We sometimes draw the symbols from our distant past, but sometimes we draw them from the day residue,= the accumulation of events we experienced on the day of the dream. A knife,umbrella, or tie symbolizes the penis; a
pocket, tunnel, jug, or gate symbolizes the vagina in some books. Freudians believe that different symbols can mean different things to different dreamers. Contrary to pop psych,
did not say that all symbols mean the same to everyone. Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms When danger from outside world arises, the ego experiences anxiety. The ego will try to minimize anxiety via defense mechanisms: unconscious
maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety. Defense mechanisms are essential for psychological health. Freud thought over reliance on one or two defense mechanisms could cause problems. Defense Mechanism Examples Repression the most critical one, motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses. Repression
is triggered by anxiety: We forget because we want to forget. We repress unhappy memories of early childhood to avoid the pain they produce. This repression leads us to experience infantile amnesia, the inability to remember anything prior to about age three. Denial motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences. We often observe denial in adolescence and people with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia.
Regression- Returning psychologically to a younger and safer time Reaction-formation- transformation of an anxietyprovoking emotion into its opposite. The observable emotion reflects the opposite emotion the person feels unconsciously. OCD Projection unconscious attribution of our negative qualities onto others. People with paranoia are
projecting their unconscious hostility onto others. They want to harm others, but because they cant accept these impulses they perceive others as wanting to harm them. Displacement we direct an impulse from a socially
unacceptable target onto a safer and more socially acceptable target. Rationalization -provides a reasonable explanation for our unreasonable behaviors or for
failures. A related defense mechanism, intellectualization, allows us to avoid anxiety by thinking about abstract and interpersonal (impersonal) thoughts. Identification with the aggressor-the process of adopting the characteristics of individuals we find threatening: If you cant beat em, join em. Stockholm syndrome
Sublimation- transforms a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired goal. A man who set fires in childhood went on to become chief of his local fire department. Stages of Psychosexual Development Freud believed that we pass through stages, each
stage is focused on an erogenous zone. According to us, our genitals are our primary sexual organs, according to Freud, other bodily areas are sources of sexual gratification in early development. For Freud, sexuality begins in infancy. Individuals get fixated on a stage and have difficulty moving on, this psychosexual stage may not have been resolved.
STAGE APPROXIMATE AGE PRIMARY SOURCE OF SEXUAL PLEASURE Oral
Birth to 12-18 months Sucking and drinking Anal 18 months to 3 years
Alleviating tension by expelling feces Phallic* 3 to 6 years Genitals (penis or clitoris)
Latency 6 to 12 years Inactive sexual stage Genital
12 years and beyond Renewed sexual impulses; emergence of mature romantic relationships *Includes Oedipus and Electra complexes.
The Oral Stage focuses on the mouth. Infants obtain sexual pleasure by sucking and drinking. Freud believed that adults who are orally fixated are prone to unhealthy oral behaviors, like overeating, drinking excessively, or smoking. The Anal Stage children experience pleasure by moving their bowels, but soon discover that they cant do so whenever nature calls. They must learn
to inhibit their urges and wait to move their bowels in a socially appropriate place. If childrens toilet training is either too harsh or too kind, theyll become fixated and prone to anal personalities excessive neatness, stinginess, and stubbornness. To be rigid and perfectionistic. The Phallic Stage is importance in explaining
personality. The penis and clitoris become the primary erogenous zones for pleasure. Children develop a powerful attraction for the opposite-sex parent, as well as a desire to eliminate the same-sex parent as a rival. In boys, the phallic stage is termed the Oedipus complex. The boy, who wants Mommy for himself,
wants to kill or rid himself of Daddy. The boy fears that his father will castrate him as a result. Finally, these castration anxieties lead the boy to abandon this love. He then identifies with the aggressor, thats his father, and adopts his characteristics. Nevertheless, if children dont resolve this complex, the stage is set for psychological problems later in life.
In the classic Greek tragedy by Sophocles, Oedipus blinds himself soon after discovering that hed unknowingly murdered his father and married his mother. Freud was so influenced by this play that he referred to the supposed love of all boys for their mothers as the Oedipus complex. In girls, Electra complex after the Greek character who avenged her fathers murder by killing her
mother. Girls, like boys, desire the affections of the opposite-sex parent. In girls, the phallic stage takes the form of penis envy, in which the girl desires to possess a penis, just like Daddy has. Girls believe themselves inferior to boys because of their missing organ. In the Latency Stage, sexual impulses are
submerged into the unconscious. Most boys and girls find members of the opposite sex to be yucky. The Genital Stage sexual impulses reawaken. If development up to this point has proceeded without problems, mature romantic relationships occur. In contrast, if serious problems werent
resolved at earlier stages, establishing intimate love attachments is difficult. Evaluated Scientifically Very influential in thinking about personality, but there are major criticisms Unfalsifiable Failed predictions
Questionable conception of unconscious Unrepresentative samples Emphasis on shared environment Subliminally presented stimuli, that is, stimuli presented below the threshold for
awareness, can affect our behavior. Unrepresentative samples Freud based his theories on atypical samples and generalized them to the rest of humanity. Most of Freuds patients were upper-class, wealthy neurotic Viennese women. Freuds theories may therefore
possess limited external validity, that is, generalizability, for people from other cultural backgrounds. One of Freuds best-known patients, known as Anna O., was Bertha Pappenheim, who later became the founder of social work
in Germany (she was even honored with her own postage stamp). Emphasis on shared environment Freudians claim that the child emerging from the phallic stage assumes the personality characteristics
of the same-sex parent. Nevertheless, as behaviorgenetic studies have shown, shared environment plays limited role in adult personality. Neo-Freudians Share with Freudian theory an emphasis on unconscious influences and the importance of early experience in shaping personality.
Differ from Freuds theories in two key ways Less emphasis on sexuality, more on social, such as the need for approval; More optimistic about personal growth, according to Freud, personality doesnt change after childhood.
Neo-Freudians: Alfred Adler (18701937) For Viennese psychiatrist Alfred Adler, the principal motive in human personality is the striving for superiority. Our goal in life is to be better than others. To accomplish this goal, we try to form our distinctive style of life or build superiority over
others. Style of life means that each persons distinctive way of achieving superiority. Children who are pampered or neglected by their parents are later at risk for an inferiority complex. An inferiority complex refers to feelings of low selfesteem that can lead to overcompensation for such feelings. Many mental illnesses are unhealthy attempts to
overcompensate for the inferiority complex. German dictator Adolph Hitlers desire to dominate others was due to a striving for superiority and an effort to compensate for deep-seated inferiority feelings. Neo-Freudians: Carl Gustav Jung (18751961)
Jung termed the personal unconscious to Freuds unconscious. For Jung, theres also a collective unconscious. It comprises the memories from our ancestors across the generations. The collective unconscious contains many archetypes, or cross-culturally universal symbols, which explain the similarities across people in their emotional reactions to many features of the world.
They include the mother, the goddess, the hero, and the mandala. A mandala symbol Neo-Freudians: KAREN HORNEY (18851952) German physician Karen Horney was the first feminist personality theorist. She viewed Freuds
concept of penis envy as misguided. For Horney, womens sense of inferiority originates not from their anatomy but their excessive dependency on men from early age. Karen Horney believed that Freud greatly underemphasized social factors as causes of inferiority feelings in many women.
BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES Behavioral Approaches Behaviorism is a theory of learning and a theory of personality, also. Believe that differences in our personalities originate from our learning histories.
Freudians (the first few years of life are especially critical in personality development) X Behaviorists (Learning continues to shape our personalities throughout the life span.) Personalities are bundles of habits acquired by classical and operant conditioning. Personality consists of behaviors. These behaviors
are both overt (observable) and covert (unobservable), such as thoughts and feelings. View personality as under the control of genetic factors and contingencies in the environment, that is, reinforcers and punishers. Like psychoanalysts, radical behaviorists are
determinists: They believe all of our actions are products of preexisting causal influences. For radical behaviorists, like psychoanalysts, free will is an illusion. Although this person may perceive her decision to either eat or not eat a piece of candy as under her
control, radical behaviorists would regard her perception as an illusion. Social Learning (Social Cognitive) Theories Saw learning as important, but believe thinking to play a crucial role as well. How we interpret our environments affects how we react to them; if we
perceive others as threatening, well typically be hostile and suspicious. Albert Bandura (1986) emphasized reciprocal determinism, a form of causation whereby personality and cognitive factors, behavior, and environmental variables mutually influence one another.
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