Technology in Action Chapter 2 Looking at Computers:
Technology in Action Chapter 2 Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts Understanding Digital Components Understanding Your Computer Input Devices and Output Devices Understanding Your Computer Computers are Data-Processing Devices
Perform four major functions Input: Gathers data, allows entering data Process: Manipulates, calculates, or organizes data Output: Displays data and information Storage: Saves data and information
Understanding Your Computer Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers Bit Binary digit 0 or 1 Byte Unique combinations of 8 bits of 0s and 1s Large numbers of bytes
Understanding Your Computer Types of Computers Mainframe Many users simultaneously Supercomputer Complex calculations Embedded
Self-contained Example: electronic thermostat Smartphone Input Devices Enter data and instructions Examples Keyboard Mouse Microphone
Scanner Digital camera Stylus Output Devices Send data out of the computer in the form of: Text Pictures Sounds Video
copier, and fax Plotter Prints oversize images Thermal printer Sound Output Speaker Output device for sound
Surround-sound speakers Wireless speaker systems Headphones or earbuds Processing, Storage, and Connectivity Processing, Memory, and Storage Ports and Power Controls Setting It All Up
Processing and Memory on the Motherboard Motherboard CPU ROM, RAM, and cache Slots for expansion cards Network interface card (NIC)
Processing and Memory on the Motherboard Memory RAM ROM Random access memory Read-only memory
Stores instructions and data Series of several memory cards or modules Temporary (volatile) storage Stores startup instructions Permanent (nonvolatile) storage
Processing and Memory on the Motherboard Processing Central Processing Unit CPU or processor Brains of the computer Controls all functions of the computers components Processes all commands and instructions Billions of tasks per second
Processing and Memory on the Motherboard Processing CPU Performance Measures Processor speed measured in hertz (Hz) Megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz) Number of cores Single Dual
Quad Eight Ten Storing Data and Information Hard Drives Primary device for permanent storage External hard drive Solid-State Drive (SSD)
Storing Data and Information Other Portable Options Cloud Storage External hard drives Flash Storage Storing Data and Information Optical Storage Compact discs (CDs) Digital video discs (DVDs)
Store more data than CDs Blu-ray discs (BDs) Connecting Peripherals to the Computer High-Speed and Data Transfer Ports Universal serial bus (USB) New USB 3.1 standard port Transfer speeds of 10 Gbps
FireWire 800 Transfer speeds up to 800 Mbps Thunderbolt Transfer speeds up to 20 Gbps Connecting Peripherals to the Computer Connectivity and Multimedia Ports Connectivity port Access to networks and the Internet
Ethernet port Audio ports Connect headphones, microphones, speakers Video ports Connect monitors and multimedia devices HDMI Setting It All Up Ergonomics
Guidelines Monitor position Adjustable chair Proper position while typing Take breaks Adequate lighting Chapter Questions 1. What language system consists of just two digits: 0 and 1? (page 31) Binary
2. Determine how many bytes are needed to represent the phrase Thanks, I appreciate your concern. (page 31) 34 bytes 3. What are peripheral devices? Give two examples. (page 33) Devices connected to the computer (printer, monitor) Chapter Questions (continued) 4. What is the main function of the system unit? (page 31) The metal or plastic cast that ;holds all the physical parts of the computer together, including the computers processor
(its brains), memory, and the many circuit boards that help the computer function. 5. What is the difference between data and information? (page 30) Data is numbers, words, pics, sounds that represent facts or ideas. Information is organized and presented in a meaningful fashion. Chapter Questions (continued) 6. What is the function of system software? (page 31) A set of programs that enable a computers hardware
devices and application software to work together. 7. What are the four major data processing functions of a computer? (page 30) Gather, process, output, store 8. What are input devices? Give two examples. (page 35) These devices allow you to enter data and instructions into the computer. Two examples are the keyboard and mouse. Chapter Questions (continued) 9. What is a motherboard? (page 52) A part of the computer containing the central
electronic components of the computer. 10.What is RAM? What is the function of RAM? (page 53) Random Access Memory, temporary or volatile storage location. The place in a computer where the programs and data the computer is currently using are stored. Chapter Questions (continued) 11. Give two examples of how application software is used? (page 31)
Application software helps you carry out tasks (create a spreadsheet or edit a photo). 12. What are ergonomics? (page 61) How you set-up your computer and other equipment to minimize risk of injury or discomfort. 13. Give three examples of a toggle key used in Office 2016. (page 37: see graphic) The function changes between one of two options each time you press it (Insert, Shift, Num Lock, Cap Lock, Bold, Italics)
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