QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed
QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. NITROGEN METABOLISM Nitrogen is essential for all organisms (in amino acids and nucleic acids). oxidative
Most of the conversions between organic and inorganic nitrogen are catalyzed by bacterial and archaeal enzymes. reductive QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. plants animals fungi Nitrogen fixation Reduced nitrogen (amines, amides) is required for proteins, nucleic acids, et al. Environmental supplies of nitrogen are oxidized (N2,
NO3-) Issues include N fixation (prokaryotes only) N2 + 16 ATP + 10 H+ + 8 eNitrogenase reductase, nitrogenase 2 NH4+ + H2 + 16 ADP + 16 Pi and nitrate reduction (bacteria, plants, fungi) QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase +5 +3
+3 -3 QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. In bacteria, the electron donor is NADPH Ammonium assimilation glutamate dehydrogenase
NADPH -KG NH4+ NADP+ glu H2 O QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. Ammonium assimilation Glutamine synthetase GOGAT (glutamine oxo-glutarate amino transferase) ATP NH4+ ADP + Pi
GS glu gln NAD+ or Fd(ox) NADH Fd(red) GOGAT
glu -KG Glutamate and glutamine are major NH2 donors through transaminases e.g., Glu +OAA -KG + Asp Glutamate and glutamine are major NH2 donors
through transaminases e.g., Glu +OAA -KG + Asp Urea cycle: removal of excess N Pre-urea cycle: formation of carbamyl phosphate Urea cycle: Lose two amino-N
and a CO2 Follow the N from carbamoyl-P (green arrow) and the N from aspartate (red arrow). How much energy does it take to remove two amino-nitrogens?
How many of the reactions that we have studied are represented in excretion of excess nitrogen? Summary Nitrogen enters the biosphere through plants, fungi, but mainly bacteria and archaea Plants, fungi, and bacteria reduce nitrate nitrogen to ammonium Ammonium is incorporated into organic molecules by glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthase/GOGAT Other amino acids are formed by transamination The urea cycle removes nitrogen from ammonia and alanine as urea
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