Письмо В Рамках Международных Экзаменов: Кейсы Из Ielts

Письмо В Рамках Международных Экзаменов: Кейсы Из Ielts

Telling a research story , . , - ? ? Writing an Abstract

IMRAD Introduction Literature review and Referencing Coherence and cohesion ? 1. ? 2..? 3..?

()? ? : - (Scopus) - - call for papers - Preprints

How to sell your paper 3 outlets Reader-friendly text Research paper title (attention:specific detail) Key words Writing an abstract Move 1 background/introduction/situation

Move 2 present research/ purpose Move 3 methods/materials/procedures/subjects Move 4 results/findings Move 5 discussion/conclusion/implications Use Of A Writing Web-Site By Pre-Masters Students On An English for Academic Purposes Course. A. J. Gillett, University of Hertfordshire Abstract 1. During the last 10 years, use of the World-Wide-Web for educational purposes has increased dramatically. 2. However, very little empirical research has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of this use. 3. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effectiveness of using the World-Wide-Web on an EAP writing course. 4. Two groups of students

were taught writing by two different methods: one group was taught by a teacher in a traditional classroom, while a second group included use of an on-line web-site in their course. 5. The two groups were assessed in the same way after a twelve-week period of instruction. 6. Results of the assessment showed significant differences between the two groups, the group that used the on-line web-site performing much better on all aspects of the test. 7. This suggests that the use of computer assisted learning programmes for at least some of the teaching time available can be recommended for EAP writing courses. Use Of A Writing Web-Site By Pre-Masters Students On An English for Academic Purposes Course. A. J. Gillett, University of Hertfordshire Abstract 1. During the last 10 years, use of the World-Wide-Web for educational purposes has increased dramatically. 2. However, very little empirical research has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of this use. 3. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effectiveness of using the World-Wide-Web on an EAP writing course. 4. Two groups of students were taught writing by two different methods: one group was taught by a teacher in a traditional classroom, while a second group included use of an on-line web-site in their course. 5. The two groups were assessed in the same way after a twelve-week period of instruction. 6. Results of the assessment showed significant differences between the two groups, the group that used the on-line web-site performing much better on all aspects of the test. 7. This suggests that the use of computer assisted learning programmes for at least some of the teaching time available can be recommended for EAP writing courses.

Sentence 1: background Sentence 2: background Sentence 3: purpose Sentence 4: method Sentence 5: method Sentence 6: results Sentence 7: conclusion IMRaD

- sample paper - APA reference guide Introduction Literature review and Referencing - matrix - mind map

Author Theoreti Research Methodol Analysis & Conclusion Implicati / cal/ Question ogy Results s ons for Date Concept (s)/ Future

ual Hypothe research Framew ses ork Implicati ons For practice

Literature review I would have written less if Id had more time to write Literature review introduction - Define or identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern, thus providing an appropriate context for reviewing the literature. - Point out overall trends in what has been published about the topic; or conflicts in theory, methodology, evidence, and conclusions; or gaps in research and scholarship; or a single problem or new perspective of immediate interest. - Establish the writer's reason (point of view) for reviewing the literature; explain the criteria to be used in analyzing and comparing literature and the organization of the review (sequence); and, when necessary, state why certain literature is or is not included (scope).

In the body: - Group research studies and other types of literature (reviews, theoretical articles, case studies, etc.) according to common denominators such as qualitative versus quantitative approaches, conclusions of authors, specific purpose or objective, chronology, etc. - Summarize individual studies or articles with as much or as little detail as each merits according to its comparative importance in the literature, remembering that space (length) denotes significance. - Provide the reader with strong "umbrella" sentences at beginnings of paragraphs, "signposts" throughout, and brief "so what" summary sentences at intermediate points in the review to aid in understanding comparisons and analyses. In the conclusion: - Summarize major contributions of significant studies and articles to the body of knowledge under review, maintaining the focus established in the introduction.

- Evaluate the current "state of the art" for the body of knowledge reviewed, pointing out major methodological flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and findings, and areas or issues pertinent to future study. - Conclude by providing some insight into the relationship between the central topic of the literature review and a larger area of study such as a discipline, a scientific endeavor, or a profession. From Vaughan Dickson and Tony Myatt, The Determinants of Provincial Minimum Wages in Canada, Journal of Labor Research 23 (2002), 57-68: In the last few years, prompted largely by the work of Card and Kruger (1995), numerous articles on the employment effects of minimum wage legislation have appeared. This renewed interest in how minimum wages affect employment leads

naturally to another question: What factors determine the minimum wage? Despite the ubiquity of minimum wage legislation, this question has received surprisingly little attention. One reason may be that in the U.S. the minimum wage is legislated at the federal rather than at the state level of government. Since this federal wage changes only occasionally, most U.S. studies have been limited to cross-sectional studies that focus on how the characteristics of the states, and the party affiliation of legislators, influence the vote on proposed changes in the federal minimum wage (Silberman and Durbin, 1970; Kau and Rubin, 1978; Bloch, 1980; Seltzer, 1995).[1] However, as pointed out by Baker et al. (1999), Canada offers some unique advantages for minimum wage studies: Since the Canadian minimum wage is under

provincial, not federal jurisdiction, there has been substantial variation in the level and timing of From Vaughan Dickson and Tony Myatt, The Determinants of Provincial Minimum Wages in Canada, Journal of Labor Research 23 (2002), 57-68: In the last few years, prompted largely by the work of Card and Kruger (1995), numerous articles on the employment effects of minimum wage legislation have appeared. This renewed interest in how minimum wages affect employment leads naturally to another question: What factors determine the minimum wage? Despite the ubiquity of minimum wage legislation, this question has received surprisingly

little attention. One reason may be that in the U.S. the minimum wage is legislated at the federal rather than at the state level of government. Since this federal wage changes only occasionally, most U.S. studies have been limited to cross-sectional studies that focus on how the characteristics of the states, and the party affiliation of legislators, influence the vote on proposed changes in the federal minimum wage (Silberman and Durbin, 1970; Kau and Rubin, 1978; Bloch, 1980; Seltzer, 1995).[1] However, as pointed out by Baker et al. (1999), Canada offers some unique advantages for minimum wage studies: Since the Canadian minimum wage is under provincial, not federal jurisdiction, there has been substantial variation in the level and timing of

1. Integral citation Smith and Walsh (1995) examined the effects of 2. Non integral Research has illustrated that administering caffeine to sleepy individuals has several benefits. Numerous studies have reported caffeine-related reductions (1), (6) and (9). Reporting verbs Verb, tense, aspect

If you agree with what the writer says. The work of X indicates that ... The work of X reveals that ... The work of X shows that ... Turning to X, one finds that ... Reference to X reveals that ... In a study of Y, X found that ... As X points out, ... As X perceptively states, ...

As X has indicated, ... A study by X shows that ... X has drawn attention to the fact that ... X correctly argues that ... X rightly points out that ... X makes clear that .. If you disagree with what the writer says. X claims that ... X states erroneously that ...

The work of X asserts that ... X feels that ... However, Y does not support X's argument that ... If you do not want to give your point of view about what the writer says. According to X... It is the view of X that ... The opinion of X is that ...

In an article by X, ... Research by X suggests that ... X has expressed a similar view. X reports that ... X notes that ... X states that ... X observes that ... X concludes that ... X argues that ... X found that ...

Coherence and cohesion Repetition Synonymy Antonymy Pro-forms Enumeration Parallelism Paraphrasing Transitions

1 .Repetition. In sentence B (the second of any two sentences), repeat a word from sentence A. It may be exactly the same word or the same root word but another part of speech. 2. Synonymy. If direct repetition is too obvious, use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat. This strategy is called elegant variation.' 3. Antonymy. Using the 'opposite' word, an antonym, can also create sentence cohesion, since in language antonyms actually share more elements of meaning than you might imagine. 4. Pro-forms. Use a pronoun to make explicit reference back to a form mentioned

earlier (e.g. it, this, she). 5. Enumeration. Use overt markers of sequence to highlight the connection between ideas. This system has some advantages: (a) it can link ideas that are otherwise completely unconnected; (b) it looks formal and distinctive. 6. Parallelism. Repeat a sentence structure. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating cohesion. 7. Paraphrasing Re-expressing the idea usually in a simpler way 8. Transitions. Use a conjunction or conjunctive adverb to link sentences with particular logical relationships.

i) Paraphrasing. Re-expressing idea (usually in a simpler way.) ii) Opposition. Indicates a contrast. iii) Addition. Indicates continuation. iv) Cause and effect. v) Concession. Indicates a willingness to consider the other side. vi) Exemplification. Indicates a shift from a more general or abstract idea to a more specific or concrete idea. The great expansion of international trade has created a world economy. That integration of the economies of many nations has been the main force in

creating a new situation in the world called globalisation. While globalisation is mainly fuelled by economic forces, it is fuelled also be political, social and technical integrative forces in the world today. Politically, international; government organisations such as the United Nations, The International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, along with regional organisations and agreements such as the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement, are playing an increasingly important role in global governance. Social integration is proceeding at such a rapid rate that one can say that there is a beginning of a world culture. Much of this culture is coming from the United States, but it is truly international as foods, music, dances, and fashions come

from various countries. Technical integration comes from the information and transportation revolutions that are occurring in the world. Computers, fax machines, television, and aeroplanes now link the world. Taken from Global Issues: An introduction by J.L Seitz (2002) Blackwell Publishing The great expansion of international trade has created a world economy. That integration of the economies of many nations has been the main force in creating a new situation in the world called globalisation. While globalisation is mainly fuelled by economic forces, it is fuelled also be political, social and

technical integrative forces in the world today. Politically, international; government organisations such as the United Nations, The International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, along with regional organisations and agreements such as the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement, are playing an increasingly important role in global governance. Social integration is proceeding at such a rapid rate that one can say that there is a beginning of a world culture. Much of this culture is coming from the United States, but it is truly international as foods, music, dances, and fashions come from various countries. Technical integration comes from the information and transportation revolutions that are occurring in the world. Computers, fax

machines, television, and aeroplanes now link the world. Taken from Global Issues: An introduction by J.L Seitz (2002) Blackwell Publishing

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