Plant Diversity Or: Why plants are cooler than you think

Plant Diversity Or: Why plants are cooler than you think

PLANT DIVERSITY Copy into your colored Notes Foldable PLANT CHARACTERISTICS AND ADAPTIONS PLANT CHARACTERISTICS Multicellular

eukaryotes Photosynthetic Non-motile Cell autotrophs (fixed to one spot) walls made of cellulose

Responds to environment and grows through the use of hormones PLANTS ARE CLASSIFIED BASED ON WHETHER OR NOT THEY HAVE 1. Vascular System (transport) 2.

Seeds 3. Flowers (enclosed seeds) EARLY PLANTS Came from the water First plants evolved from multicellular green algae

Some Adaptations (solutions)1. Parts extending into both air and soil 2. Develop a vascular system to transport resources in plant 3. Have a protective outer layer cuticle (waxy) keeps from drying out 4. Specialized structures for reproduction (spores & seeds) PLANT LIFE CYCLE PLANT LIFE CYCLEALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS

diploid phase haploid phase (produce sperm) (produce egg) BRYOPHYTES (NONVASCULAR PLANTS) BRYOPHYTES-NONVASCULAR

1. Most primitive plants 2. Found in moist, shady areas 3. NO vascular (transport) system

4. Small size due to no vascular tissue 5. No true roots, stems, or leaves 6. Needs water for reproduction.

7. Reproduces using spores, (a water-proof single cell that can grow into a new organism) 8. Most common example: Mosses, liverworts, liverworts

Bryophytes Mosses hornworts TRACHEOPHYTES AND VASCULAR TISSUE TRACHEOPHYTES -VASCULAR PLANTS

Contains two types of specialized vascular tissues for transport within the plant: xylem and phloem Allowed plants to become tall. Has specialized organs: roots, stems, and leaves.

Divided into 2 groups: seedless vs. seeds VASCULAR TISSUE Conducts water & nutrients throughout the plant. Moves fluids through plant body even against gravity Xylem: transports water and minerals

from roots to every part of plant (zip up the xylem) Phloem: transports nutrients & carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis (phloem= food) PLANT PARTS Roots- absorb water & minerals Leaves-

photosynthetic organs that contain vascular tissue Veins (vascular tissue)- xylem & phloem Stems Support

structure connects roots & leaves carrying water FERNS (SEEDLESS TRACHEOPHYTES) FERNS AND RELATIVES Seedless vascular plant Have true roots, stems, and large leaves (fronds) Examples: Ferns, Club Mosses,

Horsetails Reproduce using spores; still need water GYMNOSPERMS (SEEDED CONE TRACHEOPHYTES) GYMNOSPERMS (NAKED SEED) Examples Cycad (Sago palm)

Ginkgo Conifer (pine) Sago Palm Ginkgo Ginkgo GYMNOSPERMS (NAKED SEED) Adaptations

reproduce water free Transfer of sperm by pollination Protection of embryos in seeds Cones and pollen Seeds can remain dormant for years Sequoia GYMNOSPERMS 1. 2.

3. Most common are Conifers Conifers have leaves called needles or scales Reduce water loss and prevents freezing Pine Juniper

CONIFER REPRODUCTION 1. 2. 3. Male cones produce pollen and the female cone produces eggs and seeds. Pollen is inefficiently

transferred by the wind. Once mature, the scales on the female cone dry out and open scattering the seeds by the wind. Pollen Cone Pollen Seed Cone

ANGIOSPERMS (SEEDED FLOWERING TRACHEOPHYTES) ANGIOSPERMS- ENCLOSED SEEDS Flowers are reproductive organs Encourage direct and efficient pollen transfer

Fruit: pollinated ovaries Diversity: Monocots and dicots Woody and Herbacious stems Trees vs. sunflowers Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials fibrous roots taproot FRUIT CAN AID IN DISPERSAL OF SEED TO REDUCE COMPETITION WITH PARENT PLANT.

1. 2. 3. 4. Winged fruit gliding (maple fruit) Floating fruit floats (coconut)

Fleshy fruit - survive the digestive system of animals that eat the fruit (apple) Spiny fruit- Velcro like projections attach to animal fur (cockleburs) Maple seeds: Winged fruit Burdock: Spiny fruit

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