ESSENTIAL COMPUTING I CSCI 104 COMPUTING CONCEPTS OBJECTIVES Distinguish between system and application software. Identify the four types of computers and the four types of microcomputers.
Describe computer hardware including the input, output, storage, and communication devices. INTRODUCTION What is a Computer System? An electronic device that can accept data as input, interpret and execute programmed instructions that operate on that data to produce information and then output the information.
SOFTWARE SOFTWARE Executable step by step instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task. Two major kinds of software System Software (Operating Systems) Application Software SYSTEM SOFTWARE
System Software Linux (& its distributions) Mac OS X Windows 7 Windows 10
6 SYSTEM SOFTWARE Provides User Interface Interfaces between hardware and software RAM Management Hard Drive Management Process Management
Network connections Utilities: Disk cleanup Defrag APPLICATION SOFTWARE Application Software
Productivity Applications Word, Excel, Access, and PowerPoint Games & Other Applications Solitaire and Dreamweaver 8
APPLICATION SOFTWARE Two major categories Basic Application or General purpose Specialized Applications End-user software DATA Raw, unprocessed facts Processing data creates information Stored electronically in files:
Document Files Worksheet Files Presentation Files DOCUMENT FILES Created by word processors to save documents such as memos, term papers, and letters
WORKSHEET FILES Created by electronic spreadsheets to analyze things like budgets and to predict sales PRESENTATION FILES Created by presentation graphics programs to save presentation materials. For example, a file might contain audience handouts, speaker notes, and electronic slides.
HARDWARE HARDWARE Parts of the computer you can physically touch Types of Computers: Supercomputer Mainframe Personal/Microcomputers
Tablet/Smart Phone TYPES OF MICROCOMPUTERS Desktop Laptop/Notebook Tablet DESKTOP COMPUTERS Small enough to fit on top of or alongside a desk yet are too big to carry around
NOTEBOOK OR LAPTOP COMPUTERS Notebook computers, also known as laptop computers, are portable, lightweight, and fit into most briefcases Advantages & Disadvantages? TABLET Is a type of notebook computer that accepts your
handwriting and senses touch. This input is digitized and converted for further processing by programs. MICROCOMPUTER HARDWARE Four basic categories of equipment: - System Unit - Input/Output - Secondary Storage - Communication
INPUT/OUTPUT Common input devices ? Common output devices ? SYSTEM UNIT Two important components: Microprocessor
Intel AMD Memory (RAM) MICROPROCESSOR The central processing unit (CPU) brain Responsible for instruction execution Determines speed of computer
23 STORAGE Inside the computer A bit or binary digit has one of two values, zero or one A byte is the smallest addressable unit of memory (8 bits)
256 patterns or 28 for each byte 00000000 TO 11111111 Each letter or number is stored in one byte MEMORY (RAM) RAM Random Access Memory Stores active programs and data Volatile (erased when power turned off)
Consider a UPS (uninterrupted power supply) Measured in Bytes 1 Megabyte = 220 characters (~1,000,000 bytes) 1 Gigabyte = 230 characters (~1,000,000,000 bytes) Comes with 2GB up to 16GB of RAM Keep multiple programs & data files in memory Graphic-intensive programs demand a lot of memory
25 OTHER MEMORY (ROM) ROM Read Only Memory Permanent memory that controls basic operations of the computer when in use BOOTS UP the computer SECONDARY STORAGE
Unlike memory, secondary storage holds data and programs even if electrical power is not available SECONDARY STORAGE Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Solid State Drive (SSD)
Tape (common for backups) Flash Drives & SD Cards Outdated Zip disks Floppy Disks 28 COMMUNICATION HARDWARE Devices that allow computers to communicate with each other
Allows a LAN (local area network) to connect to a WAN (the Internet) Modem/Cable Modem/DSL Modem allows the computer to communicate over cables used for other transmissions (voice, cable TV, etc.) COMMUNICATION HARDWARE Network Card Ethernet card or wireless
Router Allows two or more devices to share the internet connection Ethernet Cable cable to connect the computer Ethernet network card to a router or modem HOW COMPUTERS WORK
HOW SYSTEM HARDWARE INTERACTS RAM Input CD , DVD, Flash Drive CPU
Output Hard Drive FILE MANAGEMENT DISK AND FILE MANAGEMENT A file is a set of instructions or data
Program file: Microsoft Word or Excel Data File: Document or workbook Copy, move, rename or delete a file A folder allows us to organize our files May contain files and/or other folders A back up strategy is critical
What (data), When (whenever it changes), Where (off site), How (Windows Explorer), and Who (you) 34 ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE
A computer virus is an actively infectious program that can erase data and/or alter the way your computer works Worms and Trojan horses are other types of infectious programs, but all are bad
Computer viruses are spread through email, and/or infected floppy disks Windows does not include an antivirus program; i.e., you must buy it separately and update it frequently Windows 8&10 Windows Defender Should you get antivirus software? 35 FILE COMPRESSION Use WinZip/FileZilla (or compatible) program to
create a compressed file or archive Create a self-extracting file from the archive that does not require supporting software 36
QUESTIONS/DISCUSSION DISCUSSION QUESTIONS What is system software? What kinds of programs are included in system software? Define and compare basic and specialized application software. Describe some different types of basic applications. Describe some types of specialized applications.
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Describe the different types of computers. What is the most common type? What are the types of microcomputers? HOW TO PURCHASE A PC PURCHASE OF A PC What to Consider
How much can you spend? Desktop or Laptop? What will it be used for? Hardware
RAM Hard Drive Size Screen Size Network Card PURCHASE OF A PC
Sound Card Video Card Processor Speed Processor Type Mac vs. Windows vs. Chrome
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