OM CHAPTER 6 GOODS AND SERVICE DESIGN DAVID

OM CHAPTER 6 GOODS AND SERVICE DESIGN DAVID

OM CHAPTER 6 GOODS AND SERVICE DESIGN DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1 Chapter 6 Learning Outcomes learning outcomes

LO1 Describe the steps involved in designing goods and services. LO2 Explain the concept of robust design and the Taguchi loss function. LO3 Explain how to calculate system reliability. LO4 Explain the concept and application of quality function deployment. LO5 Describe methods for designing goods. LO6 Explain the five elements of service delivery system design. LO7 Describe the four elements of service encounter design. LO8 Explain how goods and service design concepts OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service

Design 22 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning are integrated at LensCrafters. Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design usiness Week reported that Lockheed Martin beat out Boeing for the largest defense contract in U.S. history production of the Joint Strike Fighter jetworth at least $400 billion. A Pentagon source noted Compare the two designs for the Joint Strike Fighter, and youll see the obvious: Boeings looks like a flying frog with its mouth wide open. A senior Air Force general also observed the

Lockheed design wins hands down. However, a Boeing spokesman retorted, Boeing officials say looks arent part of the design. We design our planes to go to war, not to the What do you think? senior prom. are design and style in your purchasing How important decisions? Provide examples for goods and services. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 33 Exhibit 6.1

An Integrated Framework for Goods and Service Design (slide 1) OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 44 Exhibit 6.1 An Integrated Framework for Goods and Service Design (slide 2) OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 55

Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Customer Benefit Package (CBP) Design & Configuration Weve known for a long time that Starbucks is more than just a wonderful cup of coffee. Its the experience We saw that [Hear Music stores] were doing for music what we had done for coffee. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 66 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design

CBP design and configuration choices revolve around a solid understanding of customer needs and target markets, Time: reduce waiting time, be more responsive and the value that customers place on attributes, to customer needs. such as: Place: select location for customer convenience. Information: provide product support, user manuals. Entertainment: enhance customer experience. Exchange: multiple channels used for OM, Ch. 6 Goods

and Service Design purchases. 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 77 Chapter 6 Product & Process Design in Manufacturing Robust Design and the Taguchi Loss Function Genichi Taguchi states that instead of constantly directing effort toward controlling a process to assure consistent quality, design the manufactured good to achieve high quality despite the variations that will occur in the production line.

OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 88 Chapter 6 Product & Process Design in Manufacturing Robust Design and the Taguchi Loss Function Taguchis loss function explains the economic value of reducing variation in manufacturing. L(x) = k(x T)2 [6.1] where: L(x) is the monetary value of the loss associated with deviating from the target, T;

x is the actual value of the dimension; k is a constant that translates the OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 99 Exhibit 6.3 OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Nominal-Is-Best Taguchi Loss Function 1010

Exhibit 6.2 Traditional Goal Post View of Conforming to Specifications OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1111 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Solved Problem Suppose that the specification on a part is 0.500 0.020 cm. A detailed analysis of product returns and repairs has discovered that many failures occur when the actual dimension is near the extreme of the tolerance range (that is, when the dimensions are approximately 0.48 or 0.52) and costs $50 for repair.

Thus, in Equation 6.1, the deviation from the target, x T , is 0.02 and L(x) = $50. Substituting these values, we have: 50 = k(0.02)2 or k = 50/0.0004 = 125,000 Therefore, the loss function for a single part is L(x) = 125000(x T)2. This means when the deviation is 0.10, the firm can still expect an average loss per unit of: L(0.10) = 125,000(0.10)2 = $12.50 per part OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1212 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design

Solved problem (continued) Knowing the Taguchi loss function helps designers to determine appropriate tolerances economically. For example, suppose that a simple adjustment can be made at the factory for only $2 to get this dimension very close to the target. If we set L(x) = $2 and solve for x T, we get: 2 = 125000(x T)2 x T = 0.004 Therefore, if the dimension is more than 0.004 away from the target, it is more economical to adjust it at the factory and the specifications should be set as 0.500 0.004. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

1313 Exhibit 6.3 OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Nominal-Is-Best Taguchi Loss Function 1414 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Reliability is the probability that a manufactured good, piece of equipment, or system performs its intended function for a stated period

of time under specified operating conditions. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1515 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Reliability is defined as a probability, that is, a value between 0 and 1. A 97% reliable part has a probability of 0.97 that it will perform its function for a given period of time under specified operating conditions.

A system is a related group of components that work together to accomplish a task. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1616 Exhibit 6.4 Reliability of a Serial System The total reliability of a serial system is the product of the individual probabilities of each process in a system. Rs = (p1)(p2)(p3). . . (pn)

OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning [6.2] 1717 Exhibit 6.5 Reliability of a Parallel System In parallel systems, functions are independent and the entire system will fail only if all components

fail. Rn = 1 (1 p1)(1 p2) (1 p3). . . (1 pn) [6.3] OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1818 Exhibit 6.6 Subassembly Reliabilities The reliability of this series system is 0.883, or 83.3%. R = (.98)(.91)(.99) = .883 or 88.3%

OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1919 Exhibit 6.7 Modified Design The reliability of the parallel system for subassembly B is: R = 1 (1 .91)(1 .91) = 1 0.0081 = 0.9919. Thus, the reliability of the equipment is: R = (.98)

(.9919)(.99) = .962 or 96.2%. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 2020 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Quality Function Deployment (House of Quality) Quality function deployment (QFD) is both a philosophy and a set of planning and communication tools that focus on customer requirements in coordinating the design, manufacturing, and marketing of

goods or services. QFD fosters improved communication and teamwork among all constituencies in the design process. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 2121 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design The House of Quality QFD translates customer wants and needs into technical requirements of a product or service. Building the House of Quality: Determine customer requirements through the voice of the customer (VOC).

Define technical requirements of the product. Determine interrelationships between the technical requirements. The relationship matrix defines what technical requirements satisfy VOC needs. Customer priorities and competitive evaluation help select which VOC requirements the product should focus on. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 2222 Exhibit 6.8 OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

The House of Quality 2323 Exhibit Extra The House of Quality for Building a Better Pizza OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 2424 Chapter 6 Product & Process Design in Manufacturing

Product and Process Design in Manufacturing Prototype testing is the process by which a model (real or simulated) is constructed to test the goods physical properties or use under actual operating conditions, as well as consumer reactions to the prototype. Goods that are insensitive to external sources of variation are OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 2525 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design

Product and Process Design in Manufacturing Quality engineering refers to a process of designing quality into a manufactured good based on a prediction of potential quality problems prior to production. Value engineering refers to cost avoidance or cost prevention before the good or service is created. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 2626 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design

Quality Engineering Failure-Mode-and-Effects-Analysis (FMEA) is a technique in which each component of a product is listed along with the way it may fail, the cause of failure, the effect or consequence of failure, and how it can be corrected by improving the design. A FMEA can uncover serious design problems prior to manufacturing and improve the quality and reliability of a product considerably. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

2727 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Product and Process Design in Manufacturing Product and process simplification is the process of trying to simplify designs to reduce complexity and costs, and thus improve productivity, quality, flexibility, and customer satisfaction. Process simplification of the Cadillac Seville rear-bumper assembly reduced the number of parts by half and cut assembly time by 57 percent to less than 8 minutes ($450,000 annual savings). OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

2828 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Design for Environmental Quality A focus on improving the environment by better good or service design is often called green manufacturing or green practices. Green manufacturing example: packaging for fast food restaurants. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

2929 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service delivery system design includes the following: Facility location and layout The servicescape Process and job design Technology and information support systems Organizational structure OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3030

Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Delivery System Design According to G. Lynn Shostack (see text box) The design of a service cannot be done independently from the process by which the service is delivered. A service is a dynamic, living process; it is performed and rendered. The process by which the service is created and delivered is, in essence, the service itself. A service cannot be stored or shipped; only the means for creating it can. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

3131 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Delivery System Design A poor choice on any one of these service delivery system design components, such as technology or job design, can degrade service system efficiency and effectiveness. Integrating all of these elements is necessary to design a service that provides value to customers and can create a competitive advantage.

OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3232 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Delivery System Design Facility location and layout: Location creates customers convenience. Great store layout, process design, and service encounter design are meaningless if the store is in the wrong location. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

3333 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Delivery System Design Facility location and layout: Example facilities: health clinics and clubs, retail stores, rental car firms, libraries, hotels, emergency service facilities, branch banks, post offices, gasoline stations, airports, and so on. The Internet is making physical locations less important for some informationintensive services such as Charles Schwab, Vanguard, and Scottrade. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design

2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3434 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Servicescape: All of the physical evidence a customer might use to form an impression. The servicescape provides the behavioral setting where service encounters take place. Standardization of servicescape and service processes enhances efficiency, especially for multiple site 3535

OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Servicescape: 3 dimensions Ambient conditions manifest by sight, sound, smell, touch, and temperature; five human senses; e.g., leather chairs in the lobby, cartoon characters in childrens hospital, music at a coffee shop. Spatial layout and functionality how furniture, equipment, and office spaces are arranged; also streets, parking lots, stadiums, etc. Signs, symbols, and artifacts explicit signals

that communicate an image of the firm; e.g., diplomas hanging on the wall in a medical clinic, company logos and uniforms, artwork, mission OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 3636 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning statements. Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service process design is the activity of developing an efficient sequence of activities to satisfy internal and external customer requirements. Specifications on how work is done at job and process levels.

Flowcharts of process flows integrate layout, technology, servicescape, and organizational structure (see Chapter 7). OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3737 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Delivery System Design Technology and information support systems: What technology does each job require? What information technology best integrates all parts of the value

chain? Technology ensures speed, OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3838 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Delivery System Design Organizational structure: Organize by process or by function. Who owns the process? Functional approach requires many different handoffs between work activities and no one owns the total

process. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3939 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service encounter design focuses on the interaction, directly or indirectly, between the service provider and the customer. The Principal dimensions include: Customer contact behavior and skills Service provider selection, development, and empowerment

Recognition and reward OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4040 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Encounter Design Customer contact refers to the physical or virtual presence of the customer in the service delivery system during a service experience. Customer contact is measured by the percentage of time the customer must be in the system relative to the total time it takes to provide the service.

Systems in which the percentage is high are called high-contact systems; those in which it is low are called low-contact systems. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4141 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Encounter Design Examples of high-contact systems are estate planning and hotel check-in. Examples of low-contact systems are construction services and package sorting and distribution. High customer contact areas of the

organization are sometimes described as the "front room or front office" and low customer contact areas as "back room or back office." OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4242 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Encounter Design Hire the right people, train them well, empower them, give recognition and reward. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design

2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4343 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Encounter Design Empowerment simply means giving people authority to make decisions based on what they feel is right, to have control over their work, to take risks and learn from mistakes, and to promote change. Ritz-Carlton Hotel employees can spend up to $2,000 to resolve customer complaints with no questions asked. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design

2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4444 Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Recognition & Reward Attract, retain, and motivate Keep good employees Rewards such as free trips, parking spots, team recognition, and discounts OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4545

Chapter 6 Goods and Service Design Service Recovery & Guarantees A service upset is any problem a customer hasreal or perceived with the service delivery system and includes terms such as service failure, error, defect, mistake, or crisis. Service recovery is the process of correcting a service upset and satisfying the customer. OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4646

Chapter 6 LensCrafters Integrative Case Study An Integrative Case Study of LensCrafters LensCrafters (www.lenscrafters.com ) mission statement suggests that time and service quality are the most important competitive priorities and potential order winners. CBP is the integrated set of goods (eyewear) and services (accurate eye exam and one-hour service). OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4747

Chapter 6 LensCrafters Integrative Case Study An Integrative Case Study of LensCrafters Eyewear is produced in store backroom factory in rapid response without sacrificing quality, efficient production procedures. Service delivery system design: Located in high-traffic areas for convenience. Servicescape of quality and professionalism. 11 different in-store job roles. Customers can see glasses being made in the OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design optical lab. 4848 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning

Exhibit 6.9 One Example View of LensCrafters Customer Benefit Package OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 4949 Exhibit 6.10 OM, Ch. 6 Goods and Service Design 2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning A Schematic View of a Typical LensCrafters Store Layout 5050

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