Point of View

Point of View

First Person Point of View Major Character - fully involved in the action (the story is told by the narrator and is primarily about him/her) To Kill a Mockingbird, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Catcher in the Rye Minor Character - just barely involved in the action (the narrator, also a character, tells a story that focuses on other characters) The Great Gatsby, Wuthering Heights Innocent Eye Character A child or a disabled adult with a childlike mind tells the story. a. Because of this "childlike" perspective, the narrator is considered

"innocent," or "naive." b. The author may want the reader to see the action from a child's perspective. c. Irony may occur as a result of the contrast between what the innocent-eye narrator perceives and what the reader understands. - The Sound and the Fury Caddy uncaught me and we crawled through. Uncle Maury said to not let anybody see us, so we better stoop over, Caddy said. Stoop over, Benjy. Like this, see. We stooped over and crossed the garden, where the flowers rasped and rattled against us. The ground was hard. We climbed the fence, where the pigs were grunting and snuffing. I expect theyre sorry because one of them got killed today, Caddy said. The ground was hard, churned and knotted. Keep your hands in your pockets, Caddy said. Or theyll get froze. You

dont want your hands froze on Christmas, do you. Stream of Consciousness - (interior monologue) - Author tells the story in a non-ending flow of words representative of the thoughts of the character(s) Mrs. Dalloway What a lark! What a plunge! For so it always seemed to me when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which I can hear now, I burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as I then was) solemn, feeling as I did, standing there at the open window, that something awful was about to happen

By voicing their internal feelings, the writer gives freedom to the characters to travel back and forth in time. Mrs. Dalloway went out to buy flowers for herself, and on the way her thoughts move in past and present giving us an insight into the complex nature of her character. Different times of Narrators Life - Adult point of view vs. childhood point of view Two (or more) points of view in the same character's life Obasan Adult - mature, flowery language There is silence that cannot speak. There is silence that will not speak. Beneath the grass the speaking dreams and beneath the dreams is a sensate sea. The speech that frees comes forth from the amniotic deep. To attend its voice, I can hear it say, is to embrace its absence. But I fail the task. The word is stone.

Child simple, immature language In the seat behind us is a boy in short gray pants and a jacket carrying a wooden slatted box with a tabby kitten inside. He is trying to distract the kitten with his finger but the kitten mews and mews, its mouth opening and closing. I can barely hear its high steady cry in the clickity-clack and steamy hiss of the train. Reliable vs. Unreliable Narrator Evaluate a. b. c. d. e.

f. g. Too self-interested? Not sufficiently experienced? Not sufficiently knowledgeable? Not sufficiently moral? Too emotional? Actions inconsistent with words? Culturally ignorant? 1) is remote and objective. It has a nice 'Once upon a time' feel to it but doesn't give us any sense of one or more particular characters in the story as a person with

thoughts and feelings: a consciousness. It tells us a lot about where we are and what's happening, but if it stays at this level we might not care much about this person, and it limits the writer's scope for exploring how he experiences the world and himself. It's the subtitle across the beginning of the film that locates us. 2) is bringing in some particulars: the narrator is telling us (informing us) about a place, and an individual and their emotions. Think of it as a wide-angle shot of a village, or a voice-over. 3) is more particular, more personalized still: the narrator's voice is beginning to show us (evoke for us) the particular character and their experience. This is, to quote

James Wood's How Fiction Works, "standard realist narrative": in other words, the predominant mode of the vast majority of fiction: the narrator is in control, taking us into the experience of this world and that of individual characters and quoting speech directly. A medium shot where we can identify individuals. 4) is beginning to color the voice of the narrator with the vocabulary and point-of-view of the character. Shorthand for this is that we're going further into the character's head, as invented by Jane Austen: "God how he hated ... " and "St Mary would save me, wouldn't she?". But, of course, we're losing touch with anything that the character doesn't see or think, or any other ways of saying it. In a movie - which can't go inside heads - we could see a face, and try to read what it's feeling.

5) is tight close-up and subjective: almost a brain download, with thoughts and sensory information all jumbled up. In Wood's terms this is stream of conciousness. 1.It was winter of the year 1853. A large man stepped out of a doorway. 2.Henry J. Warburton had never much cared for snowstorms. 3.Henry hated snowstorms. 4.God how he hated these damn snowstorms. 5.Snow. Under your collar, down inside your shoes, freezing and plugging up your miserable soul

1. In the far-off days of Uther Pendragon, witches stalked the earth. 2. Every village had its witch, and we feared or consulted her according to how desperate we were. 3. When I was a child Mistress Margit frightened me, and when she walked down the street the big ones would shout "Here comes Old Margit!", while I hid and crossed myself. 4. And here came Old Margit, with her ragged clothes and her big black cat, and I shivered and prayed because St Mary would save me, wouldn't she? 5. Margits coming and her cloak like little demons dancing and whatll I do mustnt catch her eye hide in the ditch cold and wet but Black Peter will

FAR-OUT PSYCHIC DISTANCE Internal Narrator: My name, in those days, was Susan Trinder. People called me Sue. I know the year I was born in, but for many years I did not know the date, and took my birthday at Christmas. I believe I am an orphan. My mother I know is dead. But I never saw her, she was nothing to me. I was Mrs Sucksbys child, if I was anyones, and for father I had Mr Ibbs, who kept the locksmiths shop, at Lant Street, in the Borough, near to the Thames. Sarah Waters, Fingersmith, (London: Virago, 2003) p.3 External Narrator: The gardens of Lambourne House ran down to the north bank of the River Cam. The previous owner, Mr Whichcotes great-uncle, had built the elegant pavilion there; its tall windows had a fine prospect over the water, with Jesus Green and Midsummer Common beyond. On the

ground floor was a loggia where one could sit and take the air on fine afternoons. The pavilion seemed far removed from the bustle of Cambridge, though in fact Mr Essexs Great Bridge into the town was only a few hundred yards away in one direction, and the gaol in the castle gatehouse a few hundred yards in another. Andrew Taylor, The Anatomy of Ghosts (London: Penguin, 2011) p.75 CLOSE-IN PSYCHIC DISTANCE Internal Narrator: Lying awake from midnight until half past three and then going out in the moonlight with a bottle of gin to try and get another Rumpler [German plane]. Waiting with the mechanics till the first streaks of light showed down on the horizon, watching the Handley Pages coming back from some night raid. Like great cathedrals, two Rolls Eagles, seven hundred and fifty horsepower and four men in them. The heavy dew upon my flying boots, the gin in my mouth. Contact, and the men swinging on the

prop, the swish and crackle, the spitting back, the blipping till she warmed [...] The ground fire, much worse than before. Machine guns everywhere, all spitting flame at me. God this is bad. Must, must keep low. They hit, several times, but not me. Nevil Shute, The Rainbow and the Rose, (London: Heinemann, 1958) p.101-2 External Narrator: Thinking no harm, for the family would not come, never again, some said, and the house would be sold at Michaelmas perhaps, Mrs. McNab stooped and picked a bunch of flowers to take home with her [...] There it had stood all these years without a soul in it. The books and things were mouldy for, what with the war and help being hard to get, the house had not been cleaned as she could have wished. It was beyond one persons strength to get it straight now [...] This had been the nursery. Why it was all damp in here; the plaster was falling. Whatever did they want to hang a beasts skull there for? gone mouldy too. And rats in all the attics. The rain came in. But they never sent; never came. Some of the locks had gone, so the doors banged. She didnt like to be up here at dusk alone neither. It was too much for one woman, too much,

too much. Virginia Woolf, To The Lighthouse (1927) (London: Penguin 1992) p.147-9 Visual Example https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3PuUgTBXfE Practice: identify p.o.v. & psychic distance Nothing like this man had ever been seen in Privet Drive. He was tall, thin and very old, judging by the silver of his hair and beard, which were both long enough to tuck into his belt. He was wearing long robes, a purple cloak which swept the ground and high-heeled, buckled boots. His blue eyes were light, bright and sparkling behind halfmooned spectacles and his nose was very long

and crooked, as though it had been broken at least twice. This man's name was Albus Dumbledore. Sorcerers Stone, Chapter 1 Omniscient to limited Distant to more specific Practice: identify psychic distance He stopped a passing guard, but didn't dare mention platform nine and three-quarters. The guard had never heard of Hogwarts and when Harry couldn't even tell him what part of the country it was in, he started to get annoyed, as though Harry was being stupid on purpose. Getting desperate, Harry asked for the train that left at eleven o'clock, but the guard said there wasn't one. In the end the guard strode away, muttering about time wasters. Harry was now trying hard not to panic.

According to the large clock over the arrivals board, he had ten minutes left to get on the train to Hogwarts and he had no idea how to do it; he was stranded in the middle of a station with a trunk he could hardly lift, a pocket full of wizard money, and a large owl. Hagrid must have forgotten to tell him something you had to do, like tapping the third brick on the left to get into Diagon Alley. He wondered if he should get out his wand and start tapping the ticket inspector's stand between platforms nine and ten. At that moment a group of people passed just behind him and he caught a few words of what they were saying. "-- packed with Muggles, of course --" Harry swung round. Blends level 1 and 2 in the beginning

Sources http://emmadarwin.typepad.com/thisitchofwriting/psychic-distance-what-it-is-and-how-to-use-it.html http:// emmadarwin.typepad.com/thisitchofwriting/2015/04/psychic-distance-how-terrific-writers-actually-use-it.html http://www.edmondschools.net/Portals/7/docs/Stafford/Point%20of%20View8.docx https://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CB0QFjAAahUKEwidrZ7zwPbHAhUCfpIKHbfeBxo &url=http%3A%2F%2Fpdbooks.ca%2Fbooks%2Fenglish%2Fauthors%2Ffaulkner-william%2Fthe-sound-and-the-fury %2F&usg=AFQjCNFPE-LxYTKZcBfwQsgNKkUMo0p5Jw https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91md/ https://books.google.com/books?id=xP5XQMXHwsC&pg=PP10&lpg=PP10&dq=There+is+silence+that+cannot+speak.+There+is+silence+that+will+not+speak. +Beneath+the+grass+the+speaking+dreams+and+beneath+the+dreams+is+a+sensate+sea. +The+speech+that+frees+comes+forth+from+the+amniotic+deep.+To+attend+its+voice,+I+can+hear+it+say, +is+to+embrace+its+absence.+But+I+fail+the+task. +The+word+is+stone&source=bl&ots=e02vUEk8KR&sig=fXnWAGH9g6BfjpXqOXb3lRprr1c&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB0Q6

AEwAGoVChMIsfbgvsH2xwIVCwWSCh2_pwWS#v=onepage&q=There%20is%20silence%20that%20cannot%20speak. %20There%20is%20silence%20that%20will%20not%20speak.%20Beneath%20the%20grass%20the%20speaking %20dreams%20and%20beneath%20the%20dreams%20is%20a%20sensate%20sea.%20The%20speech%20that %20frees%20comes%20forth%20from%20the%20amniotic%20deep.%20To%20attend%20its%20voice%2C%20I %20can%20hear%20it%20say%2C%20is%20to%20embrace%20its%20absence.%20But%20I%20fail%20the%20task. %20The%20word%20is%20stone&f=false

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