PIGEON DISSECTION - Mrs. Smith's World of Science

PIGEON DISSECTION - Mrs. Smith's World of Science

PIGEON DISSECTION PIGEON LATIN meaning ANIMALIA KINGDOM _____________

CHORDATA PHYLUM ____________________________ VERTEBRATA backbone SUBPHYLUM ___________________________

AVES Plural of avis= bird CLASS _______________________________ COLUMBIFORMES ORDER _____________________________ MODIFICATIONS of INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Feathers- (light weight & sturdy) provide lift & prevent heat loss Preen gland keeps feathers flyable Streamline body to decrease air/ wind resistance EXTERNAL NARES CERE

NICTITATING MEMBRANE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE inside head SCALY SKIN on feet CLAWS Kestral Image from: http://www.biology.eku.edu/RITCHISO/birdbrain2.html

EYES BIG for size of head COLOR See in Eyes on front of facegives depth perception

Seen in predators Eyes on sides of headGives wide range of vision BROOD PATCH Skin-to-egg contact keeps growing babies WARM

Males that sit on eggs have it, too Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005 CLOACA & VENT Image by Riedell/VanderWal2005

Images by Riedell/VanderWal2005 PREEN GLAND Oil makes feathers waterproof Preening straightens feathers and re-hooks barbules Image from:

http://www.rit.edu/~vertzo/Pigeon/PigeonPages/Home.html SKELETAL Hollow bones = light weight Image from: BIODIDAC FUSED BONES = Sturdy

FURCULA PYGOSTYLE STERNUM Image modified from: http://www.biology.eku.edu/RITCHISO/554notes1.html MODIFICATIONS of SKELETAL SYSTEM

Bones = hollow/air sacs extend into bones to make them LESS DENSE = fused to make them STURDY FURCULA stabilizes shoulders during flight STERNUMattaches flight muscles PYGOSTYLEsupport for tail MUSCULAR SYSTEM

PECTORALIS & SUPRACORACOIDEUS make up 35% of total body weight MODIFICATIONS of MUSCULAR SYSTEM HUGE PECTORALIS MUSCLE provides power to move wings

CROP Image by Riedell/VanderWal2005 No digestion happens here Stores and moistens food waiting to be digested CROP MILK

http://www.joanbramsch.com/images/feeding.jpg COLUMBIFORMES- crop makes nutritious fluid called CROP MILK for babies REMOVE PECTORALIS MUSCLE Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005 Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005

WHAT CAN YOU SEE? HEART LIVER GALL BLADDER inside Rest of digestive system coiled underneath liver

Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005 HEART RIGHT ATRIUM LEFT ATRIUM

RIGHT VENTRICLE LEFT VENTRICLE COMPLETE SEPTUM

Heart = 1 to 2 times larger than in equal size mammal Heart rate much faster to move more blood HOW FAST ? A human heart beats ~ 60-90 times/min A resting hummingbirds heart beats 250 times/ min. Or 1200 beats per minute (BPM) when feeding.

http://www.deskpicture.com/DPs/Nature/Animals/hummingbird.jpg HEART Image by Riedell/VanderWal2005 COMPLETE SEPTUM NOW 4 chambers 2 atria/2 ventricles SINUS VENOSUS & CONUS ARTERIOSUS

ARE GONE Main vein returning from body = VENA CAVA Main vein from lungs = PULMONARY VEIN Main artery to body = AORTA Main artery to lungs

= PULMONARY ARTERY http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw/hhw_anatomy.html LIVER with GALL BLADDER

inside PANCREAS GIZZARD LIVER with GALL BLADDER

inside PANCREAS GIZZARD STOMACH PROVENTRICULUS entry to gizzard add acid

GIZZARD Muscular Contains gravel/rocks to grind food Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005 DUODENUM (1st section of small intestine)

Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005 Receives bile from GALL BLADDER Receives trypsin from PANCREAS PANCREAS makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN,

& GLUCAGON SPLEEN (circulatory) In mesenter Wrapped in digestive loops

Near Gizzard Image by Riedell/VanderWal2005 SMALL INTESTINE (Duodenum & Ileum) REALLY, REALLY LONG SMALL

INTESTINE Absorbs more nutrients Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005 COLIC CAECA Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005

Pouches at junction of small & large intestine Contain bacteria to digest plants (cellulose) LARGE INTESTINE

Image by Riedell/VanderWal 2005 LARGE INTESTINE isnt very large! Absorbs less water back from feces (Water is HEAVY!) EXITS through CLOACA

TRACHEA BRONCHI Cartilage rings keep airway open Image by Riedell/VanderWal2005

SYRINX VOICE BOX Image by Riedell/VanderWal2005 LUNGS Images by Riedell/VanderWal 2005

Remove 31% of oxygen ; Human lungs remove 24% KIDNEYS & URETERS TESTES TESTES

KIDNEYS URETERS CLOACA ONLY 1 OVARY makes eggs OVIDUCTS add albumen/shell

http://www.wtamu.edu/~rmatlack/pigeon_dissection/brain.jpg MODIFICATIONS of NERVOUS SYSTEM Large brain for body size = smarter Bigger CEREBRUM for more complex behaviors problem solving; learning; navigation; Bigger CEREBELLUM- for muscle coordination

Bigger OPTIC LOBES for better vision; 3D & Color Concentration of iron in brain to act as compass

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