NUET 1000 Module 1 - Go Nuke

NUET 1000 Module 1 - Go Nuke

Introduction to the Nuclear Power Industry ACADs (08-006) Covered 1.1.4.6 1.1.9.2.1 1.1.9.2.2 1.1.9.2.3 1.1.9.2.4 1.1.9.2.5 1.1.9.2.6 Keywords History, Three-Mile Island, Idaho Falls, Salem, Davis-Besse, BWR, PWR, HTGR,

Description Supporting Material Three Mile Island; Browns Ferry Fire; Davis-Besse; Idaho Falls; Salem Generating Plant Turbines; Chernobyl Disaster NUET 1000 Introduction to the Nuclear Power Industry Module #1 History of Nuclear Technology Reactor Designs & Nuclear Power 3 4 Competencies & Subcompetencies

1. Upon completion of this module of instruction, the student shall be able to explain the history of the nuclear power industry to include incidents, accidents, and lessons learned. Subcompetencies i. History of nuclear technology ii. Early war years iii. Development of commercial nuclear power 5 Competencies & Subcompetencies 2. common reactor Identify designs to include: BWR, PWR, HTGR Subcompetencies i. Show major components for each reactor type on a simplified diagram, to include ALWR (ABWR & APWR) and HTGR (Pebble Bed HG Reactor)

ii. Demonstrate a knowledge of the basic flow paths for each power reactor type, to include, BWR, PWR, HTGR 6 NUET 1000 Module 1 History of Nuclear Technology Summary Early Pioneers (1800 1939) George de Hevesy 1902 Earnest Rutherford (Radioactivity) 1905 Albert Einstein (Mass-Energy Equivalence) 1911 Fredrick Soddy, George de Hevesy (Isotopes) 1932 James Chadwick (Neutron) Madame Curie 1938 Otto Hahn & Fritz Strassman (Fission) 1939 Lise Meitner, Otto Frisch, & Niels Bohr

(Energy from fission) Niels Bohr 7 NUET 1000 Module 1 History of Nuclear Technology Early Pioneers (1800 1939) 1902 Earnest Rutherford (Radioactivity) Developed a fuller understanding of atoms Fired alpha particles into nitrogen forming oxygen Showed that emission from the nucleus created a different element 8 NUET 1000 Module 1

History of Nuclear Technology Early Pioneers (1800 1939) Anyone who doesn't take truth seriously in small matters trusted in large ones either cannot be Albert Einstein 1905 Albert Einstein (Mass-Energy Equivalence) E = mc2 Developed theory of the relationship between mass and energy Formula is E=mc2, or energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. Took almost 35 years for someone to prove his theory 9 NUET 1000 Module 1

History of Nuclear Technology Early Pioneers (1800 1939) 1911 George de Hevesy 1911 Fredrick Soddy (Isotopes) Discovered that naturally-radioactive elements had different isotopes George de Hevesy showed that radionuclides were invaluable as tracers 10 NUET 1000 Module 1 History of Nuclear Technology Early Pioneers (1800 1939) 1932 James Chadwick (Neutron)

Discovered the neutron Neutron was crucial for the fission of uranium 235 Hughes Medal of the Royal Society in 1932 Nobel Prize for Physics in 1935 11 NUET 1000 Module 1 History of Nuclear Technology Early Pioneers (1800 1939) 1939 Lise Meitner, Otto Frisch, & Niels Bohr (Energy from fission) Calculated the energy release from fission 200 million electron volts Then confirmed experimentally First experimental confirmation of Albert Einstein's theory Suggested nucleus, split into two not quite equal parts 12

NUET 1000 Module 1 History of Nuclear Technology Early Pioneers (1800 1939) 1938 Otto Hahn & Fritz Strassman (Fission) Identified the products from fission Fission products were about half the mass of uranium Suggested that the neutron was captured by the nucleus and caused fission 13 NUET 1000 Module 1 The War Years: Development of the Bomb Summary Manhattan Project (1942 1946) 1942 Enrico Fermi (Controlled Chain Reaction)

Chicago Pile demonstration Italian physicist ~ Enrico Fermi 1942 Manhattan Engineering District (MED Manhattan Project) 1945 First Bomb Test at Trinity Site 1945 (August) Bombs dropped on Japan 1946 President Truman Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (AEA) 14 NUET 1000 Module 1 The War Years: Development of the Bomb Manhattan Project (1942 1946) 15 NUET 1000 Module 1 The War Years: Development of the Bomb Manhattan Project (1942 1946)

1942 Enrico Fermis Chicago Pile: CP-1 (Controlled Chain Reaction) Pile of uranium and graphite blocks, Assembled under the supervision of Enrico Fermi Collaboration with Leo Szilard, discoverer of the chain reaction. Contained a critical mass of fissile material, with control rods Built by the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory Part of the Manhattan Project 16 NUET 1000 Module 1 The War Years: Development of the Bomb Manhattan Project (1942 1946) 1942 Manhattan Engineering District (MED Manhattan Project) 19421946 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Gen. Leslie R.Groves) Scientific direction (Robert Oppenheimer) Codename for the project to develop the first atomic bombs Led by the United States, included participation from the United

Kingdom and Canada General Leslie Groves 17 NUET 1000 Module 1 The War Years: Development of the Bomb Manhattan Project (1942 1946) 1945 First Bomb Test at Trinity Site, about 35 miles (56 km) southeast of Socorro, New Mexico at White Sands Proving Ground Pre-test explosion to calibrate instrumentation ~ about 180 Tons of TNT. The test allowed the calibration of instruments to measure the blast wave, and gave some indication of how fission products might be distributed by the explosion. 18

NUET 1000 Module 1 The War Years: Development of the Bomb Manhattan Project (1942 1946) 1945 First Bomb Test at Trinity Site Weapon's informal nickname was "The Gadget Test was conducted by the United States Army on July 16, 1945 Date considered to be the beginning of the Atomic Age 19 NUET 1000 Module 1 The War Years: Development of the Bomb Manhattan Project (1942 1946) 1945 Bombs dropped on Japan The first atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima (August 6th)

Contained U-235 The second bomb dropped on Nagasaki (August 9th) Contained Pu-239 August 10th Japanese Government surrenders 20 NUET 1000 Module 1 The Post-War Years Post War activities (1947 1955) ~Summary 1946 President Truman Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (AEA) Established United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Foster and control peace time development of atomic science and technology USN assigns Hymen Rickover to Oak Ridge National Lab 1946 President Truman signed the McMahon/Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 :

Transferred control of atomic energy from military to civilian hands, Effective January 1, 1947 21 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post War activities (1947 1955) ~Summary 1951 US Congress authorizes construction of a nuclear submarine 1952 S1W built Nautilus prototype completed 1953 Atomic Energy Commission (Investigates Peaceful Uses) United States then launched an "Atoms for Peace" program Supplied equipment and information to schools, hospitals, and research institutions within the U.S. and throughout the world First reactors in Iran and Pakistan built under the program by American Machine and Foundry 23 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power

Post War activities (1947 1955) 1953 President Eisenhower (Atoms for Peace Speech) Atoms for Peace Speech 24 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post War activities (1947 1955) 1954 AEA Amended to allow civilian access to technology The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, 42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq., United States federal law Fundamental U.S. law on civilian and military uses of nuclear materials Was an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 - Increased support for the possibility of a civilian nuclear industry

25 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post War activities (1947 1955) 1955 AEC announces a cooperative program with nuclear power industry Power Demonstration Reactor Program AEC and industry will cooperate Construct and operate experimental nuclear power reactors USN Nautilus submarine

Underway on nuclear power January 17th, 1955 26 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post War activities (1947 1955) 1955 (July) Arco, Idaho, first U.S. town powered by nuclear energy. BORAX-III Reactor Linked to the local power grid and for about an hour on July 17, 1955, Provided 2,000 kW Power to Arco, Idaho (500 kW), & BORAX test facility (500 kW) Partially powered the National Reactor Testing Station (1,000 kW) Arco became the first city solely powered by nuclear energy Reactor continued to be used for tests until 1956 27 NUET 1000 Module 1

Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post War activities (1947 1955) 1955 (November) EBR west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, partially melts down First nuclear reactor to produce electricity On November 29, 1955, about 50 percent of the core melted Part of the National Reactor Testing Station - Now known as the Idaho National Laboratory Principal cause of this event was human performance 28 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) ~ Summary 1957 Sodium Reactor Experiment at Santa Susana, California, the first civilian nuclear power unit to go on-line. 1957 President Eisenhower signs the Price-Anderson Act 1957 First full-scale nuclear power plant in the U.S

(Shippingport, Pennsylvania) 1959 The first nuclear power plant in the U.S. without any government funding, Dresden 1 Illinois 29 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) 1957 (July) Sodium Reactor Experiment at Santa Susana, California, the first Civilian nuclear power unit to go on-line. Designed by Atomics International Sodium Reactor Experiment began in June 1954 Construction underway in April 1955 SCE installed a 6.5 MW electric power generating system 30 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978)

1957 (September) President Eisenhower signs the Price-Anderson Act Signed on September 2, 1957 Named for Congressman Charles Price and Senator Clinton Anderson Both eventually chaired Congress's Joint Committee on Atomic Energy Financial protection to licensees and contractors in case of accident Commercial Nuclear Power not possible without it 31 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) 1957 First full-scale nuclear power plant in the U.S (Shippingport, Pennsylvania) The plant was able to generate 60 megawatts of electricity Used ordinary water to cool the reactor core during the chain reaction Showed that nuclear energy could produce electricity for commercial use

Encouraged private industry to develop light-water reactors Federal programs shifted to developing light-water reactor technologies 32 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) 1959 (October) The first nuclear power plant in the U.S. without any government funding, Dresden 1 Illinois First privately-financed nuclear power plant built in the United States Laid much of the groundwork for the present-day nuclear power industry General Electric boiling water reactor capable of generating 210 MW Commercial Operation in 1960 and retired in 1978 Not economically feasible to do Three Mile Island (TMI) upgrades 33 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power

Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) ~ Summary 1961 The SL-1 Accident 1963 JCP&L Company announces construction of Oyster Creek 1964 AEC issues construction permit for Oyster Creek 1966 Accident at Enrico Fermi experimental breeder near Detroit 1974 President Gerald Ford abolishes AEC Replaces with ERDA and NRC 1975 Fire at Browns Ferry Unit 1 1978 Dedication ceremonies for Three Mile Island Unit 2 34 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) January 3, 1961 The SL-1 Accident Working on control rod mechanisms, Center control rod was lifted manually by an excessive amount A violent power excursion resulted

Impaled the operator on the ceiling of the building Caused three fatalities - Only three people present Facility was permanently shut down The principal cause of this event was personnel performance. 35 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978)

1963 (December) Jersey Central Power and Light Company announces Construction of Oyster Creek December 12, 1963 JCP&L announces its commitment First time a nuclear plant is ordered An economic alternative to a fossil-fuel plant 36 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) 1964 (December) AEC issues construction permit for Oyster Creek First of the large-scale plants Construction permit issued 12/15/1964 Began commercial operation 12/01/1969 37 NUET 1000 Module 1

Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) 1966 Enrico Fermi 1 experimental breeder near Detroit, Michigan accident October 5, 1966 partial core melt Knew something (unknown) was causing high core temperatures Zirconium liner sheets had become dislodged Fuel in four assemblies melted The principal cause of this event was design 38 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) 1974 (October) President Ford abolishes AEC. Replaces with ERDA and NRC AEC's regulatory programs came under strong attack

Congress decided to abolish the agency Promotional and regulatory duties should be go to different agencies 39 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) Energy Reorganization Act of 1974: Established Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) NRC began operations on January 19, 1975 Regulatory functions went to NRC Promotion went to Energy Research and Development Administration Later incorporated into the United States Department of Energy 40 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power

Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) 1975 Fire at Browns Ferry Unit 1 Searching for air leaks in piping and electrical penetrations Worker was using a candle Airflow caused Flame to spread to a hidden area Shorts caused pumps to start, valves to open/close 41 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Dawn of Nuclear Power (1956 1978) 1978 (September) Dedication ceremonies held in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania for Three Mile Island Unit 2 Deputy Secretary of Energy for the Carter Administration, John F. OLeary called the plant a scintillating success and said "it is fair to concludenuclear power is a bright and shining option for this country" 42

NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post TMI (1979 1996) ~ Summary 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI 2) accident near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 1979 Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) created 1986 Accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor near Kiev 1988 Agreement to close and dismantle Shoreham on Long Island 1992 Uniform nuclear plant designs are submitted to the NRC 43 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post TMI (1979 1996) Watershed Event: March 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI 2) accident near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

worst accident, to date, at a U.S. nuclear power plant 1.preventable human errors 2.design deficiencies 3.component failures 44 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post TMI (1979 1996) 1979 (March) Three Mile Island (TMI 2) accident near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Accident is caused by a loss of coolant from the reactor core No one is injured, and no overexposure to radiation results NRC imposes stricter reactor safety regulations NRC imposes more rigid inspection procedures Caused by a combination of mechanical malfunction & preventable human errors

45 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post TMI (1979 1996) 1979 (October) Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) created TMI investigation showed nuclear industry it had fundamental problems Problems not limited to one company or one valve design Utility self-policing operation aimed at improving reactor performance Nuclear industry acknowledged those problems and took action 46 NUET 1000 Module 1 WHY WAS THE COUNTRY

LOSING INTEREST IN NUCLEAR POWER? 47 NUET 1000 Module 1 WHY WAS THE COUNTRY LOSING INTEREST IN NUCLEAR POWER? During the period from the TMI event , until the renaissance of nuclear power there has been a : Lack of public understanding of nuclear power Many utilities decide to decommission older existing nuclear power plants State regulators would not include rate base funding construction until completion of plants Interveners for a variety of reasons opposed new nuclear

construction 48 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post TMI (1979 1996) 1986 (April) Accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor near Kiev Runaway reaction during a test Caused a series of explosions that rupture the containment Sent massive amounts of radiation through the Northern Hemisphere Worst nuclear accident in history Over 75 million people exposed to high levels of radiation This design would not be licensed in the United States 49 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power

Post TMI (1979 1996) 1988 (May) -- Agreement to close and dismantle the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island Unit built between 1973 and 1984 Within 60 miles of Manhattan 3/03/1983 County Legislature announced could not be safely evacuated Plant was completed in 1984 2/28/1984 Cuomo and LILCO announced decommission plan Now wind turbines generate 1/8000 what nuclear plant generates 50 NUET 1000 Module 1 Of 102 Formerly Licensed Nuclear Plants, the following are shutdown UNIT LOCATION

REACTOR TYPE DATE SHUTDOWN Big Rock Point Charlevoix, MI BWR 8/29/1997 Dresden 1 Morris, IL BWR

10/31/1978 Ft. St. Vrain Platteville, CO HTGR 8/18/1889 Connecticut Yankee Haddam Neck Meriden, CT PWR 12/5/1996

Indian Point 1 Buchanan, NY PWR 10/31/1974 Maine Yankee Wiscasset, ME PWR 12/6/1996 Millstone 1 Waterford, CT

BWR 7/21/1998 51 NUET 1000 Module 1 Of 102 Formerly Licensed Nuclear Plants, the following are shutdown UNIT LOCATION REACTOR TYPE DATE SHUTDOWN Peach Bottom 1

Delta, PA HTGR 10/31/1974 Rancho Seco Herald, CA PWR 6/7/1989 San Onofre 1 San Clemente, CA

PWR 11/30/1992 Three Mile Island 2 Middletown, PA PWR 3/28/1979 Trojan Rainier, OR PWR 11/9/1992

Yankee-Rowe Rowe, MA PWR 10/1/1991 Zion 1 Zion. IL PWR 2/21/1997 Zion 2

Zion. IL PWR 9/19/1996 52 NUET 1000 Module 1 WHAT WAS GOING ON WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER IN THE POST TMI PERIOD? 53 NUET 1000 Module 1 WHY WAS THE COUNTRY BUILDING NEW INTEREST

IN NUCLEAR POWER? More public awareness of nuclear power, many plants coming online world-wide World oil pricing rising, global threats to supply State regulators easing inclusion into rate base of construction funds Environmentalists warming to new nuclear construction as an alternative to carbon emitting generators 54 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post TMI (1979 1996) ~ Summary 1993 Comanche Peak Unit 2 in Glen Rose, Texas, goes on-line. 1994 NRC issues final design approval for GEs ABWR

and ABB Combustion Engineering's System 80+. 1996 TVA granted a full-power license by NRC for Watts Bar. 55 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post TMI (1979 1996) 1992 (August) Uniform nuclear plant designs are submitted to the NRC for certification and approval. NRC certification and approval done in advance Single standard for nuclear power plant construction 56 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Post TMI (1979 1996)

1993 (April) -- Comanche Peak Unit 2 in Glen Rose, Texas, goes on-line. Construction of the two units began in 1974 Both Westinghouse pressurized water reactors Unit 2 was the second-last power reactor to come online in the USA Unit 1 is rated 1,259 MWe, and Unit 2 is rated 1,245 MWe 57 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Renaissance Begins (1994 Present) 1994 (July) NRC issues its final new design approval for GEs ABWR and ABB Combustion Engineering's System 80+ Utility can choose to use the design and reference it in an application Certified design will not be subject to litigation

58 NUET 1000 Module 1 Development of Commercial Nuclear Power Renaissance Begins (1994 Present) 1996 (February) TVA granted a full-power license by NRC for Watts Bar 1. Brought the number of operating nuclear units in the U.S. to 110 Construction at Watts Bar began in 1973 and was completed in 1996 Winter net dependable generating capacity is 1,167 megawatts 59 NUET 1000 Module 1 New Plants Approved by NRC Company (Project or Docket

Numbers) Date of Applicatio n Design Date Accepted Site Under Consideration Number of Units State

Existing Operatin g Plant NRG Energy (52-012/013) 09/20/07 ABWR 11/29/07 South Texas Project 2 TX Y

NuStart Energy (52-014/015) 10/30/07 AP1000 01/18/08 Bellefonte 2 AL N UNISTAR (52-016)

07/13/07 EPR 01/25/08 Calvert Cliffs 1 MD Y Dominion (52-017) 11/27/07 ESBWR

01/28/08 North Anna 1 VA Y Duke (52-018/019) 12/13/07 AP1000 02/25/08

William Lee Nuclear Station 2 SC N Progress Energy (52-022/023) 02/19/08 AP1000 04/17/08 Harris 2

NC Y NuStart Energy (52-024) 02/27/08 ESBWR 04/17/08 Grand Gulf 1 MS

Y Southern Nuclear Operating Co. (52025/026) 03/31/08 AP1000 05/30/08 Vogtle 2 GA Y South Carolina Electric & Gas (52027/028)

03/31/08 AP1000 07/31/08 Summer 2 SC Y Progress Energy (52-029/030) 07/30/08

AP1000 10/06/08 Levy County 2 FL N Detroit Edison (52-033) 09/18/08 ESBWR 11/25/08

Fermi 1 MI Y Luminant Power (52-034/035) 09/19/08 USAPWR 12/02/08 Comanche Peak

2 TX Y Entergy (52-036) 09/25/08 ESBWR 12/04/08 River Bend 1 LA

Y AmerenUE (52-037) 07/24/08 EPR 12/12/08 Callaway 1 MO Y

UNISTAR (52-038) 09/29/08 EPR 12/11/08 Nine Mile Point 1 NY Y PPL Generation (52-039) 10/10/08

EPR 12/19/08 Bell Bend 1 PA Y Florida Power and Light (763) 06/30/09 AP1000

09/04/09 Turkey Point 2 FL Y 60 NUET 1000 Module 1 The Nuclear Renaissance 2009 Southern Nuclear Company (SNC) Receives Early Site Permit (ESP) Obtain NRC approval before deciding to build a plant ESP applications consist of three components Site safety analysis

Environmental report Emergency planning information 61 NUET 1000 Module 1 The Nuclear Renaissance 2009 SNC Files for Limited Work Authorization for Vogtle 3 & 4 Allows certain construction activities on production and utilization facilities May commence before a construction permit or combined license is issued Scope of construction activities 62 NUET 1000 Module 1

The Nuclear Renaissance July 2009 SNC/ATC Partnership Nuclear Uniform Curriculum Program (NUCP) NLO, I&C, Mechanical & Electrical Maintenance tracks 1st NET commenced on September 27, 2010 Spring 2012 first graduating class 63 NUET 1000 Module 1 The Nuclear Renaissance Vogtle 3&4 Ground-breaking Sequence Notice to proceed on the expansion at Plant Vogtle. Excavation had begun prior to August 2009 August 2006 --- Filed Early Site Permit (ESP) application March 2008 --- Filed license application April 2008 --- Signed contract with Westinghouse-Shaw consortium August 2008 --- Filed resource plan with Georgia Public Service Commission

March 2009 --- Public Service Commission decision on certification 2009 --- Vogtle 3&4 Groundbreaking December 2011 --- NRC decision on plant license 2016 --- Commercial operation for Unit 3 2017 --- Commercial operation for Unit 4 64 ~ BREAK ~ NUET 1000 Module 1 BASIC NUCLEAR REACTOR TYPES AND DESCRIPTIONS NUET 1000 Module 1 COMPETENCIES 2. Identify common reactor designs to include: BWR, PWR, HTGR

SUBCOMPETENCIES i. Show major components for each reactor type on a simplified diagram, to include ALWR (ABWR & APWR) and HTGR (Pebble Bed HG Reactor) ii. Demonstrate a knowledge of the basic flow paths for each power reactor type, to include: BWR, PWR, HTGR 67 NUET 1000 Module 1 Reactor Designs There are 3 reactor designs commonly used for commercial nuclear power in the United States and Western Europe: Boiling Water Reactor Pressurized Water Reactor High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

NUET 1000 Module 1 Pressurized Water Reactor Power Plant NUET 1000 Module 1 Pressurized Water Reactor Power Plant 2009 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Inc. All rights reserved. Pressurized Water Reactor Overview Primary Loop 12 11 10 6 5

7 4 19 18 17 3 2 15 1 9 8

16 14 13 71 Pressurized Water Reactor Overview Secondary Loop 12 11 10 6 5 7

4 19 18 17 3 2 15 1 9 8 16

14 13 72 Pressurized Water Reactor Overview Circulatory Loop 12 11 10 6 5 7 4

19 18 17 3 2 15 1 9 8 16 14 13

Pressurized Water Reactor Overview Electrical Production 12 11 10 6 5 7 4 19 18

17 3 2 15 1 9 8 16 14 13 74 Pressurized Water Reactor Overview

12 11 10 6 5 7 4 19 18 17

3 2 15 1 9 8 16 14 13 75 NUET 1000 Module 1 Pressurized Water Reactor Power Plant

View an Animated Image of the AP1000 Advanced Pressurize d Water Reactor NUET 1000 Module 1 AP1000 Advantages 50% fewer safety related valves 80% less safety related piping 85% less control cable 35% fewer pumps 45% less seismic building volume Pre-Approved Design, no changes 77 NUET 1000 Module 1 AP1000 Advantages Passive core cooling system

Passive containment cooling system Lower cost to build Smaller footprint Quicker construction 78 NUET 1000 Module 1 Boiling Water Reactor Power Plant Plant Hatch Power Station Diagram 79 NUET 1000 Module 1 Boiling Water Reactor Power Plant View an Animated Image of a Boiling Water Reactor NUET 1000 Module 1

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor New Design HTG Reactor Pebble Bed What is a Pebble Bed Reactor? 360,000 pebbles in core about 3,000 pebbles handled in FHS every day about 350 pebbles discarded daily one pebble discharged every 30 seconds average pebble cycles through core 15 times fuel-handling most intensive part of plant NUET 1000 Module 1 New Design HTG Reactor Pebble Bed

http://web.mit.edu/pebble-bed / NUET 1000 Module 1 Resources: Additional information available at: BWR http://www.acme-nuclear.com/Manual.htm http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/glossary.html http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/students.html Modular Pebble Bed Reactor NUET 1000 Module 1 History of Nuclear Technology & Reactor Designs <<>>

Questions ? 84 NUET 1000 Module 1 History of Nuclear Technology & Reactor Designs Questions What % of the US total electrical output is from nuclear reactors? Over 20% What about the worlds total electrical output is from nuclear reactors? ~ 14% 85 NUET 1000 Module 1

History of Nuclear Technology & Reactor Designs What are the advantages does the new AP1000 design present? 86 NUET 1000 Module 1 History of Nuclear Technology & Reactor Designs AP1000 Advantages 50% fewer safety related valves 80% less safety related piping 85% less control cable 35% fewer pumps 45% less seismic building volume

Pre-Approved Design, no changes 87 NUET 1000 Module 1 AP1000 Advantages Passive core cooling system Passive containment cooling system Lower cost to build Smaller footprint Quicker construction 88

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