Physiology lecture 1 - Principles of Cellular Function

Physiology lecture 1 - Principles of Cellular Function

Westmead Hospital Primary teaching series Physiology lecture 1 Principles of Cellular Function Primary Exam Teaching By Vincent Tsui Written by Pramod Chandru Body Composition

Total Body Weight - 100kg Total body fluids- 60 kg (2/3) ECF (Extracellular) - 1/3 of total body fluids (20kg) Intravascular - 1/4 of ECF (5kg) Interstitial - 3/4 of ECF (15kg)

ICF (Intracellular) - 2/3 of total body fluids (40kg) Composition of Body Fluids Solute Cations Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Anions Chloride Bicarbonate Phosphate Protein Plasma

Interstitial fluid Intracellular fluid 153 4.3 3.8 1.4 145 4.1 3.4 1.3 12 150 4 34 111.5

25.7 2.2 17 118 27 2.3 6.6 4 12 40 90 Summary ECF = (Plasma + ISF) = High in Na + and Cl -

ICF = High in K+ , Mg 2+, PO4, Protein The movement of molecules How can molecules move across membranes? Passive transport Diffusion - small molecules O2, N2, CO2 Osmosis - movement of water across semi permeable membrane

Facilitated diffusion - does not require ATP but does utilise cell membrane protein Active Transport Endocytosis - Invagination of the cell membrane (CLATHRIN MEDIATED) Exocytosis - vesicles containing molecules are fused to the cell membrane and transported out (v-SNARE/t-SNARE process) Transport proteins Gated - Voltage gated, Ligand gated, Stretch triggered

Non Gated Methods of transport across cell membranes Transport Mechanism of Action Example Passive diffusions down electrochemical gradient Movement from high concentration to lower concentration across membrane Movement of oxygen across the alveolar membrane

Uses energy to transport molecules across a membrane Na+/K+ ATPase (removes 3 Na from the cell and puts 2 K into the cell converting ATP > ADP). Na binds to alpha subunit with ATP causes conformational change in protein. K binds the beta until extracellularly Active Transport Secondary Active Transport Co-transport The active transport of Glucose and Na in the GIT (SGLT1 small

Na is coupled to the intestine) transport of other Na and Ca in cardiac muscle substances The favourable movement of one molecule down in concentration gradient to transport another against Na and Ca in Muscle Tissue Movement of molecules Molecules move by their Chemical gradient (high concentration to low

concentration) Electrical gradient (cations move to negatively charged areas) When carriers move chemicals in the direction of their gradient this is called FACILITATED DIFFUSION If it is going against the gradient then this is called ACTIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion The process by which a substance in solutions expands because of

the motion of its particles to fit all of the available volume The particles of a given substance are equally likely to move into or out of an area in which it is present in high concentration However, since there are more particles in the area of high concentration the total number of particles moving into an area of lower concentration is greater The time to reach an equilibrium across a membrane is - SQAURE OF THE DIFFUSION DISTANCE The magnitude of the diffusing tendency is directly proportional to the

cross sectional area across which the diffusion is taking place AND the concentration or chemical gradient - FICKS LAW OF DIFFUSION Diffusion Diffusion How substances diffuse across a cell membrane depends on their molecular characteristics O2 can diffuse through the extracellular and intracellular space and cell membrane at a similar rate Ions on the other hand require channels to

pass Osmosis The diffusion of water across a membrane When a substance (solute) is dissolved in water (solvent) the concentration of water molecules is less in the solution than in pure water (low water potential vs high water potential) If the solution is placed on one side of a membrane permeable to water but not to solute (semi-permeable) and an equal volume of water is placed on the other side - water molecules will diffuse down a concentration gradient. OSMOSIS

The pressure necessary to prevent this solvent migration is known as the OSMOTIC PRESSURE Pressures across a semi permeable membrane Osmotic/Hydrostatic pressure Summary: Fluid moves out on the arterial end and in on the capillary end. The net filtration is OUT of the blood vessel. This is collected by lymphatics. The Gibbs-Donan Effect Governs the behavior of charged particles near a

semi permeable membrane Some charged molecules (ie. Large proteins) cant cross capillary wall An equilibrium is formed between the electrostatic and osmotic forces that affect the ions Uneven electrical charge creates MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

Tonicity The ability of a solution to move water in and out of a cell. Allows us to determine the direction of osmosis Normal Saline Consider the infusion of 1L Normal Saline 150 mmol of Na and 150 mmol of Cl Distributes rapidly (in 15-20min) from intravascular to interstitial

Cells have active pumps to move the ions as the membrane is impermeable to Na and Cl Normal saline is ISO-OSMOTIC with the ECF water. It has no incentive to shift and so distributes about 25% intravascular and 75% interstitial (proportional to distribution of Na) There is NO change in plasma osmolality Intravascular volume is increased by 250mL (5%), this change is outside the baroreceptor threshold (8-10%) There is a decrease in intravascular protein concentration, decreases oncotic pressures, which increases renal free water excretion (intrinsic renal tubular mechanism)

Volume expansion does not act for very long, causes NO change in Na and increases Cl by a total 3mmol/L Osmolality vs Osmolarity Refer to 1 solution Osmolality (Osmoles/1kg solvent) lab based Osmolarity (Osmoles/1L solution) clinically based - The difference between the two is the osmolar gap

Quiz 2012 Viva 2007 Viva MCQ What is normal serum osmolality? What substances contibute to serum osmolality? How does plasma differ in composition to intracellular fluid How is water distributed through the body compartments? How does age and gender affect total body water? Which of the following is equal to the osmoles of a solute divided by 1L of solvent a.Molarity

b.Tonicity c.Osmolarity d.Osmolality Answers Vivas: 2007 Body composition, 2012 Osmolality http :// / MCQ: C

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