Along with the Iliad and the Odyssey, the Aeneid stands indisputably as one of the great works of epic literature in the western literary canon. The term epic is a technical one. What makes a work of literature epic ? 1. Subject Matter a. large in scale geographically b. involvement of the gods and of great, heroic men and women c. high stakes: the establishment or destruction of great empires occurs d. world-historical The term epic is a technical one. What makes a work of literature epic ? 2. In classical literature: meter / dactylic hexameter Iliad 1.1. Sing goddess, of the rage of Achilles, son of Peleus , , , Odyssey 1.1 Sing to me, muse, about a resourceful man, who ... arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris Aeneid 1.1. I sing of arms and a man, who first from the shores of Troy ... Of mans first disobedience, and the fruit Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste
Brought death into the world, and all our woe Sing, Heavenly Muse Paradise Lost 1.1-6 by John Milton Musa, mihi causas memora Muse, remind me the causes ... Aeneid 1.8 As you can see from the previous examples (and the Aeneid above), epic poetry generally includes an invocation. Literally a calling in. The poet calls upon the godly muse to communicate through him. The important content and skillful composition of epic poetry makes it a divine endeavour. Epic tales also traditionally begin in medias res. Literally into the middle of things. A literary technique discussed by Aristotle and common in contemporary stories, in which the reader/viewer is confronted immediately by the action of the story with no or little explanation.
Themes in the epic literature Piety (pietas) Devotion to the gods, ones country, family (in that order) Sacrifice Responsibility (gravitas) Virtue (virtus) Courage in the face of obstacles and challenges Divine intervention Aeneas comments on himself Book 1.500-505 I am Aeneas, duty-bound (translation of the Latin pius), and known above high air of heaven by my fame, carrying with me in my ships our gods of hearth and home, saved from the enemy. I look for Italy to be my fatherland, and my descent is from all-highest Jove. . . I followed the given fates.
The Narrative Sequence of the Aeneid Books VII-XII Book VI Book II Book V Book IV Book I Book III The Life of Vergil Born Publius Vergilius Maro around 70 BCE, in northern Italy. After early poetic success he joined an influential circle of
poets including Horace (previously on the IB syllabus) and had the patronage of Maecenas, one of Augustus right-hand men. Vergil was tasked by his patrons with composing a patriotic Roman epic which became the Aeneid (note that Vergils poetic legacy is in some ways the opposite of that of Catullus who was his contemporary). He died in 19 BCE after a trip to Greece, with the Aeneid unfinished. According to legend, he requested that all copies of it be destroyed. The Aeneid as Traditional Epic and as Literary Innovation The Aeneid copies intentionally from the epics of the past, but was seen as incredibly innovative when it first appeared. arma virumque cano - arms and a man. These openings words recall both the Iliad and the Odyssey, stories of a war and of a mans journey homeward. Vergils Aeneid swaps the order of the two sagas. Vergil departed from the tradition of previous Roman epic poetry (typified by a poet named Ennius), which tended to catalogue historical battles and names.
Vergil instead projected his story into the distant past. The Aeneid as Romes Patriotic Epic The Aeneid seeks to glorify Rome under the rule of Augustus Caesar, who had consolidated his own power after years of civil war. It does this by: Connecting Romes founding to the ancient and proud mythological story of Troy. Connecting Augustus family (the Julians) to Aeneas through his son Ascanius/Iulus. Justifying/explaining Romes contemporary power over subject peoples (e.g. the Greeks and Carthaginians) through pre-historical causes. Having the gods speak of the great destiny of Rome and the Julian family during the saga of its founding. Optimistic vs. Pessimistic Readings of the Aeneid Did Vergil really intend his poem to be a propaganda piece for Augustan rule, and intend for his character Aeneas to straightforwardly embody the values of piety, duty, and temperance that he supposedly does? Book 1, lines 1-4
arma virumque can, Triae qu prmus ab ors I sing of arms and a man, who first came from the shores of Troy taliam, ft profugus, Lvniaque vnit to Italy and the Lavinian shores, setting out by (because of his) fate, ltora, multum ille et terrs iacttus et alt that (man) was tossed much on both lands and sea by force of the gods v superum saevae memorem Innis ob ram; because of the unforgotten anger of cruel Juno; Book 1, lines 5-7 multa quoque et bell passs, dum conderet urbem, And also endured many things in war, until he founded a city, inferretque des Lati, genus unde Latnum, and brought (his) gods to Latium, from where the Latin race,
Albnque patrs, atque altae moenia Rmae. and Alban fathers, and the walls of tall Rome (came). 5 Book 1, lines 8-11 Msa, mih causs memor, qu nmine laes, Muse, recall the causes to me, how (her) divinity was offened, quidve dolns, rgna deum tot volvere css Or why she is suffering, the queen of the gods (who) drove nsgnem piette virum, tot adre labrs 10 A man marked by piety to endure so many misfortunes, To face so many challenges
impulerit. Tantaene anims caelestibus rae? Is there such great anger in the minds of the gods? Book 1, lines 12-16 Urbs antqua fuit, Tyri tenure coln, There was an ancient city, Carthage, (which) Tyrian colonists held Karthg, taliam contr Tibernaque long Opposite from Italy and far from the ports of the Tiber River, stia, dves opum studisque asperrima bell, Rich of (in) wealth and harshest in (their) eagerness of (for) war, quam In fertur terrs magis omnibus nam 15 Which Juno is said to have cherished alone more than all (other)
lands posthabit coluisse Sam; As (even) Samo was neglected ook 1, lines 1-7 Literary allusion to Homer Arma virumque can, Triae qu prmus ab ors taliam, ft profugus, Lvniaque vnit ltora, multum ille et terrs iacttus et alt A B A v superum saevae memorem Innis ob ram; Synchysis
B Transferred epithet = memorem ram multa quoque et bell passs, dum conderet urbem, inferretque des Lati, genus unde Latnum, Albnque patrs, atque altae moenia Rmae. 5 ok 1, lines 8-11 Invocation of the muse Msa, mih causs memor, qu nmine laes, quidve dolns, rgna deum tot volvere css nsgnem piette virum, tot adre labrs 10
impulerit. Tantaene anims caelestibus rae? Rhetorical question Book 1, lines 12-16 Urbs antqua fuit, Tyri tenure coln, Juxtaposition* Karthg, taliam contr Tibernaque long stia, dves opum studisque asperrima bell, quam In fertur terrs magis omnibus na 15 posthabit coluisse Sam; *Punic Wars (218-149 BC) Rome vs. Carthage; Rome defeats Carthage and burns it to the ground Book 1, lines 16-22 hc illius arma, Here were that (goddess) arms, here was (her) chariot;
hc currus fuit; hc rgnum dea gentibus esse, The goddess already then both endeavored and cherished that s qu Fta sinant, iam tum tenditque fovetque. This would be the kingdom for (all) peoples, if any Fates would allow (it) prgeniem sed enim Trin sanguine dc But indeed she had heard that the offspring led from Trojan blood, audierat, Tyris olimoverturn quae verteret arcs;citadels/fortresses; 20 Which one day would the Tyrian From a people ruling
far and wide and proud in war hinchere populum ltwould regemcome bellque superbum For the destruction of Libya: the Fates unrolled/unraveled (it). ventrum excidi Libyae: scthus volvere Parcs. Book 1, lines 23-28 id metuns, veterisque memor Sturnia bell,
fearing it, the daughter of Saturn is mindful of the old war, prma quod ad Triam pr crs gesserat Args because (she) first had fought at Troy for the dear Greeks necdum etiam causae rrum saevque dolrs 25 the causes of (her) angers and cruel pains had not yet disappeared from (her) mind exciderant anim: manet alt mente repostum the judgment of Paris, placed deeply in (her) mind remains, idicium Paridis sprtaeque iniria frmae, and the injury of her scorned beauty, et genus invsum, et rapt Ganymdis honrs. and the hated race and the honors of abducted Ganymede.
Juno complains about Ganymede Nonnus, Dionysiaca 31. 252 ff : HERA: Is it not shame enough, an impious thing, that I see the Trojan boy [Ganymede] cup-lackey to Zeus, disgracing heaven and Hebe cupbearer of Zeus, when he ladles sweet nectar with human hands?" Lines 29-33 hs accnsa super, iactts aequore tt On fire with these (reasons) more, she was keeping the Trojans Tras, rliquis Danaum atque immtis Achill, 30 Thrown on the whole sea, the remains of the Greeks and ruthless Achilles arcbat long Lati, multsque per anns Far from Latium, and for many years they were wandering, errbant, ct Fts, maria omnia circum. Driven by the Fates, around all the seas.
Tantae mlis erat Rmnam condere gentem! It was such a great effort to establish the Roman race! Lines 34-37 Vix e conspectu Siculae telluris in altum Scarcely out of the view of the Sicilian land vela dabant laeti, et spumas salis aere ruebant, 35 Happily they were setting sail into the deep (sea), and charging the foams of the salty sea with bronze (bows) cum Iuno, aeternum servans sub pectore volnus, When Juno, nursing (her) eternal wound beneath (her) heart, haec secum: (she) said these things with herself: Lines 37-45 (Junos speech)
'Mene incepto desistere victam, Should I, having been conquered, cease (my) undertaking nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem? (as I am) not able to avert the king of the Teucrians from Italy? Quippe vetor fatis. Pallasne exurere classem Surely I am prohibited by the fates. Argivom ipsos potuit submergere ponto, 40 and Was Pallas atque Athena able
to burn the fleet of the Greeks To submerge them in the sea unius ob noxam et furias Aiacisfury Oilei? On account of the guilt and of one Ajax son of Oileus? Ipsa, Iovis hurled rapidumthe iaculata nubibus ignem,from the clouds,
She herself, swiftefire of Jupiter And broke (their) and aequora overturned the seas with winds, disiecitque rates boats evertitque ventis, She snatched that transfixo (man), breathing flames from (his) pierced chest, illum
expirantem pectore flammas In aturbine whirlwind andscopuloque pierced (him) a sharp rock. corripuit infixiton acuto. 45 Aiax rapuit Cassandram in templ Palladis Lines 46-49 ast ego, quae divom incedo regina, Iovisque But I, who proceed as queen of the gods, et sororAnd
etboth coniunx, una cum gente tot annos the sister and wife of Jupiter, bella gero! Et quisquam numen Iunonis adoret Wage wars with one people for so many years! praeterea, aut supplex aris imponet honorem?' And will anyone honor the divinity of Juno hereafter, Or as a suppliant place honor (offering/sacrifice) on (her/my) altars? Summary of Aeneid 1.50-156 Juno decides to go to King Aeolus, god of winds, to seek his assistance against the Trojans, offering a beautiful nymph to him as a gift. Aeolus obeys Juno because he owes his power to Juno and he turns over his scepter. Immediately, the Trojans are surrounding by roaring opposing winds at all sides, the skies darken, and thunder flashes across the sky. Aeneas sees the storm and shouts
to the heavens: oh three or four times blessed (are those), they who happened to die before the faces of their parents under the high walls of Troy! Oh Diomedes, son of Tydeus, bravest of the people of the Greeks! Why was I not able to die at the Trojan fields and not able to pour out this spirit at your right hand, where fierce Hector lies with the spear of Achilles, where mighty Sarpedon, where the Simois so often rolls the shields, men, helmets, and brave bodies, having been snatched up under its waters? Summary of Aeneid 1.157-222 The surviving Trojans make it towards the Libyan coast, with only seven of the ships remaining. Aeneas kills deer for his men to eat and he reminds them of the previous obstacles they have had to overcome, Scylla and Cyclopes, and reinforces their purpose: to sail for Latium and re-establish the kingdom of Troy. However: Aeneas spoke such words with his voice and he, worried with immense anxiety, feigned hopefulness on his face, and he suppresses the deep pain in his heart
Lines 223-229 et iam finis erat, cum Iuppiter aethere summo And now there was an end (to this), when Jupiter gazing down from the highest air, despiciens mare velivolum terrasque iacentis at the sea winged with sails and the low-lying lands litoraque et latos populos, sic vertice caeli 225 and shores and peoples far and wide, thus stopped at the summit of the sky, constitit, et Libyae defixit lumina regnis. And fixed (his) eyes on the kingdoms of Libya.
atque illum talis iactantem pectore curas And Venus speaks to that (god) tossing (weighing) such great concerns in (his) heart tristior et lacrimis oculos suffusa nitentis sadder and filled with tears with respect to (her) shining eyes adloquitur Venus: Lines 229-233 'O qui res hominumque deumque Oh you who rule the affairs of both men and gods with eternal laws, aeternisAnd regis imperiis, et lightning fulminebolt, terres,
terrify with (your) 230 potuit quid meus Aeneas in te committere tantum, What was my Aeneas able to commit (that was) so great (severe) against you, quid Troes potuere, quibus tot funera passis, What were the Trojans able (to commit), cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis? (that) the whole circle of lands is closed, ,to them who suffered so many catastrophes, because of Italy? Lines 234-241
certe hinc Romanos olim, volventibus annis, Having promised that surely from them there will (would) be Romans, hinc fore* ductores, revocato a sanguine Teucri, 235 After the years rolled by, That there would be from them, leaders, from the restored blood of Teucer mare, quifor terras omnis tenerent, Whoqui would reach
the sea, whodicione would reach for all lands with power; pollicitus, genitor, What feeling, quae father,te, changes yousententia (now)? vertit? Indeed was consoled for theTroiae fall of Troy and sad ruins by this, hocI equidem occasum
tristisque ruinas Weighing opposing fates withfata (these) fates; solabar, fatis contraria rependens; Now the same fortune follows men driven by so many misfortunes. nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos 240 What end do you give of (to) (these) struggles, great king? insequitur. quem das finem, rex magne, laborum?
Context notes Line 242: Antenor was a Trojan who fought in the Trojan War and was pardoned by the Greeks and allowed to live Achivis Greeks Illyrics of Illyria (region east of Italy) Liburnrum Liburnians (a race of people in Illyria) Timavi river Timavus Lines 242-246 Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis, Antenor, having escaped from the midst of the Greeks, Illyricos penetrare sinus, atque intima tutus was able to enter the Illyrian gulfs, And safe(ly) (enter) the innermost kingdoms of the Liburnians regna Liburnorum, et fontem superare Timavi, and (was able) to surpass the fountain of the Timavus.
unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis 245 From there rushing sea goes through nine mouths with a vast roar of a mountain it mare proruptum et pelago premit arva sonanti. And presses upon the cultivated lands with its sounding sea. Lines 254-260 illi subridens hominum sator atque deorum, The father of men and gods, smiling down to that (goddess) voltu, quo caelum tempestatesque serenat, With an expression with which he calms 255 the sky and storms, oscula libavit talia fatur: and speaks such (words) from here:
Gavenatae, kissesdehinc to (his) daughter, 'Parce metu, Cytherea: manent immota tuorum Put aside your fear, daughter of Cythera: fata tibi; cernes urbem et promissa Lavini The fates of your (people) remain unchanged for you; moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli You will see a city and the promised walls of Lavinium, magnanimum Aenean; neque me sententia vertit. You will carry great-hearted Aeneas high to the stars of heaven; A(nother) feeling does not change me.
Lines 261-266 hic tibi (fabor enim, quando haec te cura remordet, (Indeed I will speak, since this concern gnaws at you longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo) and unraveling (what is) very distant I will move the secrets of the fates) bellum ingens geret Italia, populosque feroces This (son) of yours will wage a huge war in Italy, and will crush ferocious peoples contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, and will put in place both customs and city walls for (his) men, tertia dum Latio will regnantem
aestas, until a third summer have seenviderit him ruling in Latium, ternaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis. 265 And 3 winters will have passed since the Rutulians were conquered. lines 267-274 at puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo But the boy Ascanius, to whom the cognomen Iulus is added additur (Ilus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno) (he was Ilus, while the Trojan republic stood in a kingdom) Will triginta
magnos volvendis mensibus complete 30 great circles in powerorbis as the months unravel And imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini seat 270 will transfer (his) kingdom from the Lavinian And
transferet, et Longam muniet will strengthen Albamulta Longavi with greatAlbam. power. Here hic iam centum totos annos nowter there will be rule regnabitur for 300 whole years under the race of Hector
gente Until a royalsub Trojan priestess pregant by Mars will give twin offspring in birth. Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. lines 275-278 From indethere lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus 275 Romulus, proud of (his) she-wolf nurse with yellow fur, will
receive (his) nation Romulus excipiet gentem et Mavortia condet And will found city walls of Mars moenia Romanosque suo de nomine dicet. And will call (them) Romans from his own name. his ego nec metas rerum nec tempora pono: I do not place ends of things nor time (limits) on these (peoples) Clause breaks lines 279285 imperium sine fine dedi. quin aspera Iuno, I gave an empire without end. Why bitter Juno, quae mare nunc terrasque metu caelumque fatigat, 280 Who now torments the sea and lands and sky with fear, consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit Will revise plans for the better, And with me will support the Romans, Romanos, rerum dominos gentemque togatam. Masters of (all) things, and a togaed people.
sic placitum. veniet lustris labentibus aetas Thus it is approved. An age will come as years glide on When cum domus Assaraci Phthiamwill clarasque Mycenas the house of Assaracus crush Phthia and famous Mycenae servitio premet ac victis dominabitur Argis. 285 With slavery and will be master over the conquered Greeks.
A Trojan Caesar will be born from a nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesar, beautiful origin Who will limit the empire by the ocean, imperium oceano, famam qui terminet astris, (its) fame by the stars Julius, a name derived from great Iulus Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo. One day you, untroubled, will receive hunc tu olim caelo spoliis Orientis onustum This man, weighed down by the spoils of the East, in the sky accipies secura; vocabitur hic quoque votis. This man also will be called by prayers aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis; Then harsh ages will grow mild after wars are abandoned cana Fides et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus White-haired Faith and Vesta, Romulus with his brother Remus will give laws
iura dabunt; To whom could this be a reference? Lines 293-296 dirae ferro et compagibus artis The fearful doors of War will be closed with iron and fastenings of skill claudentur Belli portae; Furor impius intus, Within impious Furor sitting atop savage arms, saeva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus aenis 295 And chained with 100 knots of bronze behind (his) back post tergum nodis, fremet horridus ore cruento.' Roars horribly with a bloody mouth. lines 297-304 haec ait et Maia genitum demittit ab alto,
He said these things and sent down the son of Maia from heaven, utso terrae, arcescitadels thatutque thenovae new pateant lands,Karthaginis so that the hospitio Teucris, ne fati for nescia Dido with hospitality the Teucrians, of Carthage would stand open
(and) so that Dido, unaware of (her) fate, finibus wouldarceret: not keep (them) from (her) volat ille per aera magnum 300borders: that (god) flies through the great alarum, air with flapping of wings, remigio
ac a Libyae citus astitit oris. and swift(ly) stands on the shores of Libya. And et iamnow iussahe facit, ponuntque ferociaand Poeni the makes orders, Carthaginians put aside (their) ferocious
corda volente in god primiswilling regina quietum hearts withdeo; the (it); above accipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam. and a friendly mind for the Trojans. all the queen receives a peaceful soul R4 Section Assignments Lines 1-49 Lines 223-277 Lines 277-324 Lines 325-364
Lines 365-401 Lines 402-440 Lines 441-493 Aeneid Review- Section Assignments Be as creative as you want! Have something visual for the class to take away (PowerPoint, handout, chart paper) DO include: A summary of your lines Important literary devices Proper nouns (people/gods/places) Practice Explictio questions OR a seminar/discussion question R6 Section Assignments
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1-33 34-49 AND 223-253 254-277 278-293 305-371 371-417 418-440 441-493 Aeneid Review- Section Assignments Be as creative as you want!
(for Thursday 4/26) Have something visual for the class to take away (PowerPoint, handout, chart paper) DO include: A summary of your lines Important literary devices Proper nouns (people/gods/places) Practice Explictio questions OR a seminar/discussion question R4 Groups and Line Numbers Group 1: Rhema and Peijun 1-49 Group 2: Wumei, Julia 223-277
Group 3: Mariama, Rose 278-324 Group 4: Anureet, Samantha, Linda 325-364 Group 5: Nadia, Marielis 365-401 Group 6: Adam, Kevan 402-440 Group 7: UNCLAIMED 441-493 R6 Groups and Line Numbers Group 1: Marlo, Alyanna, Bhureshma 1-33 Group 2: Aubrey, Joshua, Michael, Zach 34-49 AND 223-253 Group 3: Lenny, Krishna, Jimmy, Charles 254-277 Group 4: Moises, Liora 278-293
Group 5: Akilah, Angelis, Zina, Desiree 305-371 Group 6: Carlos, Tanzim, Athar 372-417 Group 7: Shageda, Sammi 418-440 Group 8: Villy, Matthew, Timothy 441-493 R8 Groups and Line Numbers Group 1: Quinn, Cat, Drisana 1-33 Group 2: Salina, Lily, Ben 34-49 AND 223-253 Group 3: Camille, Tanya, Tiffany 254-277 Group 4: Ericson, Aaron, Cheng 278-293 Group 5: Kayla, Yashar, Kali, Afsana 305-371 Group 6: Abrar, Mahmoud, Tanvin 372-417 Group 7: Jasmine, Jaime, Israt 418-440 Group 8: Vanessa, Rong, Winnie 441-493
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