Sharon Walpole University of Delaware Presented By: Dr. Sallie Mills Georgia Department of Education 1 Do you have adequate understanding of the role of phonological awareness in word recognition and spelling? Does your reading program include adequate attention to instruction in phonological awareness? Does your reading program include a sensible plan for phonological awareness assessment? Does your reading program include
adequate attention to intervention in phonological awareness? 2 Test your understanding of Phonological Awareness. Answer true or false to the following questions. Survey of Knowledge taken from the Georgia Teachers Academy 4
Where does PA fit in the big picture? Exactly what is PA? How do I know who needs PA instruction? What should PA instruction look like in my classroom? Phonological
Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension 6 A Better Way to Think about the Five Dimensions of Reading Phonemic Awarenes s Phonics
Fluency Vocabular Comprehensi y on Do not develop sequentially, but simultaneously: Decoding Components Phonemic Awareness Meaning Components Vocabular y Phonics
Comprehensio n Fluency Phonemic awareness 15% (Not more than 20 minutes per day) Phonics/Decoding 20% Fluency /Automaticity
Where does PA fit in the big picture? Exactly what is PA? How do we know it is important? How do I know who needs PA instruction?
What should PA instruction look like in my classroom? phonological awareness that words are made up awareness of individual sounds grapheme a written or printed representation of a phoneme, as b for /b/ and oy for /oy/ in boy . . .can be a single letter or a group of letters. phoneme smallest unit of sound that influences the meaning of a word in
a spoken /m/+/a/+/n/= man morpheme smallest meaningful word part that cannot be divided into, as the word book, or the component s in books phonics teaching reading and spelling through sound-symbol relationships, the alphabetic principal Source: The Literacy Dictionary (IRA)
Rhyming and Onset-rime Segmenting, completing, identifying, deleting syllables 16 Onset = All letters in a syllable preceding the vowel Rime = All the rest of the letters in the syllable Onset B
Fl Str Rime eet eet eet 17 Onset and Rime Written, and may be in only one word B-eet, m-eat
Last part of syllable is treated separately from the first Rhyme Oral and Written, must be at least two words Beet, fleet Beat. street
18 Phonological Awareness Phonemic Awareness Syllable awareness Onset and Rime Word Added by GARF staff 19 bag
pie the go tap fir, cuff phone, van ring lake,
bell wet had yes teeth measure where cat, key, sun, miss, nail, science, duck know
jump, zoo, gem, rage, rose, bridge buzz mat rain, write city sheep dog
cheese, watch 20 cat sit cup wet, bread box, saw, fraud cake, rain, my, tie, day, eight fine boot, true, tree, key, so, oak,
blew eat, happy ode, show car book, put boy, coin bird, fur, fern for cow found 21
Voiced Continuous a, e, i, o, u l m n r Stop b d g
h k j Q v Unvoiced w y z f s c
p t X 22 shoe spray so she
squid sap fox smart tax three thrift thump thrice
thought though threat 23 Phonemic Awareness blending , segmenting, deleting Onset-Rime Syllable Sentence
Segmentation Alliteration Rhyme Added by GARF staff 24 Clue: PA is the ability to orally manipulate sounds. Phonics is the connection of a sound to a letter. Note: /-/ indicates the sound that the letter makes
Added by GARF staff 25 PA Phonics Neither 1. Write the word pat by sounding it out. 2. What word rhymes with pat? 3. The letters ai together say //. * 4. What sound do you hear at the beginning of pat? 5. What letter do you hear at the
beginning of pat? 6. Find the two pictures that start with the sound /b/. 7. Write the alphabet. 8. Write your name. 9. What sounds do you hear in pat? 26 PA Phonic s Neither
10. Lets clap the syllables in banana. 11. What word is the robot saying? /t/a/p/ * 12 What word do we get if we drop the /s/ from scat? * 13. Write the word cat. Add the letter that makes the /s/ sound to the front. What word is it? 14. Put these words in a-b-c order. 15. Lets play the Game, Anna, Banna, bo-banna, Fee-fi-fo-fanna. 27
Where does PA fit in the big picture? Exactly what is PA? How do we know it is important? How do I know who needs PA instruction?
What should PA instruction look like in my classroom? Simple View of Reading Reading = Decoding X Listening Comprehension (a poor reader is either a poor decoder, a weak comprehender, or both) 29 Subjects 54 children (of 129) who remained in a school from first through fourth grade
Low-SES school (but free/reduced-priced lunch numbers not reported) 31% African American 43% Hispanic 26% White 30 Measures (generally Oct/April each year) Phonemic awareness Pseudoword decoding
Word reading from basal series Word reading from standardized tests Listening comprehension from standardized test Reading comprehension from standardized test Spelling from standardized test IQ in second grade Writing samples Oral story samples 31
Do the same children remain poor readers year after year? Yes. If a child was a poor reader at the end of first grade (ITBS < 1.2 GE) probability .88 that he/she would be below grade level at the end of fourth grade 32 What skills do poor readers lack? They began first grade with weak phonemic awareness. They ended first grade with improved (but still weak) phonemic awareness. They had weak pseudoword decoding ability at the end of first grade, and it continued
through the fourth grade. 33 There were 30 poor readers at the end of fourth grade: 28 were poor decoders 25 of these ALSO had poor listening comprehension 2 were good decoders with poor listening comprehension 34 Poor decoding skills! (and then less access)
In first grade, good readers had seen over 18,000 words in their basals; poor readers had seen fewer than 10,000. In second grade, few children reported reading at home, but in third and fourth grades, average and good readers read much more. 35 1. 2. 3.
Phonemic awareness is critical to learning to decode. Success in learning to decode during first grade is critical. Struggling readers need to be motivated to read and need attention to development of listening comprehension. 36 Phonological processing skills before reading instruction begins predict later reading achievement Training in phonological awareness and letter-sounds enhances growth in word reading Older good and poor readers have
different phonological processing skills When we measure different phonological skills, we find them correlated Phonological awareness in kindergarten is causally related to decoding in first grade 37 Testing of over 400 4- and 5-year-olds, none of whom could read Initial sound categorization (odd man out) related to reading and spelling 3 years later Training study 38
Group I Group II Group III Group IV Picture sorts for beginning, ending, medial sounds Same
sorts, but plastic letters to show the common sound Same No training pictures, but sort into semantic categories 39 Sorting plus letters group (Group II)
outperformed both controls (Groups III & IV) in reading and spelling Sorting plus letters group outperformed sorting only (Group I) in spelling (but not in reading) 40 Sample 159 kindergarten children (84 treatment) Low-average PPVT (mean SS = 91) 85% free/reduced-price lunch Average letter sounds = 2 (Jan., K) Treatment 41 15-20 minute lessons Heterogeneous groups (4-5) working with teacher and/or paraprofessional
41 1. 2. 3. Phoneme segmentation activity Say it and move it (children hear word, isolate individual sounds while moving disks, then blend sounds to make word again) Segmentation-related activity (initial consonant picture sorts) Letter name and sound practice for a,m,t,I,s,r,f,b
42 Significant differences between treatment and control for Phoneme segmentation Letter names Letter sounds Word reading Nonword reading Spelling 43 Not all children made the same amount of progress in the program; continue to intervene during first grade
Homogeneous reading groups (6 to 9 children) used in the classroom for 30 minutes in place of basal reading group 44 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Review of letter sounds, with cards Phoneme blending/analysis for regular words using pocket charts and letter cards Automaticity with phonetically regular and
high frequency words 10-15 minutes of reading from phonetically controlled texts Dictation of words and sentences 45 Treatment children outperformed control children in phoneme segmentation, in letter name knowledge, in letter sound knowledge, and in reading 46 Instruction was continued for children who remained in second grade; again they outperformed the control group in measures
of reading, but not spelling 47 These two studies provide two pictures that contribute to scientifically-based reading research. How do the instructional approaches here compare to the programs implemented in your schools? 48 Where does PA fit in the big picture? How do we know it is important? Exactly what is PA?
How do I know who needs PA instruction? What should PA instruction look like in my classroom? 49 DIBELS ISF and PSF Yopp-Singer Holly Lane /Paige Pullen Added by GARF staff 50 Lets
test your phonemic awareness. Are you as phonemically aware as we ask kindergartners to be? Added by GARF staff 51 Find your copy and review it with your partner. Added by GARF staff 52
LETS TRY IT! Partner #1: Administer Tapping Words pg. 103 Partner #2: Administer Deleting Syllables pg. 104 Added by GARF staff 53 Analyze the data. Group students based on their instructional needs. Plan instruction to address the needs of each group as identified through informal testing. Provide explicit, systematic instruction daily. Monitor progress and adjust instruction.
54 What should you consider when assessing PA? Whom should you assess? 55 Where does PA fit in the big picture? How do we know it is important? Exactly what is PA? How do I know who needs PA
instruction? What should PA instruction look like in my classroom? 56 Lets find out how PA is addressed in the GPS at various grade levels. 57 Note: The information in the next 11 slides is taken from Phonemic Awareness in Young Children,
Marilyn Jager Adams, et al., 1998, and Phonological Awareness Assessment and Instruction, Lane & and Pullen, 2004. Added by GARF Staff 58 11 Integrating Letters
10 Deleting Phonemes 9 Segmenting Phonemes 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Blending Phonemes Isolating, Identifying, Categorizing Phonemes Focusing on Syllables Focusing on Words Focusing on Sentences
Focusing on Rhyme Focusing on Directions Focusing on Environmental Sounds 59 11 Integrating Letters 10 Deleting Phonemes 9 Segmenting Phonemes 8 7 6
5 4 3 2 1 Blending Phonemes Isolating, Categorizing, Identifying Phonemes Focusing on Rhyme Phonemic Awareness: (1) Initial (2) Final (3) Medial Focusing on Syllables
Phonological Awareness: Identifying, completing, segmenting and deleting. Focusing on Words Focusing on Sentences Focusing on Directions Focusing on Environmental Sounds 60 ting Integra Letters
Focusing on Rhyme Focusing on Syllables Focusing on Words Focusing on Sentences Focusing on Directions Focusing on Environmental Sounds 61 There are 6 types of PA skills (yellow) in your envelopes, with 3 examples of each: easy, moderate, difficult (white). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Match the types of skills (yellow) with the
activities (white). 2. Arrange the activities (white) in order by difficulty. 62 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 5
6 63 So An rt Ac sw tiv er ity Ke y Syllable segmentation How many How many syllables in teddy?syllables in elephant?
How many syllables in anatomy? Rhyme Do cat and car rhyme? Mat, sun, cat. Which doesnt rhyme? Tell me words that rhyme with bat.
Phoneme identity Whats the first sound in man? Whats the last sound in mat? Whats the middle sound in tip? Blending C-at. What word? D-o-g. What word?
Segmenting Cat. Say the first How many sounds How many sounds sound and the in sit? in stop? rest. Deletion Say cowboy without the boy Say part without the /p/.
S-t-o-p. What word? Say step without the /t/. That you make the sounds cleanlywithout the uh That you use your left hand facing forward 65 66
/c/ /a/ /t/ 67 /c/ /a/ /t/ c a t 68 Elkonin Boxes One of the earliest researchers to link phonological awareness to reading was Elkonin (1963), a Russian psychologist. He developed a method of teaching children to segment the sounds in a word by moving markers into boxes on a piece of paper, hence the name "Elkonin boxes". This early use of Elkonin boxes to assist in the development of
phonological awareness has since been adapted to accomplish many related objectives. Elkonin boxes may be used in several ways to help students hear the sounds in words and record the sounds in sequence. Count the sounds in a word. Draw one box for each sound. Using chips to represent sounds at first, move a chip into each box as the word is repeated slowly. Then insert the letter(s) for each sound into the boxes. 69 70
We will form 6 groups. You will sign up under a listed chapter. Please only sign where there is an available space for your name. Each group will become familiar with one of the chapters in the book. The group will decide on 2 or 3 activities to demonstrate for the class.(Ch. 6 and 7 have two groups) Please include the name of the activity and level of PA it addresses.
71 Word Level Activities Hopping Words: Children hop once for each word in a sentence. Counting Words: Using bead strings or tally marks on a page, children count the words in a sentence. Silly Sentence Switching: The teacher says a sentence. The first child changes one word in that sentence. After hearing the new sentence, the next child switches one word in the new sentence. Adding Attributes: Using a picture or toy as the stimulus, each child adds a one-word attribute to the description. Matchsticks: Each child is provided with a picture card (mounted on a stick) that represents one word of a compound word. Children find another child to combine words with to form a compound word. 72 Syllable Level Activities
Clapping/Tapping Syllables: Children clap/tap once for each word part in a multisyllabic word. Counting Syllables With Picture Cards: Select a picture card from the stack. Children clap or tap the number of syllables. Variation: Each child has a picture card. They sort themselves in groups according to the number of syllables in their picture. 73 Syllable Level Activities (continued) Highlighting Syllables: After reading a book to children, the teacher takes the children back through the book looking for words with a given number of syllables. Each word found is highlighted with highlight tape. Syllable Sorting:
Children sort picture cards into categories according to the number of syllables in each word. Junk Box Rock: A child chooses a toy from the Junk Box. The child names the item and does the Junk Box Rock by rocking his/her hips from side to side for each syllable. 74 Onset-Rime Level Activities Word Bird: A child says a word and tosses a beanbag (bird) to a classmate, who must generate a rhyming word. Continue around the circle of children. CLUMP!: Each child is provided a picture card. When the teacher says Clump! the children walk around the room looking for classmates who have words that rhyme with theirs. They clump with these
classmates. Rime Graphing: Using the cards from the Clump! activity, children place their card in a pocket chart next to the phonogram for their word. The teacher can guide the children in determining which rimes are most important to know based on how many words it appears in. 75 Onset Rime level Activities (continued) Rhyming Pairs: Using a poem chart, the teacher covers the second word in a rhyming pair and asks children to generate possible words to go in the blank. Alphabet Sponging: With wet sponges cut into alphabet shapes (onset and rime sponges), children make lists of words in the same word
family on construction paper. 76 Phoneme Level Activities Sound Detective: Given a target phoneme, children determine which words on a list begin or end with that sound. Start this activity by listening for words that begin with the target sound. Then have children listen for words that contain the sound in the medial or final position. Sound Play: Children practice inserting or deleting individual sounds in words to form new words. (InsertingSay cat. Now add a /s/ to the end of cat. DeletingSay Mike. Now say Mike without saying /k/.) Bead Counting: Children use bead strings to count individual phonemes within a given word. Sound Bingo:
The teacher calls out a sound, children find pictures on their cards that represent a word with the same beginning sound. 77 Phoneme Level Activities (continued) I Spy!: The teacher finds an item in the classroom that begins with a target sound and says, I spy something that begins with __ . The children try to guess the item. Sound Hound: Played much like Old Maid but with picture cards that have pair sets with matching beginning sounds and one Sound Hound card. Robbie Robot: Robbie can only say and understand words that are spoken one sound at a time. Say It, Move It: Say a word. Count the phonemes in the word. Repeat the word
slowly, moving a chip down to the arrow as you say each sound. Then blend the sounds and say the word fast as you sweep your finger under the chips on the arrow. 78 What activities will you use in your classroom? 79 Consider student needs based on data. Consider grade level. 2nd grade and above should focus on segmenting and blending phonemes.
Choose only one or two PA skills to work on daily. Consider the levels of difficulty on hierarchy. Prepare word lists to use with each activity. Repeat the same activities, changing the words used as needed. Added by GARF staff 80 What do we know about phonemic awareness instruction with sufficient confidence to recommend for classroom use?
81 PA training improves phonemic awareness. PA training improves decoding. PA training improves spelling. PA training improves comprehension. PA training works for pre-k, K, 1 and older disabled readers. PA training works with high- and low-SES children. PA training does not improve spelling for reading-disabled students. 82 PA training works in English and in other
languages. Many different activities can be used in the trainings; however a focus on one or two skills appears more effective than more at one time. Blending and segmenting are most powerful. Using letters in training is better than not using them. Over learning letter names, shapes, and sounds should be emphasized along with PA training. 83 Between
5 and 18 hours yielded the strongest effects. Longer programs were less effective. (But the panel cautioned against making rules about time.) Regular classroom teachers can effectively implement the training. Small groups were more effective than whole class or tutoring. 84 1. Use assessments to screen in K and 1 st grade to identify students at risk in PA.
2. Use instructional programs and activities that develop phonological awareness. 3. Use assessments to monitor progress and inform instruction. 4. Use intervention programs for those children at risk in PA. Where
does PA fit in the big picture? How do we know PA is important? Exactly what is PA? How do I know who needs PA instruction? What should PA instruction look like in my classroom? 8 Adams, M. J. (1994). Modeling the connections between word recognition and reading. In In R.B. Ruddell & N.J. Unrau, (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (54h ed.) (pp. 838-863). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Adams, M. J., et al.,(2002) Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Blachman, B.A., Tangel, D.M., Ball, E.W., Black, R., & McGraw, C. (1999). Developing phonological awareness and word recognition skills: a twoyear intervention with low-income, inner-city children. Reading and
Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 11, 239-273. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P.E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 301, 419-421. Coltheart, M. (1978). Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Strategies of information processing (pp. 151-216). London: Academic Press. Ehri, L.C., & McCormick, S. (1998). Phases of word learning: Implications for instruction with delayed and disabled readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 14, 135-163. Gillon, G. T., (2004). Phonological awareness: From research to practice. New York: Guilford Press. Harris, T.L., & Hodges, R.E. (Eds.) (1995) The Literacy Dictionary: The Vocabulary of Reading and Writing, International Reading Association. 87 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
(2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Ruddell, R.B., & Unrau, N.J. (2004). Theoretical models and processes of reading (5th ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Sadoski, M., & Paivio, A. (2004). A dual coding theoretical model of reading. In R.B. Ruddell & N.J. Unrau, (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (5th ed.) (pp. 1329-1362). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Share, D.L. (1998). Phonological recoding and orthographic learning: A direct test of the self-teaching hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72, 95-129
Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., & Rashotte, C.A. (1994). Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 276-286. 88
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demonstrate a real world, not theoretical, application of disciplinary knowledge. ... Disaggregate results across time, populations, and outcomes. Protect the confidentiality and anonymity of students and faculty by examining results at the group level.
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