Loosely packed cube-shaped or elongated cells that contain large central vacuole. Metabolic functions, photosynthesis and storage of water and nutrients. Example~ Fleshy part of an apple Collenchyma Cells
Thicker cell walls, irregular shape Usually grouped in strands and are specialized for supporting regions that are still growing. Celery Sclerenchyma Cells Thick rigid cell walls.
Support and strengthen the plant in areas where growth is no longer occurring. Gritty texture of a pear fruit. Tissue Systems Dermal Tissue Ground Tissue Vascular Tissue
Dermal Tissue Forms the outer coverings in plants Consists of the epidermis, the outer layer made of parenchyma cells.
Roots~ absorption, protection Stems~ gas exchange, protection Leaves, gas exchange, protections. Ground Tissue All 3 cell types Storage, metabolism and support. Vascular Tissue
Functions in transport and support Xylem-dead Phloem-living 2 major components for xylem
Tracheid Vessel Element Tracheid Long thick walled sclerenchyma cell with tapering ends. Water moves from on
tracheid to another through piths Vessel Element A sclerenchyma cell that has either large holes in the top and bottom or no end wall at all. Stacked to form long tubes called vessels.
Sieve Tube Member Conducting parenchyma cells of angiosperm phloem. Compounds move from one to another through sieve plats. Each cell has a companion cells, specialized
parenchyma cell. Growth in Meristems (Primary Growth) Meristem- regions where cells continuously divide for plant growth.
Apical Meristem- located in the tips of stems and roots. Intercalary meristems- growth between the nodes of plants. Root Structures Root Structures Root Cap
Covering of cells that protects the apical meristem. Produces a slimy lubricant. Root Hairs Extensions of the epidermal cells.
Increase the surface area. Primary Growth in Roots Roots increase in length
cell division elongation maturation in the root tip Dermal tissue matures to form the epidermis Ground tissue matures into 2 regions Cortex and Endodermis Cortex
Located just inside the endodermis. Largest region of the primary root. Parenchyma cells Endodermis
Inner cylinder of the cortex. Vascular tissue in roots matures to form the innermost cylinder Dicots and gymnosperms~ xylem makes of the central core of the root. Monocot Root Cross Section Dicot Stem
Stems Primary Growth in Stems Apical meristems give rise to the dermal, ground and vascular tissue. Dermal- epidermis Ground- cortex and pith
Cortex- just inside the epidermis Pith- located in the center of the stem. Vascular- xylem and phloem Monocot Stem Vascular Bundle of Monocot
Dicot Stem Secondary Growth Conifers and Woody dicots Increases in girth or lateral dimension Occurs at lateral meristems
Vascular cambium Gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem Cork cambium Gives rise to bark
Vascular Cambium Cells on the outside differentiate into phloem Cells on the inside differentiate into xylem Only new xylem transports water. Older xylem located at the center is only for support.
Air spaces allow for gas exchange Guard Cells Specialized epidermal cells that control the opening and closing of stomata. Controls gas exchanges with the environment.
Vascular Bundles Consists of xylem and phloem tissues Contains bundle sheath cells that prevent gas from entering the vascular bundle. Transport of Water
Water and dissolved minerals enter the roots through root hairs by osmosis. 2 Possible Pathways Apoplast Symplast Apoplast
Water moves through cell walls from one cell to another without every entering the cells. Symplast Water moves from one cell to another through the symplast. Water moves from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of the next through
plasmodesmata. Small tubes that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. When water reaches the endodermis
Water can continue into the vascular cylinder only through the symplast pathway. Water that is moving via the apoplast pathway is blocked by the suberin that permeates the casparian strip. Water can enter through the endodermal cells along with K+, but Na+ is blocked. Water then reaches the vasuclar cylinder where
xylem tissue (tracheids and vessels) conduct the water up the plant. Water Movement Up the Plant 3 Mechanisms Osmosis
Capillary Action Cohesion-tension theory Cohesion-tension Theory 3 Major Concepts Transpiration
Cohesion Bulk Flow Transpiration The evaporation of water from plants. Water evaporates through the leaves creating negative pressure to develop in the column. Cohesion
The molecular attraction between like substances. The water molecules stick together creating a single column of water molecules. Bulk Flow
When a water molecule is lost from a leaf by transpiration it pulls up behind it an entire column of water molecules. Transport of Sugars 4 Step process
Sugars enter the sieve-tube members via active transport. Water enters the sieve-tube members. Pressure in sieve-tube members at the source moves water and sugars to sieve-tube members at the sink through sieve tubes. As a result pressure builds causing the water and sugars to move. Pressure is reduced in sieve-tube members at
Plant Movements Tropisms A plant movement that is determined by the direction of an environmental stimulus. Positive Negative
Nastic Movements Plant movements that occur in response to environmental stimuli but are independent of the direction of the stimuli. Tropisms
Light causes the production of auxin to move to the shaded side. As a result the cells on the shaded side are elongated faster then the lighted side. The plant bends towards the light. Thigmotropism
Stimulus Contact with an object Function
Allows for vines to climb walls. Tendrils will coil around objects. Gravitropism Stimulus
Hormone Gravity Auxins, Gibberellins Function
Allows for roots to grow down. Allows for shoots (stems) to grow up at the apical meristem. Photoperiodism Is the response of plants to changes in the photoperiod, or the relative length of daylight
and night. Plants maintain a circadian rhythm External clues such as dawn and dusk reset the clock. Phytochrome The protein involved used in maintaining the circadian rhythm.
2 Forms depending on the wavelength of light that the phytochrome absorbs. Pr: Phytochrome red (wavelength of 660nm) Pfr: Phytochrome far-red (730nm)
Accumulates at night Resets the circadian-rhythm clock Reversible relationship between Pr and Pfr When Pr is exposed to red light it is converted to Pfr When Pfr is exposed to far-red light it is converted to Pr
Critical Night Length CNL is responsible for resetting the circadianrhythm clock. Brief dark periods during the day have no effect on the clock. Flashes of red light at night cause the clock to be reset.
Flowering in Plants Regulated by the photoperiod. 3 types of plants Long-day
Short-day Plants flower in the spring and early summer when day light is increasing. Plants flower in late summer and early fall when daylight is decreasing.
Flower when daylight is less than a critical length. Day-neutral Do not flower in response to daylight changes.
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