Photosynthesis.PPT - Model High School

Photosynthesis.PPT - Model High School

LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this lecture you will be able to: 1. Understand that ENERGY can be transformed from one form to another. 2. Know that energy exist in two forms; free energy - available for doing work or as heat - a form unavailable for doing work. 3. Appreciate that the Sun provides most of the energy needed for life on Earth. 4. Explain why photosynthesis is so important to energy and material flow for life on earth. 5. Know why plants tend to be green in appearance. 6. Equate the organelle of photosynthesis in eukaryotes with the chloroplast. 7. Describe the organization of the chloroplast. 8. Understand that photosynthesis is a two fold process composed of the light-dependent reactions (i.e., light reactions) and the light independent reactions (i.e. Calvin Cycle or Dark Reactions).

9. Tell where the light reactions and the CO2 fixation reactions occur in the chloroplast. 10. Define chlorophylls giving their basic composition and structure. 11. Draw the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll and compare it to the action spectrum of photosynthesis. 12. Define the Reaction Centers and Antennae and describe how it operates. 13. Describe cyclic photophosphorylation of photosynthesis. 14. Describe noncyclic photophosphorylation of photosynthesis. THE SUN: MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR LIFE ON EARTH THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs, as are some bacteria and protists

Autotrophs generate their own organic matter through photosynthesis (c) Euglena (b) Kelp (a) Mosses, ferns, and flowering plants (d) Cyanobacteria Light Energy Harvested by Plants & Other Photosynthetic Autotrophs 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Food Chain THE FOOD WEB WHY ARE PLANTS GREEN? It's not that easy bein' green Having to spend each day the color of the leaves When I think it could be nicer being red or yellow or gold Or something much more colorful like that Kermit the Frog Electromagnetic Spectrum and Visible Light Gamma

rays X-rays UV Infrared & Microwaves Visible light Wavelength (nm) Radio waves

WHY ARE PLANTS GREEN? Different wavelengths of visible light are seen by the human eye as different colors. Gamma rays X-rays UV Infrared Visible light

Wavelength (nm) Microwaves Radio waves The feathers of male cardinals are loaded with carotenoid pigments. These pigments absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect others. ht g i

l ted c e l f Re Sunlight minus absorbed wavelengths or colors equals the apparent color of an object. Why are plants green? ted

c fle e R t h g li Transmitted light WHY ARE PLANTS GREEN? Plant Cells have Green

Chloroplasts The thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast is impregnated with photosynthetic pigments (i.e., chlorophylls, carotenoids). THE COLOR OF LIGHT SEEN IS THE COLOR NOT ABSORBED Chloroplasts absorb light

energy and convert it to chemical energy Light Reflected light Absorbed light Transmitted light Chloroplast

AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophic organisms use light energy to make sugar and oxygen gas from carbon dioxide and water Carbon dioxide Water Glucose PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Oxygen gas AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy Light Chloroplast NADP ADP +P

Produce ATP & NADPH The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide Light reactions Calvin cycle Chloroplasts: Sites of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Occurs in chloroplasts,

All green plant parts have chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis The leaves have the most chloroplasts The green color comes from chlorophyll in the chloroplasts The pigments absorb light energy Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts In most plants, photosynthesis occurs primarily in the leaves, in the chloroplasts A chloroplast contains: stroma, a fluid grana, stacks of thylakoids The thylakoids contain chlorophyll

Chlorophyll is the green pigment that captures light for photosynthesis The location and structure of chloroplasts Chloroplast LEAF CROSS SECTION MESOPHYLL CELL LEAF Mesophyll CHLOROPLAST Intermembrane space

Outer membrane Granum Grana Stroma Inner membrane Stroma Thylakoid Thylakoid

compartment Chloroplast Pigments Chloroplasts contain several pigments Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids Figure 7.7 Different pigments absorb light differently A Photosynthesis Road Map Chloroplast

Light Stroma NADP Stack of thylakoids ADP +P Light reactions Calvin cycle

Sugar used for Cellular respiration Cellulose Starch Other organic compounds Review: Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules A summary of the chemical processes of photosynthesis Chloroplast

Light Photosystem II Electron transport chains Photosystem I Elec tron CALVIN CYCLE Stroma

s Cellular respiration Cellulose Starch LIGHT REACTIONS CALVIN CYCLE Other organic compounds It's not that

easy bein' green but it is essential for life on earth!

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