University of Southern California, operate the root name servers Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 40 Internet Infrastructure

Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 41 Internet Infrastructure Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 42 Location-Based Services and GPS

Handheld wireless devices, such as smartphones and tablets, are ubiquitous in todays modern mobile societies Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 43 Location-Based Services and GPS Location-based services (LBS) are wireless services offered to customers based on their physical location

E9-1-1 At the heart of this and other LBSs are the global positioning system (GPS) satellite network and receivers mounted in automobiles or placed in cell phones or other handheld devices Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 44 Location-Based Services and GPS

Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 45 Location-Based Services and GPS Geosocial networking is a term used to describe the combination of LBS with social networking providers Foursquare Yelp Google Latitude Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and

Security 46 Internet Telephony and Web Conferencing Internet telephony Voice over IP (VoIP) Uses TCP/IP and packet switching to send voice transmissions over private or public IP network E-businesses, such as Vonage, offer digital telephony services Computer to computer calling using special software, such

as Skype Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 47 Internet Telephony and Web Conferencing Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security

48 Internet Telephony and Web Conferencing Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 49 Internet Telephony and Web Conferencing A virtual meeting allows collaboration between

participants, such as a group of employees, by allowing invitees to log on to their network and sign in to a meeting in which they communicate with each other as well as view, share, and work collaboratively on files Video conferencing sometimes involves hundreds or thousands of participants Web conferencing is a virtual meeting conducted using a browser and the Web Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 50

Network Security Issues and Technologies Internal threats Security policies and procedures Authorized network access Wireless network security Data backup and restore Disaster recovery planning Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and

Security 51 Network Security Issues and Technologies External threats Unauthorized network access Computer viruses Web page hacking Firewalls and proxy servers

Internet filtering software Security audits Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 52 Network Security Issues and Technologies Transactional risks Protecting and validating online transaction

information Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 53 Virtual Private Networks A private network uses a large public IP network, such as the Internet, to transmit its data Tunneling is a process that encapsulates one protocol inside another protocol. At destination network, the IP protocol information is

removed and the tunneling protocol transmits the data to its destination computer Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security 54 Virtual Private Networks Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security

55 Summary Discuss basic networking technologies Describe the infrastructure of the Internet, including network service providers, the TCP/IP stack, IP addresses, and the Domain Name System (DNS) Discuss GPS and identify wireless location-based services Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security

56 Summary Explain the convergence of the Internet with telephony and conferencing Discuss internal and external network security threats, transactional risks, and virtual private networks Chapter 6: Understanding Internet Technologies and Security

57 Chapter 6 Complete Chapter 6 Complete Discovering the Internet Fourth Edition

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