Numbers, Symbols and Conventions used in chemistry

Numbers, Symbols and Conventions used in chemistry

NUMBERS, SYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS USED IN CHEMISTRY Dr. Chin Chu River Dell Regional High School CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS 3H2O O2 (g) OH -1 CO2 What do those numbers and symbols

mean? THE CONVENTIONS 1. NAME 2. 3. (4) 1.Coefficients 2.Charge number / oxidation state 3.Subscripts 4.Subscripts in ( ) state of matter COEFFICIENTS 1. NAME i. Coefficient is a whole number that specifies the number of entities in totality immediately

following it. ii. By convention, 1 is usually not written explicitly. Examples: 3H2O 5Fe2(SO4)3 3x2=6H 3x1=3O 5 x 2 = 10 Fe 5 x 3 x 1 = 15 S 5 x 3 x 4 = 60 O SUPERSCRIPTS (CHARGE #/OXIDATION STATE) NAME 2.

i. Charge number/oxidation state specifies the charge on the ion. ii. By convention, charge numbers/oxidation states are not included in writing the compound formulas. Examples: Ca2+ calcium cation, monoatomic + SO42- sulfate anion, polyatomic

CaSO4 calcium sulfate compound SUBSCRIPTS NAME 3. i. Subscript specifies the number for the element (and that element only) immediately to the left. ii. By convention, subscript 1 is not explicitly written. iii. For polyatomic ions, subscript outside the () covers all elements within the (). Examples: SO4

Fe3(PO4) 2 2- The number 4 only specifies that there are 4 oxygen atoms in the sulfate polyatomic anion. 3 specifies there are three iron (II) cations in the compound. 4 specifies there are four oxygen atoms in each polyatomic phosphate ion. 2 specifies there are two complete phosphate ions in the compound. SUBSCRIPTS IN ( ) STATE OF MATTER NAME (4)

i. State of matter specifies the state of each compound is in. ii. Could be aqueous (aq), solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g) or precipitate (p). Examples: Ca2+(aq) calcium cation in water CO2(g) carbon dioxide gas BaSO4(p) barium sulfate precipitate

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